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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292747


Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) is a rapidly progressing, often fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, resulting in deficiency of ALD protein. Clinical benefit has been reported following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a large multicenter retrospective chart review to characterize the natural history of CALD, to describe outcomes after HSCT, and to identify predictors of treatment outcomes. Major functional disabilities (MFDs) were identified as having the most significant impact on patients' abilities to function independently and were used to assess HSCT outcome. Neurologic function score (NFS) and Loes magnetic resonance imaging score were assessed. Data were collected on 72 patients with CALD who did not undergo HSCT (untreated cohort) and on 65 patients who underwent transplantation (HSCT cohort) at 5 clinical sites. Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates of 5-year overall survival (OS) from the time of CALD diagnosis were 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.2% to 65.7%) for the untreated cohort and 78% (95% CI, 64% to 86.6%) for the HSCT cohort overall (P = .01). KM estimates of 2-year MFD-free survival for patients with gadolinium-enhanced lesions (GdE+) were 29% (95% CI, 11.7% to 48.2%) for untreated patients (n = 21). For patients who underwent HSCT with GdE+ at baseline, with an NFS ≤1 and Loes score of 0.5 to ≤9 (n = 27), the 2-year MFD-free survival was 84% (95% CI, 62.3% to 93.6%). Mortality rates post-HSCT were 8% (5 of 65) at 100 days and 18% (12 of 65) at 1 year, with disease progression (44%; 7 of 16) and infection (31%; 5 of 16) listed as the most common causes of death. Adverse events post-HSCT included infection (29%; 19 of 65), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (31%; 18 of 58), and chronic GVHD (7%; 4 of 58). Eighteen percent of the patients (12 of 65) experienced engraftment failure after their first HSCT. Positive predictors of OS in the HSCT cohort may include donor-recipient HLA matching and lack of GVHD, and early disease treatment was predictive of MFD-free survival. GdE+ status is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients. This study confirms HSCT as an effective treatment for CALD when performed early. We propose survival without MFDs as a relevant treatment goal, rather than solely assessing OS as an indicator of treatment success.

Pain Med ; 14(5): 749-61, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23566212


OBJECTIVE: Decisions to use or avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for postsurgical pain are often influenced by concerns about bleeding and renal adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel parenteral NSAID, hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD) diclofenac, in a large postsurgical patient population, with particular focus on bleeding and renal effects. METHODS: This was a large open-label study in adult patients with acute moderate-to-severe pain following major surgery. Patients received ≥2 days of continuous treatment with HPßCD diclofenac, administered as a small-volume bolus injection every 6 hours. Few exclusion criteria were applied in order to reflect surgical patient populations commonly managed in clinical practice. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The incidences of bleeding- and renal-related AEs were examined in patient subpopulations with known risk factors for NSAID-induced complications: advanced age, pre-existing renal insufficiency, concomitant anticoagulant use, prolonged exposure, elevated dosage, and major surgeries. RESULTS: Of the total 971 patients studied, 38% were ≥65 years old (12% >75 years), 62% received concomitant anticoagulants, and 6% had pre-existing renal insufficiency. HPßCD diclofenac was well tolerated by the patient population. AE rates are presented by risk factor to enable clinicians to better describe renal- or bleeding-related AEs. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy, this study provides evidence of HPßCD diclofenac's safety in a large postsurgical population including anticoagulated, elderly or renally insufficient patients. Because study exclusion criteria were minimal, these findings may be broadly generalizable to populations commonly treated in clinical practice.

Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , California/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Pelve/cirurgia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento