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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472483

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders are complex neurodevelopmental syndromes characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Further identification of causal genes may help in better understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disorder, thus improving the patients' management. To date, abnormal synaptogenesis is thought to be one of the major underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders. Here, using oligoarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a de novo deletion at 2q37.2 locus spanning 1 Mb and encompassing AGAP1 and SH3BP4, in a boy with autism and intellectual disability. Both genes have been described as being involved in endosomal trafficking, and AGAP1 in particular has been shown to be expressed in the developing brain and to play a role in dendritic spine formation and synapse function, making it a potential causative gene to our patient's phenotype.

2.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1784-1790, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135486

RESUMO

X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2 or Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, MIM #302960) is caused by mutations in the EBP gene. Affected female patients present with Blaschkolinear ichthyosis, coarse hair or alopecia, short stature, and normal psychomotor development. The disease is usually lethal in boys. Nevertheless, few male patients have been reported; they carry a somatic mosaicism in EBP or present with Klinefelter syndrome. Here, we report CDPX2 patients belonging to a three-generation family, carrying the splice variant c.301 + 5 G > C in intron 2 of EBP. The grandfather carries the variant as mosaic state and presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis. The mother also presents with short stature and mild ichthyosis and the female fetus with severe limb and vertebrae abnormalities and no skin lesions, with random X inactivation in both. This further characterizes the phenotypical spectrum of CDPX2, as well as intrafamilial variability, and raises the question of differential EBP mRNA splicing between the different target tissues.

4.
Blood ; 132(5): 469-483, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891534

RESUMO

Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive form of erythrocytosis associated with a homozygous p.Arg200Trp mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Since this discovery, additional VHL mutations have been identified in patients with congenital erythrocytosis, in a homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. VHL is a major tumor suppressor gene, mutations in which were first described in patients presenting with VHL disease, which is characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors. Here, we identify a new VHL cryptic exon (termed E1') deep in intron 1 that is naturally expressed in many tissues. More importantly, we identify mutations in E1' in 7 families with erythrocytosis (1 homozygous case and 6 compound-heterozygous cases with a mutation in E1' in addition to a mutation in VHL coding sequences) and in 1 large family with typical VHL disease but without any alteration in the other VHL exons. In this study, we show that the mutations induced a dysregulation of VHL splicing with excessive retention of E1' and were associated with a downregulation of VHL protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate a pathogenic role for synonymous mutations in VHL exon 2 that altered splicing through E2-skipping in 5 families with erythrocytosis or VHL disease. In all the studied cases, the mutations differentially affected splicing, correlating with phenotype severity. This study demonstrates that cryptic exon retention and exon skipping are new VHL alterations and reveals a novel complex splicing regulation of the VHL gene. These findings open new avenues for diagnosis and research regarding the VHL-related hypoxia-signaling pathway.

5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(5): 728-738, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To limit risks of miscarriages associated with invasive procedures of current prenatal diagnosis practice, we aim to develop a personalized medicine-based protocol for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of monogenic disorders relying on the detection of paternally inherited mutations in maternal blood using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). METHODS: This study included four couples at risk of transmitting paternal neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) mutations and four couples at risk of transmitting compound heterozygous CFTR mutations. NIPD was performed between 8 and 15 weeks of gestation, in parallel to conventional invasive diagnosis. We designed specific hydrolysis probes to detect the paternal mutation and to assess the presence of cell-free fetal DNA by ddPCR. Analytical performances of each assay were determined from paternal sample, an then fetal genotype was inferred from maternal plasma sample. RESULTS: Presence or absence of the paternal mutant allele was correctly determined in all the studied plasma DNA samples. CONCLUSIONS: We report an NIPD protocol suitable for implementation in an experienced laboratory of molecular genetics. Our proof-of-principle results point out a high accuracy for early detection of paternal NF1 and CFTR mutations in cell-free DNA, and open new perspectives for extending the technology to NIPD of many other monogenic diseases.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 352-363, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132691

RESUMO

Degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an essential biological process in the development of eukaryotic organisms. Dysregulation of this mechanism leads to numerous human neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. Through a multi-center collaboration, we identified six de novo genomic deletions and four de novo point mutations involving PSMD12, encoding the non-ATPase subunit PSMD12 (aka RPN5) of the 19S regulator of 26S proteasome complex, in unrelated individuals with intellectual disability, congenital malformations, ophthalmologic anomalies, feeding difficulties, deafness, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed reduced PSMD12 levels and an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins without any impairment of proteasome catalytic activity. Our PSMD12 loss-of-function zebrafish CRISPR/Cas9 model exhibited microcephaly, decreased convolution of the renal tubules, and abnormal craniofacial morphology. Our data support the biological importance of PSMD12 as a scaffolding subunit in proteasome function during development and neurogenesis in particular; they enable the definition of a neurodevelopmental disorder due to PSMD12 variants, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of UPS-dependent disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Peixe-Zebra/genética
8.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 90(10): 1223-31, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22527886

RESUMO

Leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory mediators that are locally produced in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The response induced by cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) in human coronary arteries may be altered under pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to elucidate cysteinyl leukotriene signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the effects of inflammation on this process. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endarterectomy samples revealed that the CysLT(1) leukotriene receptor was expressed in areas that also stained positive for α-smooth muscle actin. In human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, lipopolysaccharide significantly upregulated the CysLT(1) receptor and significantly enhanced the changes in intracellular calcium induced by leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)). In these cells, the CysLT(1) receptor exhibited a perinuclear expression, and LTC(4) stimulation predominantly enhanced nuclear calcium increase, which was significantly inhibited by the CysLT(1) receptor antagonist MK-571. Microarray analysis revealed, among a number of significantly upregulated genes after 24 h stimulation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells with LTC(4), a 5-fold increase in mRNA levels for plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-2. The LTC(4)-induced increase in PAI-2 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA and was inhibited by the CysLT(1) receptor antagonist MK-571 and by calcium chelators. In summary, pro-inflammatory stimulation of vascular SMCs upregulated a perinuclear CysLT(1) receptor expression coupled to nuclear calcium signaling and changes in gene expression, such as upregulation of PAI-2. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of nuclear CysLT(1) receptor signaling in vascular SMCs inducing gene expression patterns associated with atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Receptores de Leucotrienos/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários/imunologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia , Leucotrieno C4/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/imunologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/imunologia , Inibidor 2 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Inibidor 2 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Leucotrienos/genética , Ativação Transcricional
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