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1.
Tomography ; 8(2): 667-687, 2022 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314633

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal perforations are a frequent cause of acute abdominal symptomatology for patients in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to investigate the findings of multidetector-row computed tomography of gastrointestinal perforations and analyze the impact of any imaging signs on the presurgical identification of the perforation site. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed emergency MDCT findings of 93 patients submitted to surgery for gastrointestinal perforation at two different institutions. Two radiologists separately reviewed the emergency MDCT examinations performed on each patient, before and after knowing the surgical diagnosis of the perforation site. A list of findings was considered. Positive predictive values were estimated for each finding with respect to each perforation site, and correspondence analysis (CA) was used to investigate the relationship between the findings and each of the perforation types. Results: We did not find inframesocolic free air in sigmoid colorectal perforations, and in rare cases, only supramesocolic free fluid in gastroduodenal perforations was found. A high PPV of perivisceral fat stranding due to colonic perforation and general distension of upstream loops and collapse of downstream loops were evident in most patients. Conclusions: Our data could offer additional information on the perforation site in the case of doubtful findings to support surgeons, especially in planning a laparoscopic approach.


Assuntos
Perfuração Intestinal , Úlcera Gástrica , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações
2.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 37(4): 737-756, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to answer whether early closure of defunctioning ileostomy may be suitable after low anterior resection. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, up to October 2021, for RCTs comparing early closure (EC ≤ 30 days) and delayed closure (DC ≥ 60 days) of defunctioning ileostomy. The risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI was calculated for dichotomous variables and the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous variables. The GRADE methodology was implemented for assessing Quality of Evidence (QoE). TSA was implemented to address the risk of random error associated with sparse data and/or multiple testing. RESULTS: Seven RCTs were included for quantitative synthesis. 599 patients were allocated to either EC (n = 306) or DC (n = 293). EC was associated with a higher rate of wound complications compared to DC (RR 2.56; 95% CI 1.33 to 4.93; P = 0.005; I2 = 0%, QoE High), a lower incidence of postoperative small bowel obstruction (RR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.89; P = 0.02; I2 = 0%, QoE moderate), and a lower rate of stoma-related complications (RR 0.26; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.42; P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%, QoE moderate). The rate of minor low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.55 to 2.33; P = 0.74; I2 = 0%, QoE low) and major LARS (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.59 to 1.09; P = 0.16; I2 = 0%, QoE low) did not differ between the two groups. TSA demonstrated inconclusive evidence with insufficient sample sizes to detect the observed effects. CONCLUSION: EC may confer some advantages compared with a DC. However, TSA advocated a cautious interpretation of the results. PROSPERO REGISTER ID: CRD42021276557.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Humanos , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Neoplasias Retais/complicações , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Síndrome
3.
Saf Health Work ; 13(1): 66-72, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychological well-being (PWB) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in workers of a multinational company. METHODS: Employees (aged ≥18 years) were recruited from Latin American, North American, New Zealand, and European sites of a multinational company operative during all the pandemic period. The self-reported Psychological General Well-Being Index was used to assess the global PWB and the effects on six subdomains: anxiety, depressed mood, positive well-being, self-control, general health, and vitality. The influencing role of age, gender, geographical location, COVID-19 epidemiology, and restrictive measures adopted to control the pandemic was explored. RESULTS: A total of 1335 workers completed the survey. The aggregate median PWB global score was in a positive range, with significantly better outcomes detected in the Mexican and Colombian Latin American sites compared with the other worldwide countries (p < 0.001). Among the European locations, a significantly higher PWB score was determined in Spain compared with the German and French sites (p < 0.05). Comparable geographical trends were demonstrated for all the PWB subdomains. Male workers had a significantly better PWB compared with females (p < 0.05), whereas a negative correlation emerged with aging (p = 0.01). COVID-19 epidemiology and pandemic control measures had no clear effects on PWB. CONCLUSION: Monitoring PWB and the impact of individual and pandemic-related variables may be helpful to clarify the mental health effects of pandemic, define targeted psychological-supporting measures, also in the workplace, to face such a complex situation in a more constructive way.

4.
J Pediatr ; 244: 86-91.e2, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess point-of-care-ultrasound (POCUS) guided catheter tip location in a neonatal cohort after insertion of percutaneously inserted central catheters (PICCs) from the upper part of the body. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study on PICC tip location. Tip site was assessed by radiological landmarks or direct ultrasound (US) visualization of the cardiovascular structures. RESULTS: One hundred eighteen PICCs (28Gauge/1French) were studied in 102 neonates (mean postmenstrual age 31 weeks, range 25-43 weeks; mean weight at positioning 1365 g, range 420-4180 g). Feasibility of POCUS guided tip location was 92.3% in our population. Failures were significantly associated with mechanical ventilation (aOR 5.33; 95% CI 1.13-29.5; P = .038). Agreement between US and radiographic methods was found in 88 of 109 cases (80.7%). Fifteen of 21 discordant cases led to a change in clinical management. CONCLUSIONS: POCUS guided localization of small bore PICC is a non-invasive and effective alternative to the conventional radiogram. The latter should be recommended when US examination fails to locate the catheter tip.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateterismo Periférico , Cateteres , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
5.
Diabetologia ; 65(1): 79-87, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689215

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between meal nutrients and postprandial blood glucose response (PGR) in individuals with type 1 diabetes on a hybrid closed-loop system (HCLS). METHODS: The dietary composition of 1264 meals (398 breakfasts, 441 lunches and 425 dinners) was assessed by 7-day food records completed by 25 individuals with type 1 diabetes on HCLSs (12 men/13 women, mean ± SD age 40 ± 12 years, mean ± SD HbA1c 51 ± 10 mmol/mol [6.9 ± 0.2%]). For each meal, PGR (continuous glucose monitoring metrics, glucose incremental AUCs) and insulin doses (pre-meal boluses, post-meal microboluses automatically delivered by the pump and adjustment boluses) over 6 h were evaluated. RESULTS: Breakfast, lunch and dinner significantly differed with respect to energy and nutrient intake and insulin doses. The blood glucose postprandial profile showed an earlier peak after breakfast and a slow increase until 4 h after lunch and dinner (p < 0.001). Mean ± SD postprandial time in range (TIR) was better at breakfast (79.3 ± 22.2%) than at lunch (71.3 ± 23.9%) or dinner (70.0 ± 25.9%) (p < 0.001). Significant negative predictors of TIR at breakfast were total energy intake, per cent intake of total protein and monounsaturated fatty acids, glycaemic load and absolute amounts of cholesterol, carbohydrates and simple sugars consumed (p < 0.05 for all). No significant predictors were detected for TIR at lunch. For TIR at dinner, a significant positive predictor was the per cent intake of plant proteins, while negative predictors were glycaemic load and intake amounts of simple sugars and carbohydrate (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study shows that nutritional factors other than the amount of carbohydrate significantly influence postprandial blood glucose control. These nutritional determinants vary between breakfast, lunch and dinner, with differing effects on postprandial blood glucose profile and insulin requirements, thus remaining a challenge to HCLSs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831532

RESUMO

Improvements in the survival and clinical outcomes of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients raised questions about their workforce participation and capacity to work. One hundred and ninety-six outpatients, attending the Adult CF Center of an Italian University Hospital, were enrolled between May 2020 and March 2021. The patients' personal and clinical characteristics, employment status, and profession were assessed. The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised and the work ability index (WAI) were employed to assess CF health-related quality of life and the employee's perception of their ability to work, respectively. Among the enrolled patients, 98 (50%) were employed. The non-working subjects were significantly younger (mean age ± standard deviation: 30 ± 10 vs. 37 ± 10 years) and were diagnosed with CF significantly earlier (9 ± 13 vs. 17 ± 18 years) than the employed subjects. The vast majority of CF workers (82.6%) were employed in tertiary professions. A general good work ability perception was determined in the employed population. Aging and being employed for >15 years could significantly predict a reduction in work ability, while a better quality of life was a positive predictor for its enhancement. Although further research is necessary, these results may introduce interdisciplinary CF healthcare management that includes a work function assessment, formal career counseling, and job guidance to support the personal, social and professional lives of CF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adulto , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Emprego , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683021

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is a widespread condition which is currently underdiagnosed; therefore we conceived this study in order to assess whether a diagnostic suspicion may be assumed during widespread screening procedures, so that patients for which a reasonable diagnostic suspicion exist may be redirected towards rheumatologic evaluation. We analyzed a sample of 1060 patients, all of whom were female and undergoing standard breast cancer screening procedures, and proceeded to evaluate the level of pain they endured during mammographic exam. We also acquired a range of other information which we related to the level of pain endured; we suggested a rheumatologic examination for those patients who endured the highest level of pain and then we evaluated how many patients in this subgroup were actually diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Out of the 1060 patients who participated to our study, 139 presented level 4 pain intensity; One patient did not go for rheumatologic examination; the remaining 138 underwent rheumatologic evaluation, and 50 (36%, 28-44, 95% CI) were diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Our study shows that assessing the level of pain endured by patients during standard widespread screening procedures may be an effective asset in deciding whether or not to suggest specialist rheumatologic evaluation for fibromyalgia.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320032

RESUMO

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants due to primary surfactant deficiency. Surfactant replacement has greatly improved the short and long term prognosis of RDS but its administration criteria remain uncertain. Lung ultrasound has been recently shown as a non-invasive, repeatable, bedside tool to estimate parenchymal aeration using a semiquantitative score (LUS). The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the accuracy of LUS, assessed on the first day of life, to predict surfactant replacement. Methods will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines and the protocol has been registered in PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42021247888). Primary outcome: in a population of preterm infants, LUS will be compared in neonates who received surfactant replacement versus those who did not. Secondary outcome will be the accuracy of lung ultrasound score to predict the need for ≥ 2 doses of surfactant.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1757-1765, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142315

RESUMO

Despite existing evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of biliary acute pancreatitis (AP), the clinical compliance with recommendations is overall poor. Studies in this field have identified significant discrepancies between evidence-based recommendations and daily clinical practice. The most commonly reported gaps between clinical practice and AP guidelines include the indications for CT scan, need and timing of artificial nutritional support, indications for antibiotics, and surgical/endoscopic management of biliary AP. The MANCTRA-1 (coMpliAnce with evideNce-based cliniCal guidelines in the managemenT of acute biliaRy pancreAtitis) study is aiming to identify the areas for quality improvement that will require new implementation strategies. The study primary objective is to evaluate which items of the current AP guidelines are commonly disregarded and if they correlate with negative clinical outcomes according to the different clinical presentations of the disease. We attempt to summarize the main areas of sub-optimal care due to the lack of compliance with current guidelines to provide the basis for introducing a number of bundles in AP patients' management to be implemented during the next years. The MANCTRA-1 study is an international multicenter, retrospective cohort study with the purpose to assess the outcomes of patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of biliary AP and the compliance of surgeons worldwide to the most up-to-dated international guidelines on biliary AP. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID Number: NCT04747990, Date: February 23, 2021. Protocol Version V2.2.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Front Oncol ; 11: 651745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three or four cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard neoadjuvant treatment prior to cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Although NCCN guidelines recommend 4 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine, three cycles are also commonly administered in clinical practice. In this multicenter retrospective study, we assessed a large and homogenous cohort of patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) treated with three or four cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine followed by radical cystectomy, in order to explore whether three vs. four cycles were associated with different outcomes. METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed muscle-invasive UBC included in this retrospective study had to be treated with either 3 (cohort A) or 4 (cohort B) cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine as neoadjuvant therapy before undergoing radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy. Outcomes including pathologic downstaging to non-muscle invasive disease, pathologic complete response (defined as absence of disease -ypT0), overall- and cancer-specific- survival as well as time to recurrence were compared between cohorts A vs. B. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients treated at 14 different high-volume Institutions were included in this retrospective study. Patients who received 3 (cohort A) vs. 4 (cohort B) cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin-gemcitabine were 160 (73,1%) vs. 59 (26,9%).At univariate analysis, the number of neoadjuvant cycles was not associated with either pathologic complete response, pathologic downstaging, time to recurrence, cancer specific, and overall survival. Of note, patients in cohort B vs. A showed a worse non-cancer specific overall survival at univariate analysis (HR= 2.53; 95 CI= 1.05 - 6.10; p=0.046), although this finding was not confirmed at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that 3 cycles of cisplatin-gemcitabine may be equally effective, with less long-term toxicity, compared to 4 cycles in the neoadjuvant setting.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 649781, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996728

RESUMO

The onset of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus encouraged the development of new serologic tests that could be additional and complementary to real-time RT-PCR-based assays. In such a context, the study of performances of available tests is urgently needed, as their use has just been initiated for seroprevalence assessment. The aim of this study was to compare four chemiluminescence immunoassays and one immunochromatography test for SARS-Cov-2 antibodies for the evaluation of the degree of diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Salerno Province (Campania Region, Italy). A total of 3,185 specimens from citizens were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as part of a screening program. Four automated immunoassays (Abbott and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG and Roche and Siemens SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgM/IgG/IgA assays) and one lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA Technogenetics IgG-IgM COVID-19) were used. Seroprevalence in the entire cohort was 2.41, 2.10, 1.82, and 1.85% according to the Liaison IgG, Abbott IgG, Siemens, and Roche total Ig tests, respectively. When we explored the agreement among the rapid tests and the serologic assays, we reported good agreement for Abbott, Siemens, and Roche (Cohen's Kappa coefficient 0.69, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively), whereas we found moderate agreement for Liaison (Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.58). Our study showed that Abbott and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG, Roche and Siemens SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgM/IgG/IgA assays, and LFIA Technogenetics IgG-IgM COVID-19 have good agreement in seroprevalence assessment. In addition, our findings indicate that the prevalence of IgG and total Ig antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the time of the study was as low as around 3%, likely explaining the amplitude of the current second wave.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Imunoglobulina M , Itália , Luminescência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Eur Radiol ; 31(10): 7363-7370, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to severe and multi-site vascular involvement. Our study aimed at assessing the frequency of vascular and extravascular events' distribution in a retrospective cohort of 42 COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated by whole-body CT angiography between March 16 and April 30, 2020. Twenty-three out of the 42 patients evaluated were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Vascular and extravascular findings were categorized into "relevant" or "other/incidental," first referring to the need for immediate patient care and management. Student T-test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Fisher exact test was used to compare study groups, where appropriate. RESULTS: Relevant vascular events were recorded in 71.4% of cases (n = 30). Pulmonary embolism was the most frequent in both ICU and non-ICU cases (56.5% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.002). Ischemic infarctions at several sites such as the gut, spleen, liver, brain, and kidney were detected (n = 20), with multi-site involvement in some cases. Systemic venous thrombosis occurred in 30.9% of cases compared to 7.1% of systemic arterial events, the first being significantly higher in ICU patients (p = 0.002). Among incidental findings, small-sized splanchnic arterial aneurysms were reported in 21.4% of the study population, with no significant differences in ICU and non-ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular involvement is not negligible in COVID-19 and should be carefully investigated as it may significantly affect disease behavior and prognosis. KEY POINTS: • Relevant vascular events were recorded in 71.4% of the study population, with pulmonary embolism being the most frequent event in ICU and non-ICU cases. • Apart from the lung, other organs such as the gut, spleen, liver, brain, and kidneys were involved with episodes of ischemic infarction. Systemic venous and arterial thrombosis occurred in 30.9% and 7.1% of cases, respectively, with venous events being significantly higher in ICU patients (p = 0.002). • Among incidental findings, small-sized splanchnic arterial aneurysms were reported in 21.4% of the whole population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Embolia Pulmonar , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(3): 589-598, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to compare antibiotic therapy and appendectomy as treatment for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis confirmed by ultrasound and/or computed tomography. METHODS: The study was conducted from January 2017 to January 2018. Data regarding all patients discharged from the participating centers with a diagnosis of uncomplicated appendicitis were collected prospectively. RESULTS: Of the 318 patients enrolled in the study, 27.4% underwent antibiotic-first therapy, and 72.6% underwent appendectomy. The matched group was composed of 87 patients in both study arms. Of the 87 patients available of 1-year follow-up in the antibiotic-first group, 64 (73.6%) did not require appendectomy. The complication-free treatment success in the antibiotic-first group was 64.4%. A statistically significant higher complication-free treatment success was found in the appendectomy group: 81.8% in the pre-matching sample and 83.9% in the post-matching sample. Patients in the antibiotic-first group reported lower VAS scores compared to those treated with an appendectomy, both at discharge (2.0 ± 1.7 vs 3.6 ± 2.3) and at 30-day follow-up (0.3 ± 0.6 vs 2.1 ± 1.7). The mean of the days of absence from work was higher in the appendectomy group (ß 0.63; 95% CI 0.08-1.18). CONCLUSION: Although laparoscopic appendectomy remains the gold standard of treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis, conservative treatment with antibiotics is a safe option in most cases. Approximately 65% of patients treated with antibiotics are symptom-free at 1 year, without increased risk of adverse events should symptoms recur, and better outcomes in terms of less pain and shorter period of absence from work compared to patients undergoing an appendectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03080103.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia , Apendicite , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicite/tratamento farmacológico , Apendicite/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 31(7): 1130-1144, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419607

RESUMO

Visual neglect is a frequent and disabling consequence of right brain damage. Traditional paper-and pencil tests of neglect have limited sensitivity and ecological validity. The Baking Tray Task (BTT), instead, approaches real-life situations, because it requires participants to place 16 physical objects on a board. The number of objects placed on the left and right portions of the board provides a clinical index of visual neglect. Here we present E-TAN, a technology-enhanced platform for BTT (E-BTT). E-BTT automatically determines the object locations on the board, and also records the sequence and timing of their placement. We used E-BTT to test 9 patients with right hemisphere damage and compared their performance with that obtained by 115 healthy participants. To this end, we developed a new method of analysis of participants' performance, based on the use of the convex hull described by the objects on the board. This measure provides an estimate of the portion of space processed by each participant and can effectively discriminate neglect patients from patients without neglect. E-TAN allows clinicians to assess visuospatial performance by using a convenient, fast, and relatively automatized procedure, that patients can even perform at home to follow-up the effects of rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Transtornos da Percepção , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Córtex Cerebral , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos da Percepção/diagnóstico , Tecnologia , Triacetonamina-N-Oxil
16.
Emotion ; 21(1): 17-27, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580091

RESUMO

Interpersonal emotion regulation entails a wide array of strategies aimed at influencing others' emotions. Despite its importance for successful social interactions, only a few studies have evaluated interpersonal emotion regulation in children. In detail, the study of developmental changes in the use of emotion regulation strategies overlooked age, gender and cultural differences across different emotions. To address this gap, the present study used the serious game Emodiscovery, a simulation game targeted at 8-10-year-olds, which measures the strategies selected by children to improve the emotions of anger, sadness, and fear displayed by 3D virtual characters. One-hundred British (M = 9.10 years; 39% girls) and 108 Spanish (M = 9.04, 44% girls) 8-10-year-olds played 3 different levels or scenarios of the game. In each level, the character displayed a negative emotion (i.e., sadness, anger, and fear, respectively) and children were first asked to indicate what emotion the character was feeling and afterward to interact three times with the character to improve his or her mood. In each interaction, 4 possible regulation strategies (2 adaptive and 2 maladaptive) were displayed for children to select. Results showed that in the scenario where the character was displaying sadness, 8-year-olds chose significantly less adaptive strategies than 10-years-olds. In the scenario where the character was angry, boys who accurately recognized the emotion of anger chose more adaptive strategies than those who did not recognize the emotion. For the scenario depicting fear, boys chose less adaptive strategies than girls. The obtained results highlight the importance of looking at specific emotions when researching interpersonal emotion regulation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 801609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976939

RESUMO

As of November 17, 2021, SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2), the causative agent of COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 19), has infected ~250 million people worldwide, causing around five million deaths. Titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were relatively stable for at least 9 months in a population-based study conducted in Wuhan, China, both in symptomatic and in asymptomatic individuals. In the mass screening campaign conducted in the town of Ariano Irpino (Avellino, Italy) in May, 2020, 5.7% (95% CI: 5.3-6-1) of the 13,444 asymptomatic citizens screened were positive for anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Among these, 422 citizens were re-tested for anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in January, 2021 and/or in April, 2021 and enrolled in this longitudinal observational study. Median (interquartile range) age of the study cohort was 46 years (29-59), with 47 (11.1%) participants of minor age, while 217 (51.4%) participants were females. There was no evidence of re-infection in any of the subjects included. Presence of anti-nuclear antibodies antibodies (Elecysis, Roche) was reported in 95.7 and 93.7% of evaluable participants in January and April, 2021. Multiple logistic regression analysis used to explore associations between age, sex and seroprevalence showed that adults vs. minors had significantly lower odds of having anti-S1 antibodies (Biorad) both in January, 2021 and in April, 2021. Our findings showed that antibodies remained detectable at least 11.5 months after infection in >90% of never symptomatic cases. Further investigation is required to establish duration of immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187463, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107988

RESUMO

The core principles of the evolutionary theories of emotions declare that affective states represent crucial drives for action selection in the environment and regulated the behavior and adaptation of natural agents in ancestrally recurrent situations. While many different studies used autonomous artificial agents to simulate emotional responses and the way these patterns can affect decision-making, few are the approaches that tried to analyze the evolutionary emergence of affective behaviors directly from the specific adaptive problems posed by the ancestral environment. A model of the evolution of affective behaviors is presented using simulated artificial agents equipped with neural networks and physically inspired on the architecture of the iCub humanoid robot. We use genetic algorithms to train populations of virtual robots across generations, and investigate the spontaneous emergence of basic emotional behaviors in different experimental conditions. In particular, we focus on studying the emotion of fear, therefore the environment explored by the artificial agents can contain stimuli that are safe or dangerous to pick. The simulated task is based on classical conditioning and the agents are asked to learn a strategy to recognize whether the environment is safe or represents a threat to their lives and select the correct action to perform in absence of any visual cues. The simulated agents have special input units in their neural structure whose activation keep track of their actual "sensations" based on the outcome of past behavior. We train five different neural network architectures and then test the best ranked individuals comparing their performances and analyzing the unit activations in each individual's life cycle. We show that the agents, regardless of the presence of recurrent connections, spontaneously evolved the ability to cope with potentially dangerous environment by collecting information about the environment and then switching their behavior to a genetically selected pattern in order to maximize the possible reward. We also prove the determinant presence of an internal time perception unit for the robots to achieve the highest performance and survivability across all conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emoções , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos , Humanos
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