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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(39): 19464-19473, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488723

RESUMO

Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) is essential for cellular homeostasis; however, its contribution to development is not well established. Here, we demonstrate that the H3K9me2 demethylase PHF2 is essential for neural progenitor proliferation in vitro and for early neurogenesis in the chicken spinal cord. Using genome-wide analyses and biochemical assays we show that PHF2 controls the expression of critical cell cycle progression genes, particularly those related to DNA replication, by keeping low levels of H3K9me3 at promoters. Accordingly, PHF2 depletion induces R-loop accumulation that leads to extensive DNA damage and cell cycle arrest. These data reveal a role of PHF2 as a guarantor of genome stability that allows proper expansion of neural progenitors during development.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1546-1556, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294896

RESUMO

Testing for variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (commonly referred to as BRCA1/2), has emerged as a standard clinical practice and is helping countless women better understand and manage their heritable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Yet the increased rate of BRCA1/2 testing has led to an increasing number of Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS), and the rate of VUS discovery currently outpaces the rate of clinical variant interpretation. Computational prediction is a key component of the variant interpretation pipeline. In the CAGI5 ENIGMA Challenge, six prediction teams submitted predictions on 326 newly-interpreted variants from the ENIGMA Consortium. By evaluating these predictions against the new interpretations, we have gained a number of insights on the state of the art of variant prediction and specific steps to further advance this state of the art.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1593-1611, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112341

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) germline variants disrupting the DNA protective role of these genes increase the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Correct identification of these variants then becomes clinically relevant, because it may increase the survival rates of the carriers. Unfortunately, we are still unable to systematically predict the impact of BRCA1/2 variants. In this article, we present a family of in silico predictors that address this problem, using a gene-specific approach. For each protein, we have developed two tools, aimed at predicting the impact of a variant at two different levels: Functional and clinical. Testing their performance in different datasets shows that specific information compensates the small number of predictive features and the reduced training sets employed to develop our models. When applied to the variants of the BRCA1/2 (ENIGMA) challenge in the fifth Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI 5) we find that these methods, particularly those predicting the functional impact of variants, have a good performance, identifying the large compositional bias towards neutral variants in the CAGI sample. This performance is further improved when incorporating to our prediction protocol estimates of the impact on splicing of the target variant.

4.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(5): 890-897, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568281

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and persists into adulthood in 40-65% of cases. Given the polygenic and heterogeneous architecture of the disorder and the limited overlap between genetic studies, there is a growing interest in epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, that modulate gene expression and may contribute to the phenotype. We attempted to clarify the role of microRNAs in ADHD at a molecular level through the first genome-wide integrative study of microRNA and mRNA profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of medication-naive individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. We identified 79 microRNAs showing aberrant expression levels in 56 ADHD cases and 69 controls, with three of them, miR-26b-5p, miR-185-5p, and miR-191-5p, being highly predictive for diagnostic status in an independent dataset of 44 ADHD cases and 46 controls. Investigation of downstream microRNA-mediated mechanisms underlying the disorder, which was focused on differentially expressed, experimentally validated target genes of the three highly predictive microRNAs, provided evidence for aberrant myo-inositol signaling in ADHD and indicated an enrichment of genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders. Our comprehensive study design reveals novel microRNA-mRNA expression profiles aberrant in ADHD, provides novel insights into microRNA-mediated mechanisms contributing to the disorder, and highlights promising candidate peripheral biomarkers.

5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 13: 44, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258488

RESUMO

Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP), which includes accreta, increta, and percreta, is a condition characterized by the invasion of the uterine wall by placental tissue. The condition is associated with higher odds of massive post-partum hemorrhage. Several interventions have been developed to improve hemorrhage-related outcomes in these patients; however, there is no evidence to prefer any intervention over another. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an endovascular intervention that may be useful and effective to reduce hemorrhage and transfusions in MAP patients. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the evidence for REBOA in patients with MAP. We posit that acute care surgeons can perform REBOA for patients with MAP.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 125, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellular cobalamin defects are a locus and allelic heterogeneous disorder. The gold standard for coming to genetic diagnoses of cobalamin defects has for some time been gene-by-gene Sanger sequencing of individual DNA fragments. Enzymatic and cellular methods are employed before such sequencing to help in the selection of the gene defects to be sought, but this is time-consuming and laborious. Furthermore some cases remain undiagnosed because no biochemical methods have been available to test for cobalamin absorption and transport defects. RESULTS: This paper reports the use of massive parallel sequencing of DNA (exome analysis) for the accurate and rapid genetic diagnosis of cobalamin-related defects in a cohort of affected patients. The method was first validated in an initial cohort with different cobalamin defects. Mendelian segregation, the frequency of mutations, and the comprehensive structural and functional analysis of gene variants, identified disease-causing mutations in 12 genes involved in the absorption and synthesis of active cofactors of vitamin B12 (22 cases), and in the non-cobalamin metabolism-related genes ACSF3 (in four biochemically misdiagnosed patients) and SUCLA2 (in one patient with an unusual presentation). We have identified thirteen new variants all classified as pathogenic according to the ACGM recommendation but four were classified as variant likely pathogenic in MUT and SUCLA2. Functional and structural analysis provided evidences to classify them as pathogenic variants. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that the technology used is sufficiently sensitive and specific, and the results it provides sufficiently reproducible, to recommend its use as a second-tier test after the biochemical detection of cobalamin disorder markers in the first days of life. However, for accurate diagnoses to be made, biochemical and functional tests that allow comprehensive clinical phenotyping are also needed.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 18(Suppl 5): 569, 2017 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strict guidelines delimit the use of computational information in the clinical setting, due to the still moderate accuracy of in silico tools. These guidelines indicate that several tools should always be used and that full coincidence between them is required if we want to consider their results as supporting evidence in medical decision processes. Application of this simple rule certainly decreases the error rate of in silico pathogenicity assignments. However, when predictors disagree this rule results in the rejection of potentially valuable information for a number of variants. In this work, we focus on these variants of the protein sequence and develop specific predictors to help improve the success rate of their annotation. RESULTS: We have used a set of 59,442 protein sequence variants (15,723 pathological and 43,719 neutral) from 228 proteins to identify those cases for which pathogenicity predictors disagree. We have repeated this process for all the possible combinations of five known methods (SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PON-P2, CADD and MutationTaster2). For each resulting subset we have trained a specific pathogenicity predictor. We find that these specific predictors are able to discriminate between neutral and pathogenic variants, with a success rate different from random. They tend to outperform the constitutive methods but this trend decreases as the performance of the constitutive predictor improves (e.g. with PON-P2 and PolyPhen-2). We also find that specific methods outperform standard consensus methods (Condel and CAROL). CONCLUSION: Focusing development efforts on the case of variants for which known methods disagree we may obtain pathogenicity predictors with improved performances. Although we have not yet reached the success rate that allows the use of this computational evidence in a clinical setting, the simplicity of the approach indicates that more advanced methods may reach this goal in a close future.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Variação Genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/métodos , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas/genética
8.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1365-1380, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577310

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/deficiência , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
9.
Fam Cancer ; 16(4): 501-507, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365877

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene variants continues increasing, encompassing Lynch syndrome, Constitutional MMR Deficiency (CMMRD), and the recently reported MSH3-associated polyposis. Genetic diagnosis of these hereditary cancer syndromes is often hampered by the presence of variants of unknown significance (VUS) and overlapping phenotypes. Two PMS2 VUS, c.2149G>A (p.V717M) and c.2444C>T (p.S815L), were identified in trans in one individual diagnosed with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) who belonged to a family fulfilling clinical criteria for hereditary cancer. Clinico-pathological data, multifactorial likelihood calculations and functional analyses were used to refine their clinical significance. Likelihood analysis based on cosegregation and tumor data classified the c.2444C>T variant as pathogenic, which was supported by impaired MMR activity associated with diminished protein expression in functional assays. Conversely, the c.2149G>A variant displayed MMR proficiency and protein stability. These results, in addition to the conserved PMS2 expression in normal tissues and the absence of germline microsatellite instability (gMSI) in the biallelic carrier ruled out a CMMRD diagnosis. The use of comprehensive strategies, including functional and clinico-pathological information, is mandatory to improve the clinical interpretation of naturally occurring MMR variants. This is critical for appropriate clinical management of cancer syndromes associated to MMR gene mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Linhagem
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 45(W1): W64-W71, 2017 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453782

RESUMO

The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications. Here, we introduce SeMPI, a web server providing a prediction and identification pipeline for natural products synthesized by polyketide synthases of type I modular. In order to limit the possible structures of PKS products and to include putative tailoring reactions, a structural comparison with annotated natural products was introduced. Furthermore, a benchmark was designed based on 40 gene clusters with annotated PKS products. The web server of the pipeline (SeMPI) is freely available at: http://www.pharmaceutical-bioinformatics.de/sempi.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 37(10): 1013-24, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397615

RESUMO

The usage of next-generation sequencing with biomedical/clinical purposes has fuelled the demand for tools that assess the functional impact of sequence variants. For single amino acid variants, general methods (GM), based on biophysics/evolutionary principles and trained by pooling variants from many proteins, are already available. Until now, their accuracy range (∼80%) has limited their usage in clinical applications. In parallel, a series of studies indicate that protein-specific predictors (PSP), using only information from the protein of interest, could frequently surpass the performance of GM. However, two reasons suggest that this may not always be the case: the existence of a performance threshold affecting both GM and PSP, and the effect of training data scarcity. Here, we characterize the relationship between the two approaches deriving 82 PSP and comparing them with several GM (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, PON-P2, MutationTaster2, CADD). We find a complementary relationship between PSP and GM, with no approach always outperforming the other. However, the relationship varies between two limiting situations, for example, PSP are frequently outperformed by PON-P2, the best GM; however, the opposite happens when we compare PSP and SIFT. Finally, we explore how the observed complementarity could lead to increased success rates in pathogenicity prediction.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Proteínas/genética , Algoritmos , Humanos , Software
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(4): 388-96, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026170

RESUMO

The complement system plays a central role in defense to encapsulated bacteria through opsonization and membrane attack complex (MAC) dependent lysis. The three activation pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) converge in the cleavage of C5, which initiates MAC formation and target lysis. C5 deficiency is associated to recurrent infections by Neisseria spp. In the present study, complement deficiency was suspected in three families of North-African origin after one episode of invasive meningitis due to a non-groupable and two uncommon Meningococcal serotypes (E29, Y). Activity of alternative and classical pathways of complement were markedly reduced and the measurement of terminal complement components revealed total C5 absence. C5 gene analysis revealed two novel mutations as causative of the deficiency: Family A propositus carried a homozygous deletion of two adenines in the exon 21 of C5 gene, resulting in a frameshift and a truncated protein (c.2607_2608del/p.Ser870ProfsX3 mutation). Families B and C probands carried the same homozygous deletion of three consecutive nucleotides (CAA) in exon 9 of the C5 gene, leading to the deletion of asparagine 320 (c.960_962del/p.Asn320del mutation). Family studies confirmed an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Although sharing the same geographical origin, families B and C were unrelated. This prompted us to investigate this mutation prevalence in a cohort of 768 North-African healthy individuals. We identified one heterozygous carrier of the p.Asn320del mutation (allelic frequency = 0.065 %), indicating that this mutation is present at low frequency in North-African population.


Assuntos
Complemento C5/deficiência , Complemento C5/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , África , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complemento C5/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem
13.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 83(3): 195-202, 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-722846

RESUMO

Introducción: las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) constituyen en Uruguay la primera causa de internación hospitalaria en la edad pediátrica; aumentando su incidencia en los meses fríos. En el 2011 se organiza en el Hospital Central de las Fuerzas Armadas (HCFFAA) la estrategia “Plan Invierno” (PI), con el uso de nebulizaciones con suero salino hipertónico al 3% (SSH3%). Para evaluar la experiencia clínica se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, incluyendo a pacientes menores de 2 años cursando la primera, segunda o tercera bronquiolitis; en el período 1 de junio de 2011 al 30 de setiembre de 2011.Objetivos: Evaluar la respuesta clínica del SSH al 3 %, disminuir los días de internación y reingresos. Comparar los resultados con otras estrategias. Resultados: consultaron 4.698 pacientes en el Departamento de Emergencia Pediátrica (DEP), 127 ingresaron al PI. La X de edad fue de 6 meses (1 mes–22meses) y 54,8 % varones. La X de estadía en emergencia fue 1 hora 44 minutos (30 minutos - 10 horas). Destino: alta 65 %, admisión hospitalaria 35 %. Se logró una reducción del score de Tal con una X de 1,8 puntos al final de la primera hora del tratamiento propuesto. A sala ingresaron 45 pacientes, sexo femenino 23/45, detérmino 38/45 y eutróficos 41/45. La X de días de internación en sala fue de 3.4 días. No hubo reingresos. Mortalidad cero. Conclusiones: la estadía hospitalaria de los pacientes ingresados disminuyó 22 horas con respecto a otras estrategias. No hubo reingresos. Se obtuvo un mayor registro de pacientes en comparación con el PI 2010.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Assistência Hospitalar , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estratégias Locais
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