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1.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(11): e13402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a blood component therapy with a supraphysiological concentration of platelets derived from allogenic or, more commonly, autologous blood. PRP has been used in different non-transfusion indications because of its role in the promotion of tissue repair and healing, in fields such as Traumatology, Dermatology and Dentistry. OBJECTIVE: To provide a synthesis of the efficacy of PRP for different clinical situations. METHODS: Systematic searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and LILACS in July 2018 to identify systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) focusing on PRP for non-transfusion use. Two authors independently screened all retrieved references in two stages (titles and abstracts at a first stage and full texts at a second stage). The methodological quality of SRs that met the eligibility criteria was appraised by AMSTAR 2. Conclusions were based on the most recent SRs with highest quality. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and forty references were retrieved. After checking the inclusion criteria, 29 SRs of RCTs related to three different fields (wound care, Orthopedics and Dentistry) were included. The results suggest the benefit of PRP for different clinical situations, such as diabetic wounds, acute lesions of musculoskeletal system, rotator cuff lesions, tendinopathies, knee and hip osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, allogenic bone graft for dental implants and periodontal intrabony defects. CONCLUSION: There is low to moderate quality evidence supporting the efficacy of PRP for specific clinical situations. The low quality of the evidence limits the certainty of these findings. Well-planned and well-conducted RCTs are still needed to further assess the efficacy of PRP.

2.
BMJ Evid Based Med ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266765

RESUMO

A review of systematic reviews (SRs) and a critical appraisal study was conducted at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The objectives of this review are (1) to identify all published SRs comparing the effectiveness and safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) versus carotid artery stenting (CAS) for carotid artery stenosis, (2) to assess their methodological quality and (3) to compare the primary studies contained in each SR. We included 17 SRs published between 2005 and 2017. None of the SRs fulfilled all items of AMSTAR-2. The overall confidence in the results was graded as critically low for 16 SRs (94%) and low for 1 SR (6%). Five items were judged inadequate in all SRs: reference to a published protocol, explanation to the selection of study design, comprehensive search of the literature, methods for statistical combination of findings and consideration of the risk of bias on the results of meta-analysis. In total, 15 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included at least in one SR. The number of included RCTs in each SR was inconsistent (4 to 15) and was not related to the year of publication of the SR. Our study found redundant and low methodological quality SR comparing CAS versus CEA for carotid stenosis.

3.
J Child Neurol ; 34(11): 679-686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179823

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported in accordance to PRISMA Statement. Through a comprehensive literature search we considered all randomized clinical trials that compared neurodevelopmental treatment with conventional physical therapy for children with cerebral palsy. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Table to assess the risk of bias of the included randomized clinical trial, and the GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the body of the evidence. RESULTS: We found 3 randomized clinical trials (2 published and 1 ongoing) comprising 66 children. Published randomized clinical trials presented methodological and reporting limitations and only 1 provided data for outcomes of interest. No difference between neurodevelopmental treatment and conventional physical therapy was found for gross motor function (mean difference 1.40; 95% confidence interval -5.47 to 8.27, low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION: This review found that the effects of neurodevelopmental treatment for children with cerebral palsy are still uncertain. Further studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of neurodevelopmental treatment for this purpose and until there, current evidence do not support its routinely use in practice. Number of protocol registration in PROSPERO database: CRD42017082817 (available from https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=82817 ).

4.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 579-585, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-991688

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint that generates more than five million visits to doctors per year in the United States. This study summarizes all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluated interventions to treat insomnia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A sensitive search was carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of any type of intervention for people with insomnia. The results, main characteristics of the SRs and the certainty of the evidence obtained from them were synthesized and discussed. RESULTS: Seven SRs were included. They addressed the benefits and harm of acupuncture (n = 1), behavioral interventions (n = 1), music (n = 1), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), phototherapy (n = 1) and physical exercise (n = 1). The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture, music, physical exercise, paroxetine, doxepin, trimipramine and trazodone seem to present some benefit for patients with insomnia. However, the uncertainty around these results means that no robust and definitive recommendations for clinical practice can be made until the benefits and harms from each intervention for patients with insomnia have been confirmed through further studies.

5.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e13295, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The use of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent, is hypothesized to benefit stroke patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions recommendations to assess the efficacy and safety of modafinil in post stroke patients. We prospectively registered the review protocol in PROSPERO (CRD42017078465) and reported the systematic review following the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Two published studies (77 participants) and one ongoing randomized controlled trial, with limited methodological quality, assessed the effects of modafinil (200mg or 400mg) for adults from 14 days post-stroke up to 3 months pos-stroke and fulfilled our inclusion criteria and. The clinical and methodological variability between studies precluded meta-analyses. Overall, these studies showed some benefit of modafinil for fatigue, but no benefit for disability, cognition and for subscores of stroke-specific quality of life. Data for adverse events were scarce and mortality was not considered by studies. Due to very low quality related to the evidence, we are uncertain about the effects of modafinil for all outcomes assessed by our systematic review. CONCLUSION: Based on two small randomized controlled trial, which provided very low quality evidence, the effects (benefits and harms) of modafinil for stroke patients are unclear and do not support its routinely use in clinical practice for this clinical situation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.

7.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(4): [141-146], out-dez 2018. tab, fig
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987476

RESUMO

Introdução: Guidelines em saúde somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico. Objetivos: Apresentar e descrever os itens da ferramenta Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation, AGREE II. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Resultados: Os 23 itens da ferramenta AGREE II foram apresentados em sua versão em português, assim como as recomendações para sua aplicação. Conclusão: O AGREE II é uma ferramenta internacional, já disponível em vários idiomas, e que avalia o rigor metodológico e a transparência com que uma guideline é desenvolvida. Pode ser aplicada a guidelines novas, já existentes ou atualizações de guidelines prévias. O uso do AGREE II no desenvolvimento de guidelines em saúde precisa ser disseminado, uma vez que tais guidelines somente terão benefícios potenciais se tiverem sido planejadas e desenvolvidas com alto rigor metodológico.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Metodologia
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 472-478, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-979377

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid compounds have been the center of many investigations. This study provides a synthesis on all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A broad search was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to retrieve any Cochrane SRs that assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids as a therapeutic approach. The results and key characteristics of all reviews included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Eight SRs were included. They assessed the use of cannabinoids for the following types of conditions: neurological (two SRs), psychiatric (two SRs), rheumatological (one SR), infectious (one SR) and oncological (two SRs). There was moderate-quality evidence showing that the use of cannabinoids reduced nausea and vomiting among adults, compared with placebo. Additionally, there was moderate-quality evidence showing that there was no difference between cannabinoids and prochlorperazine regarding the number of participants who reported vomiting, in this same population. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified eight Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence of unknown to moderate quality regarding the use of cannabinoids as a therapeutic intervention. Further studies are still imperative for solid conclusions to be reached regarding practical recommendations.

9.
Diagn. tratamento ; 23(3): [101-104], jul.-set. 2018. fig, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-969297

RESUMO

Introdução: O registro prospectivo de protocolos de revisões sistemáticas (RSs) permite avaliar a condução do estudo e a qualidade do relato de seus resultados, aumentando a transparência e a reprodutibilidade. Objetivos: Apresentar a base de registros PROSPERO e descrever suas principais características. Métodos: Estudo descritivo realizado na Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências da Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). Resultados: A PROSPERO é uma base de registros de RSs, gratuita, mantida pelo Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, da Universidade de York, e financiada pelo National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Atualmente, há mais de 35.000 registros de RSs em andamento em humanos ou animais que estudam desfechos em saúde. Conclusão: PROSPERO é uma base pública de registro de protocolos de revisões sistemáticas criada em 2011, que conta até o momento com mais de 35.000 protocolos registrados. O registro prospectivo desses protocolos já é recomendado por muitos periódicos em saúde com o objetivo de minimizar o risco de viés de publicação e a duplicidade de revisões para responder a uma mesma questão clínica.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Protocolos Clínicos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Revisão , Medicina Baseada em Evidências
10.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(4): 354-360, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133547

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal and increased growth of the cells that produce keratin and abnormal functioning of the immune system. We aimed to summarize the evidence available regarding interventions for patients with psoriasis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, developed in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Two authors screened titles and abstracts that had been retrieved through the search strategy. The results from all the Cochrane systematic reviews that were included were summarized and presented in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane systematic reviews assessing interventions for treating psoriasis. The findings from high-quality evidence were that (a) etanercept reduced the psoriasis severity index, compared with placebo and (b) steroids plus vitamin D, compared with vitamin D alone, improved the skin clearance rate, as assessed by investigators, but was associated with a higher proportion of participants who dropped out due to adverse events. For all other comparisons, the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: This review included six Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence ranging in quality from unknown to high, regarding management of psoriasis. Further randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainties relating to several treatments that are already used in clinical practice.

11.
J Neurol Sci ; 393: 63-68, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118919

RESUMO

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the presence of a complex of signals resulting from the loss of REM sleep atony and manifested by vigorous and sometimes violent motor jerks and nocturnal vocalizations associated with dream enactment. RBD might be a clinical predictor of severity for Parkinson's disease (PD) and one of its most important non-motor manifestations, preceding the emergence of synucleinopathy by several years or even decades. The detection of RBD may represent a therapeutic window for research regarding the development of new neuroprotective therapies with the potential to modify the natural course of synucleinopathies, such as PD. We performed a scoping review of studies indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS focusing on pharmacological interventions for RBD associated with PD. Fourteen articles were selected. Study designs comprised randomized and non-randomized clinical trials (n = 153 participants) and observational studies (retrospective cohorts and case series, n = 248 participants). Melatonin and clonazepam appear to be useful for treating RBD in PD, but these findings are mostly supported by observational studies and a few controlled studies with a small number of participants. New pharmacological agents, such as melatoninergic agonists and phytocannabinoids, appear to be promising therapies. The findings from studies focusing on anticholinesterases and new dopaminergic agents are still deemed inconclusive.

12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 354-360, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962731

RESUMO

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal and increased growth of the cells that produce keratin and abnormal functioning of the immune system. We aimed to summarize the evidence available regarding interventions for patients with psoriasis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, developed in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify Cochrane systematic reviews that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Two authors screened titles and abstracts that had been retrieved through the search strategy. The results from all the Cochrane systematic reviews that were included were summarized and presented in a narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We included six Cochrane systematic reviews assessing interventions for treating psoriasis. The findings from high-quality evidence were that (a) etanercept reduced the psoriasis severity index, compared with placebo and (b) steroids plus vitamin D, compared with vitamin D alone, improved the skin clearance rate, as assessed by investigators, but was associated with a higher proportion of participants who dropped out due to adverse events. For all other comparisons, the quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: This review included six Cochrane systematic reviews that provided evidence ranging in quality from unknown to high, regarding management of psoriasis. Further randomized controlled trials are imperative to reduce the uncertainties relating to several treatments that are already used in clinical practice.

13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(4): 324-332, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Varicose veins affect nearly 30% of the world's population. This condition is a social problem and needs interventions to improve quality of life and reduce risks. Recently, new and less invasive methods for varicose vein treatment have emerged. There is a need to define the best treatment options and to reduce the risks and costs. Since there are cosmetic implications, treatments for which effectiveness remains unproven present risks to consumers and higher costs for stakeholders. These risks and costs justify conducting an overview of systematic reviews to summarize the evidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Overview of systematic reviews within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Health, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Systematic reviews on clinical or surgical treatments for varicose veins were included, with no restrictions on language or publication date. RESULTS: 51 reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Outcomes and comparators were described, and a narrative review was conducted. Overall, there was no evidence that compression stockings should be recommended for patients as the initial treatment or after surgical interventions. There was low to moderate evidence that minimally invasive therapies (endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation or foam sclerotherapy) are as safe and effective as conventional surgery (ligation and stripping). Among these systematic reviews, only 18 were judged to present high quality. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of low to moderate quality that minimally invasive treatments, including foam sclerotherapy, laser and radiofrequency therapy are comparable to conventional surgery, regarding effectiveness and safety for treatment of varicose veins.

14.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(4): 324-332, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicose veins affect nearly 30% of the world's population. This condition is a social problem and needs interventions to improve quality of life and reduce risks. Recently, new and less invasive methods for varicose vein treatment have emerged. There is a need to define the best treatment options and to reduce the risks and costs. Since there are cosmetic implications, treatments for which effectiveness remains unproven present risks to consumers and higher costs for stakeholders. These risks and costs justify conducting an overview of systematic reviews to summarize the evidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: Overview of systematic reviews within the Discipline of Evidence-Based Health, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: Systematic reviews on clinical or surgical treatments for varicose veins were included, with no restrictions on language or publication date. RESULTS: 51 reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Outcomes and comparators were described, and a narrative review was conducted. Overall, there was no evidence that compression stockings should be recommended for patients as the initial treatment or after surgical interventions. There was low to moderate evidence that minimally invasive therapies (endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation or foam sclerotherapy) are as safe and effective as conventional surgery (ligation and stripping). Among these systematic reviews, only 18 were judged to present high quality. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of low to moderate quality that minimally invasive treatments, including foam sclerotherapy, laser and radiofrequency therapy are comparable to conventional surgery, regarding effectiveness and safety for treatment of varicose veins.

15.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(3): 251-261, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.


Assuntos
Medicina Integrativa/métodos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Apiterapia/métodos , Aromaterapia/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Hipnose/métodos , Ozônio/uso terapêutico
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(3): 251-261, May-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962722

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: This study identified and summarized all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) on the effects of ten integrative practices that were recently added to the Brazilian public healthcare system (SUS). DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of systematic reviews, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). METHODS: Review of Cochrane SRs on the following interventions were identified, summarized and critically assessed: apitherapy, aromatherapy, bioenergetics, family constellation, flower therapy, chromotherapy, geotherapy, hypnotherapy, hand imposition or ozone therapy. RESULTS: We included a total of 16 SRs: 4 on apitherapy, 4 on aromatherapy, 6 on hypnotherapy and 2 on ozone therapy. No Cochrane SR was found regarding bioenergetics, family constellation, chromotherapy, clay therapy, flower therapy or hand imposition. The only high-quality evidence was in relation to the potential benefit of apitherapy, specifically regarding some benefits from honey dressings for partial healing of burn wounds, for reduction of coughing among children with acute coughs and for preventing allergic reactions to insect stings. CONCLUSION: Except for some specific uses of apitherapy (honey for burn wounds and for acute coughs and bee venom for allergic reactions to insect stings), the use of ten integrative practices that have recently been incorporated into SUS does not seem to be supported by evidence from Cochrane SRs.

17.
Acupunct Med ; 36(3): 146-152, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major concerns regarding the use of medication during pregnancy justify the need for safer interventions. Acupuncture is an emerging alternative for several clinical conditions during this period. The objective of this study is to summarise evidence derived from systematic reviews (SRs) focusing on acupuncture for pregnancy-related acute conditions. METHODS: Review of SRs. A systematic literature search was carried out in several electronic databases, aiming to include all SRs assessing the effects of acupuncture for acute conditions during pregnancy. Methodological quality and quality of the publication/reporting of each SR were assessed by the application of AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses), respectively. RESULTS: The initial search retrieved 11 492 records, of which 16 SRs met our inclusion criteria. The average AMSTAR score was 7.3, the lowest score being 3 and the highest 11. The lowest PRISMA score was 12, the highest 25, and the average PRISMA score was 19.9. The results support the proposal that acupuncture might be considered an option for alleviating pain during labour, for correcting breech presentation, and for managing pelvic and back pain during pregnancy. There is insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture for inducing labour, managing nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, improving sleep quality, controlling nausea and vomiting associated with Caesarean delivery, and managing urinary infection. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture might be an option for alleviating pain during labour, for correcting breech presentation, and for managing pelvic and back pain during pregnancy. More studies are needed to confirm the effects of acupuncture for other pregnancy-related acute conditions.

18.
Phytother Res ; 32(4): 567-576, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168289

RESUMO

Nausea and vomiting are common and distressing adverse events of chemotherapy. This review focuses on the findings and quality of systematic reviews (SRs) of cannabinoids for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Review of SRs, a systematic literature search, was conducted in several electronic databases and included SRs evaluating cannabinoids for CINV in cancer patients. Methodological quality and quality of reporting were evaluated by AMSTAR and PRISMA, respectively. Initial search retrieved 2,206 records, and 5 SRs were included. On the basis of findings of the sole SR judged as high methodological quality, cannabinoids seem to be more effective than placebo, equal to prochlorperazine for reducing CINV, and to be preferred by patients. The response to different combinations of antiemetic agents seems to be equal to 1 antiemetic alone. The average of AMSTAR score was 5, and the average of PRISMA score was 13.2. Cannabinoids represent a valuable option for treating CINV, despite the adverse events related to treatment, such as drowsiness and cognitive impairment. There is no good quality evidence to recommend or not the use of cannabinoids for CINV. More studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of cannabinoids when compared with modern antiemetics.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Antieméticos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Humanos
19.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(6): 579-585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892489

RESUMO

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is a frequent complaint that generates more than five million visits to doctors per year in the United States. This study summarizes all Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) that evaluated interventions to treat insomnia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of SRs, conducted in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP). METHODS: A sensitive search was carried out in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify Cochrane SRs that assessed the effects of any type of intervention for people with insomnia. The results, main characteristics of the SRs and the certainty of the evidence obtained from them were synthesized and discussed. RESULTS: Seven SRs were included. They addressed the benefits and harm of acupuncture (n = 1), behavioral interventions (n = 1), music (n = 1), pharmacotherapy (n = 2), phototherapy (n = 1) and physical exercise (n = 1). The certainty of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture, music, physical exercise, paroxetine, doxepin, trimipramine and trazodone seem to present some benefit for patients with insomnia. However, the uncertainty around these results means that no robust and definitive recommendations for clinical practice can be made until the benefits and harms from each intervention for patients with insomnia have been confirmed through further studies.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Exercício , Humanos , Musicoterapia/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Int J Clin Pract ; 71(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nineteen million adults worldwide are in need of palliative care. Of those who have access to it, 80% fail to receive an efficient management of symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of mindfulness meditation for palliative care patients. METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, PEDro, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Opengrey, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO-ICTRP. No restriction of language, status or date of publication was applied. We considered randomised clinical trials (RCTs) comparing any mindfulness meditation scheme vs any comparator for palliative care. Cochrane Risk of Bias (Rob) Table was used for assessing methodological quality of RCTs. Screening, data extraction and methodological assessments were performed by two reviewers. Mean differences (MD) (confidence intervals of 95% (CI 95%)) were considered for estimating effect size. Quality of evidence was appraised by GRADE. RESULTS: Four RCTs, 234 participants, were included. All studies presented high risk of bias in at least one RoB table criteria. We assessed 4 comparisons, but only 2 studies showed statistically significant difference for at least one outcome. 1. Mindfulness meditation (eight weeks, one session/week, daily individual practice) vs control: statistically significant difference in favour of control for quality of life - physical aspects. 2. Mindfulness meditation (single 5-minute session) vs control: benefit in favour of mindfulness for stress outcome in both time-points. None of the included studies analysed safety and harms outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although two studies have showed statistically significant difference, only one showed effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in improving perceived stress. This study focused on one single session of mindfulness of 5 minutes for adult cancer patients in palliative care, but it was considered as possessing high risk of bias. Other schemes of mindfulness meditation did not show benefit in any outcome evaluated (low and very low quality evidence).


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
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