Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 52
Filtrar
2.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 20(4): 101472, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ozone therapy for treating dental caries. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 8 databases, from inception to April 4, 2020 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO, and OpenGrey). Primary outcome measures were antimicrobial effect and adverse events. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to evaluate methodological quality of included RCTs and GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. We used the Review Manager software to conduct meta-analyses. RESULTS: We included 12 RCTs comparing ozone therapy with no ozone, chlorhexidine digluconate, fissure sealants (alone and added to ozone), and fluoride. Considering primary outcomes, ozone therapy showed (a) lower reduction in the bacterial number than chlorhexidine digluconate in children (mean difference [MD]: -5.65 [-9.79 to -1.51]), but no difference was observed in adults (MD: -0.10 [-1.07 to 0.88]); (b) higher reduction in the bacterial number than sealant (MD: 12.60 [3.86-21.34]), but no difference was observed after final excavation (MD: -0.00 [-0.01 to 0.01]). Regarding safety of ozone therapy, results from individual studies presented no adverse events during or after treatment. Most of these results are imprecise and should be interpreted with caution because of clinical and methodological concerns, small sample size, and wide confidence interval, precluding to determine the real effect direction. CONCLUSION: Based on a very low certainty of evidence, there is not enough support from published RCTs to recommend the use of ozone for the treatment of dental caries. Well-conducted studies should be encouraged, measuring mainly the antimicrobial effects of ozone therapy at long term and following the recommendations of the CONSORT statement for the reporting of RCTs.

4.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). DATA SOURCES: We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. SELECTION OF STUDIES: We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. DATA COLLECTION: Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. DATA SYNTHESIS: Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). RESULTS: After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, which means that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. CONCLUSION: More RCTs are needed to support or refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process.Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130.

5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 427-435, July 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137856

RESUMO

Abstract Objective We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of Tribulus terrestris to treat female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Data sources We performed unrestricted electronic searches in the MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO,WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov and OpenGrey databases. Selection of studies We included any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared T. terrestris versus inactive/active interventions. After the selection process, conducted by two reviewers, 5 RCTs (n = 279 participants) were included. Data collection Data extraction was performed by two reviewers with a preestablished data collection formulary. Data synthesis Due to lack of data and clinical heterogeneity, we could not perform meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool, and the certainty of evidence was assessed with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Results After 1 to 3 months of treatment, premenopausal and postmenopausal women randomized to T. terrestris had a significant increase in sexual function scores. Three months of treatment with T. terrestris showed a significant increase in the serum testosterone levels of premenopausal women. There was no report of serious adverse events, and none of the studies assessed health-related quality of life. The certainty of the evidence was very low, whichmeans that we have very little confidence in the effect estimates, and future studies are likely to change these estimates. Conclusion MoreRCTs are needed to supportor refute the use of T. terrestris. The decision to use this intervention should be shared with the patients, and the uncertainties around its effects should be discussed in the clinical decision-making process. Number of Protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42019121130


Resumo Objetivo Nós realizamos uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a efetividade e a segurança do Tribulus terrestris no tratamento da disfunção sexual feminina (DSF). Fontes de dados Nós realizados uma busca eletrônica irrestrita nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, WHO-ICTR, Clinicaltrials.gov, e OpenGrey. Seleção dos estudos Nós incluímos todos os ensaios clínico randomizados (ECR) que comparou T. terrestris com controles ativos/inativos. Após o processo de seleção, conduzido por 2 revisores, 5 ECRs (n = 279 participantes) foram incluídos. Extração de dados O processo de extração de dados foi realizado por dois revisores, utilizando-se um formulário de extração de dados pré-estabelecido. Síntese de dados Devido à falta de dados disponíveis e à heterogeneidade clínica entre os estudos incluídos, nós não realizamos meta-análises. O risco de viés foi avaliado pela tabela de risco de viés da Cochrane e, a certeza do corpo da evidência foi avaliada pelo Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). Resultados Após 1 a três 3 meses de tratamento, mulheres na pré e pós-menopausa randomizadas ao T. terrestris tiveram um aumento significante nos escores de função sexual. O grupo com 3 meses de tratamento com T. terrestris exibiu um aumento significante dos níveis séricos de testosterona emmulheres pré-menopausa. Não houve relato de eventos adversos graves, e nenhum estudo avaliou qualidade de vida das participantes. A certeza da evidência foi considerada muito baixa, o que significa que existe pouca certeza na estimativa dos efeitos e que é provável que futuros estudos mudem estas estimativas. Conclusão Mais ECRs são importantes para apoiar ou refutar o uso do T. terrestris. A decisão de usar essa intervenção deve ser compartilhada com pacientes, e as incertezas sobre seus efeitos devem ser discutidas durante o processo de decisão clínica.

10.
Clin Rehabil ; 34(6): 713-722, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits and harms of low-level laser therapy for Achilles tendinopathy. DATA SOURCES: Search strategies were conducted (from inception to February 2020) in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde e do Caribe (LILACS), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), SPORTDiscus, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO)-ICTRP and OpenGrey databases, to retrieve all randomized controlled trials that compared laser therapy with inactive/active interventions. REVIEW METHODS: This study was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of bias table. Meta-analyses were performed on dependence of homogeneity, otherwise results were reported narratively. The certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: Four trials (119 participants) were analyzed. Laser therapy associated to eccentric exercises when compared to eccentric exercises and sham had very low to low certainty of evidence in pain and function assessment. Despite one trial favored laser therapy at two months (mean difference (MD) -2.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -3.87 to -1.23), the CIs did not include important differences between groups at 3 and 13 months. The function assessment showed an improvement favoring the placebo group at one month (MD 9.19, 95% CI -16.16 to -2.23) and non-significant difference between groups at 3 and 13 months. Adverse events were poorly reported but restricted to minor events related to the exercises. CONCLUSION: The certainty of evidence was low to very low, and the results are insufficient to support the routine use laser therapy for Achilles tendinopathy.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Tendinopatia/radioterapia , Humanos
11.
J Pain ; 21(3-4): 281-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513934

RESUMO

This systematic review investigated the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for painful temporomandibular disorders. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 10 databases, from inception to February 12, 2019 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, BBO, Web of Science, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO and OpenGrey). We included 12 RCTs that compared BTX-A versus inactive or active interventions. BTX-A was slightly more effective than placebo for pain reduction at 1 month: mean difference -1.74 points (0-10 scale), 95% confidence interval -2.94 to -.54, 3 RCTs, 60 participants, I-square (I2) = 0%. However, there were no significant differences at 3 and 6 months. BTX-A was similar to no treatment for pain reduction at 3 and 6 months. BTX-A was more effective than conventional treatment and low-level laser therapy for pain reduction at 1, 6, and 12 months, but less effective than facial manipulation for pain reduction at 3 months. BTX-A was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of adverse events. The quality of the evidence was low, and results are insufficient to support the use of BTX-A for painful temporomandibular disorders. High-quality RCTs are needed to increase confidence in effect estimates. PERSPECTIVE: BTX-A for painful temporomandibular disorders appears to be well tolerated. For pain reduction, BTX-A is slightly more effective than placebo only at 1 month; conventional treatment and low-level laser at 1, 6, and 12 months. Low-quality evidence limits the applicability of these findings and precludes recommendations for practice.

13.
Trials ; 20(1): 729-735, dez., 2019. tab., graf.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1049617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable amount of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published on statins and/or fibrates for diabetic retinopathy, a clinical condition associated with high social and economic burden. Adherence to the CONSORT statement items is imperative to ensure transparency and reproducibility in clinical research. The aim of this study is to assess the reporting quality and the adherence to CONSORT of RCTs assessing statins and/or fibrates for diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We conducted a critical appraisal study at Discipline of Evidence-based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). A sensitive literature search was performed to identify all relevant RCTs, with no time or language limits. Two authors independently evaluated the reporting quality of the selected RCTs using the CONSORT statement as a standard. RESULTS: Thirteen reports of RCTs were included in this study. The adherence of the reports to CONSORT items ranged from 24% to 68%. The median score was 11 (interquartile range (IQR) 8 to 13). When analyzed separately, the methods sections of the reports had a median of three items (IQR 2 to 4) judged adherent to the methods items of CONSORT (items 3 to 12). The most underreported items were those related to trial design, title and abstract, allocation concealment, implementation of the randomization sequence, and blinding. Other important items, such as the one related to the description of the inclusion criteria, also had low adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The overall adherence to the CONSORT checklist items was poor, especially in the items related to the methods section. RCT reports on statins and/or fibrates for diabetic retinopathy must be optimized to avoid reporting biases and to improve transparency and reproducibility. (AU)


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Viés de Publicação , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Retinopatia Diabética , Hipolipemiantes
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 530-542, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094518

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the third largest cause of blindness worldwide, accounting for 8.7% of all cases. A considerable number of preventive or therapeutic interventions have been used for AMD. OBJECTIVE: This study presents a critical view of the interventions that have been assessed through Cochrane systematic reviews. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews about interventions for AMD. RESULTS: The 18 systematic reviews included assessed the effects of surgical techniques, laser/photo/radiotherapy, intravitreal injections, systemic drugs and phytotherapy/vitamins/supplements. CONCLUSION: The Cochrane systematic reviews found evidence that use of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, pegaptanib, laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and multivitamin compounds may present some benefits for treating AMD. There was insufficient evidence for supporting the use of macular translocation, submacular surgery, steroid implantation, radiotherapy, intravitreal aflibercept, interferon alfa, statins or omega-3 fatty acids for treating AMD; or the use of multivitamin antioxidant vitamins or mineral supplementation for preventing AMD. Future randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainty in several clinical questions regarding AMD.

15.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 11: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719846

RESUMO

Evidence from observational studies have found a relationship between serum cholesterol and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Apart of the assumption that cholesterolemic control has benefits for patients with diabetes with or without retinopathy, the effects of lipid-lowering drugs have not been properly mapped and critically assessed so far. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of statins and/or fibrates on prevention and progression of DR. We conducted a Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. GRADE approach was used to summarize the certainty of the evidence. Eight RCTs that fulfilled our eligibility criteria were included, assessing the effects of fibrates (n = 4), statins (n = 3) and fibrate plus statins (n = 1) for therapy (n = 8) or prevention (n = 4) of DR. Overall, the main concern regarding risk of bias assessment was due to incomplete outcome data because high rate of losses in five RCTs. Furthermore, the risk of reporting bias was rated unclear due the lack of previously published protocol in seven RCTs. Fibrates seemed to be associated with a 45% risk reduction of macular edema incidence (Relative Risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval of 0.38 to 0.81, 1309 participants, 2 RCTs, I2 = 0%, low certainty of the evidence). The certainty of evidence for other outcomes was also very low or low, and we are uncertain regarding the effects of fibrates for DR. Overall, adverse events seemed to be similar between fibrate and placebo, but again based on the width of the confidence intervals, an important increase of adverse events cannot be rule out. The combination statin/fibrate did not seem to have benefit for visual acuity but is likely that further studies can modify this estimate since the current evidence is limited. Adverse events and quality of life were not measured or reported. Concluding, this study found eight RCTs, with limited methodological quality, that assessed the effects of fibrates and/or statins for DR. Based on these findings, we are uncertain about the effects of statins for DR. Fibrates seemed to reduce the incidence of macular edema (low certainty evidence) without increase adverse events (low to very low certainty evidence). Number of Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42016029746.

16.
Diabetol. metab. syndr ; 00: 01-14, Nov. 2019. tabela, gráfico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1025136

RESUMO

Abstract Evidence from observational studies have found a relationship between serum cholesterol and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Apart of the assumption that cholesterolemic control has benefits for patients with diabetes with or without retinopathy, the effects of lipid-lowering drugs have not been properly mapped and critically assessed so far. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of statins and/or fibrates on prevention and progression of DR. We conducted a Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. GRADE approach was used to summarize the certainty of the evidence. Eight RCTs that fulfilled our eligibility criteria were included, assessing the effects of fibrates (n = 4), statins (n = 3) and fibrate plus statins (n = 1) for therapy (n = 8) or prevention (n = 4) of DR. Overall, the main concern regarding risk of bias assessment was due to incomplete outcome data because high rate of losses in five RCTs. Furthermore, the risk of reporting bias was rated unclear due the lack of previously published protocol in seven RCTs. Fibrates seemed to be associated with a 45% risk reduction of macular edema incidence (Relative Risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval of 0.38 to 0.81, 1309 participants, 2 RCTs, I2 = 0%, low certainty of the evidence). The certainty of evidence for other outcomes was also very low or low, and we are uncertain regarding the effects of fibrates for DR. Overall, adverse events seemed to be similar between fibrate and placebo, but again based on the width of the confidence intervals, an important increase of adverse events cannot be rule out. The combination statin/fibrate did not seem to have benefit for visual acuity but is likely that further studies can modify this estimate since the current evidence is limited. Adverse events and quality of life were not measured or reported. Concluding, this study found eight RCTs, with limited methodological quality, that assessed the effects of fibrates and/or statins for DR. Based on these findings, we are uncertain about the effects of statins for DR. Fibrates seemed to reduce the incidence of macular edema (low certainty evidence) without increase adverse events (low to very low certainty evidence). Number of Protocol registration PROSPERO CRD42016029746. (AU)


Assuntos
Metanálise , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Retinopatia Diabética , Ácidos Fíbricos
17.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(3): [119-125], jul - set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026704

RESUMO

Contexto: Estima-se que no Brasil 72% das pessoas ativas no mercado de trabalho apresentem algum problema relacionado ao estresse ocupacional, e aproximadamente 32% delas são diagnosticadas como tendo síndrome de burnout. Objetivo: Apresentar as evidências de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) Cochrane sobre eficácia e segurança das estratégias de tratamento e prevenção da síndrome de burnout. Métodos: RSs foram incluídas a partir de busca sistematizada realizada na Biblioteca Cochrane e após a adequação aos critérios de elegibilidade. O resumo e a certeza no corpo das evidências encontradas por cada revisão foram apresentados. Resultados: Foram incluídas seis RSs que avaliaram estratégias de prevenção e tratamento de burnout e outros sintomas relacionados ao desgaste emocional do trabalho em diferentes categorias profissionais. A certeza no corpo das evidências obtidas foi baixa ou muito baixa para a maioria dos desfechos. A única evidência com moderada certeza de seus resultados mostrou que técnicas de relaxamento, quando comparadas a nenhuma intervenção, parecem reduzir o estresse de profissionais da saúde. Conclusão: Apesar da elevada prevalência e das crescentes estimativas de incidência no Brasil e em todo o mundo, ainda há poucos estudos primários e RSs Cochrane avaliando os efeitos de intervenções com potencial de prevenir ou tratar a síndrome de burnout. Nenhuma das RSs identificadas aqui forneceu evidências robustas de alta certeza sobre intervenções para o manejo desta síndrome. RSs conduzidas sob o rigor da metodologia Cochrane precisam ainda esclarecer os efeitos (benefícios e riscos) de alternativas terapêuticas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas já usadas na prática clínica para promoção da saúde do trabalhador no sentido de prevenir e tratar a síndrome de burnout.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esgotamento Profissional , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Tomada de Decisão Clínica
19.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266765

RESUMO

A review of systematic reviews (SRs) and a critical appraisal study was conducted at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The objectives of this review are (1) to identify all published SRs comparing the effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) versus carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis, (2) to assess their methodological quality and (3) to compare the primary studies contained in each SR. We included 17 SRs published between 2005 and 2017. None of the SRs fulfilled all items of AMSTAR-2. The overall confidence in the results was graded as critically low for 16 SRs (94%) and low for 1 SR (6%). Five items were judged inadequate in all SRs: reference to a published protocol, explanation to the selection of study design, comprehensive search of the literature, methods for statistical combination of findings and consideration of the risk of bias on the results of meta-analysis. In total, 15 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included at least in one SR. The number of included RCTs in each SR was inconsistent (4 to 15) and was not related to the year of publication of the SR. Our study found redundant and low methodological quality SR comparing CAS versus CEA for carotid stenosis.

20.
J Child Neurol ; 34(11): 679-686, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179823

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. Through a comprehensive literature search we considered all randomized clinical trials that compared neurodevelopmental treatment with conventional physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table to assess the risk of bias of the included randomized clinical trial, and the GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the body of the evidence. RESULTS: We found 3 randomized clinical trials (2 published and 1 ongoing) comprising 66 children. Published randomized clinical trials presented methodological and reporting limitations and only 1 provided data for outcomes of interest. No difference between neurodevelopmental treatment and conventional physical therapy was found for gross motor function (mean difference 1.40; 95% confidence interval -5.47 to 8.27, low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION: This review found that the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy are still uncertain. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of neurodevelopmental treatment for this purpose and until there, current evidence do not support its routinely use in practice. Number of protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42017082817 (available from https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=82817 ).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA