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1.
JCI Insight ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of an early repolarization pattern (ERP) on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Family studies have shown that ERP is a highly heritable trait but molecular genetic determinants are unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic susceptibility loci for ERP, we performed a GWAS and meta-analysis in 2,181 cases and 23,641 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant (p<5E-8) locus in the KCND3 (potassium voltage gated channel subfamily D member 3) gene that was successfully replicated in additional 1,124 cases and 12,510 controls. A subsequent joint meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts identified rs1545300 as the lead SNP at the KCND3 locus (OR 0.82 per minor T allele, p=7.7E-12), but did not reveal additional loci. Co-localization analyses indicate causal effects of KCND3 gene expression levels on ERP in both cardiac left ventricle and tibial artery. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we identified for the first time a genome-wide significant association of a genetic variant with ERP. Our findings of a locus in the KCND3 gene not only provide insights into the genetic determinants but also into the pathophysiological mechanism of ERP, discovering a promising candidate for functional studies. FUNDING: For detailed information per study, see Acknowledgments.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15088, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636301

RESUMO

Electrolytes have a crucial role in maintaining health and their serum levels are homeostatically maintained within a narrow range by multiple pathways involving the kidneys. Here we use metabolomics profiling (592 fasting serum metabolites) to identify molecular markers and pathways associated with serum electrolyte levels in two independent population-based cohorts. We included 1523 adults from TwinsUK not on blood pressure-lowering therapy and without renal impairment to look for metabolites associated with chloride, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate by running linear mixed models adjusting for covariates and multiple comparisons. For each electrolyte, we further performed pathway enrichment analysis (PAGE algorithm). Results were replicated in an independent cohort. Chloride, potassium, bicarbonate and sodium associated with 10, 58, 36 and 17 metabolites respectively (each P < 2.1 × 10-5), mainly lipids. Of all the electrolytes, serum potassium showed the most significant associations with individual fatty acid metabolites and specific enrichment of fatty acid pathways. In contrast, serum sodium and bicarbonate showed associations predominantly with amino-acid related species. In the first study to examine systematically associations between serum electrolytes and small circulating molecules, we identified novel metabolites and metabolic pathways associated with serum electrolyte levels. The role of these metabolic pathways on electrolyte homeostasis merits further studies.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e024433, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) in middle-aged individuals with hypertension influences first-onset cardiovascular disease outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression with a median follow-up of 63 months (702 902 person-years). Four mutually exclusive groups were compared: hypertension only (n=56 035), MDD only (n=15 098), comorbid hypertension plus MDD (n=12 929) and an unaffected (no hypertension, no MDD) comparison group (n=50 798). SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants without cardiovascular disease aged 39-70 who completed psychiatric questions relating International Classification of Diseases-10 Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria on a touchscreen questionnaire at baseline interview in 2006-2010 (n=134 860). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: First-onset adverse cardiovascular outcomes leading to hospital admission or death (ICD-10 codes I20-I259, I60-69 and G45-G46), adjusted in a stepwise manner for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle features. Secondary analyses were performed looking specifically at stroke outcomes (ICD-10 codes I60-69 and G45-G46) and in gender-separated models. RESULTS: Relative to controls, adjusted HRs for adverse cardiovascular outcomes were increased for the hypertension only group (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.52) and were higher still for the comorbid hypertension plus MDD group (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.45 to 1.9). HRs for the comorbid hypertension plus MDD group were significantly raised compared with hypertension alone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.35). Interaction measured using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and likelihood ratios (LRs) were identified at baseline (RERI 0.563, 95% CI 0.189 to 0.938; LR p=0.0116) but not maintained during the follow-up. LIMITATIONS: Possible selection bias in UK Biobank and inability to assess for levels of medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbid hypertension and MDD conferred greater hazard than hypertension alone for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, although evidence of interaction between hypertension and MDD was inconsistent over time. Future cardiovascular risk prediction tools may benefit from the inclusion of questions about prior history of depressive disorders.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 767-775, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422693

RESUMO

Concerns exist regarding the potential increased cardiovascular risk from lowering diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in hypertensive patients. We analyzed 30-year follow-up data of 10 355 hypertensive patients attending the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic. The association between blood pressure during the first 5 years of treatment and cause-specific hospital admissions or mortality was analyzed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular admissions and deaths. DBP showed a U-shaped association (nadir, 92 mm Hg) for the primary cardiovascular outcome hazard and a reverse J-shaped association with all-cause mortality (nadir, 86 mm Hg) and noncardiovascular mortality (nadir, 92 mm Hg). The hazard ratio for the primary cardiovascular outcome after adjustment for systolic blood pressure was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.18-1.62) for DBP <80 compared with DBP of 80 to 89.9 mm Hg (referrant), and the subdistribution hazard ratio after accounting for competing risk was 1.33 (1.17-1.51) compared with DBP ≥80 mm Hg. Cause-specific nonfatal outcome analyses showed a reverse J-shaped relationship for myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure admissions but a U-shaped relationship for stroke admissions. Age-stratified analyses showed DBP had no independent effect on stroke admissions among the older patient subgroup (≥60 years of age), but the younger subgroup showed a clear U-shaped relationship. Intensive blood pressure reduction may lead to unintended consequences of higher healthcare utilization because of increased cardiovascular morbidity, and this merits future prospective studies. Low on-treatment DBP is associated with increased risk of noncardiovascular mortality, the reasons for which are unclear.

6.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 614-622, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327267

RESUMO

Selection of antihypertensive treatment according to self-defined ethnicity is recommended by some guidelines but might be better guided by individual genotype rather than ethnicity or race. We compared the extent to which variation in blood pressure response across different ethnicities may be explained by genetic factors: genetically defined ancestry and gene variants at loci known to be associated with blood pressure. We analyzed data from 5 trials in which genotyping had been performed (n=4696) and in which treatment responses to ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blocker, thiazide or thiazide-like diuretic and calcium channel blocker were available. Genetically defined ancestry for proportion of African ancestry was computed using the 1000 genomes population database as a reference. Differences in response to the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide, the ß-blockers atenolol and metoprolol, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan were more closely associated to genetically defined ancestry than self-defined ethnicity in admixed subjects. A relatively small number of gene variants related to loci associated with drug-signaling pathways (KCNK3, SULT1C3, AMH, PDE3A, PLCE1, PRKAG2) with large effect size (-3.5 to +3.5 mm Hg difference in response per allele) and differing allele frequencies in black versus white individuals explained a large proportion of the difference in response to candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide between these groups. These findings suggest that a genomic precision medicine approach can be used to individualize antihypertensive treatment within and across populations without recourse to surrogates of genetic structure such as self-defined ethnicity.

7.
Circulation ; 139(24): 2754-2764, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is great interest in widening the use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponins for population cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure screening. However, it is not clear whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI) are equivalent measures of risk in this setting. We aimed to compare and contrast (1) the association of cTnT and cTnI with CVD and non-CVD outcomes, and (2) their determinants in a genome-wide association study. METHODS: High-sensitivity cTnT and cTnI were measured in serum from 19 501 individuals in Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study. Median follow-up was 7.8 years (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7.1-9.2). Associations of each troponin with a composite CVD outcome (1177 events), CVD death (n=266), non-CVD death (n=374), and heart failure (n=216) were determined by using Cox models. A genome-wide association study was conducted using a standard approach developed for the cohort. RESULTS: Both cTnI and cTnT were strongly associated with CVD risk in unadjusted models. After adjusting for classical risk factors, the hazard ratio for a 1 SD increase in log transformed troponin was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.17-1.32) and 1.11 (1.04-1.19) for cTnI and cTnT, respectively; ratio of hazard ratios 1.12 (1.04-1.21). cTnI, but not cTnT, was associated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Both cTnI and cTnT had strong associations with CVD death and heart failure. By contrast, cTnT, but not cTnI, was associated with non-CVD death; ratio of hazard ratios 0.77 (0.67-0.88). We identified 5 loci (53 individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms) that had genome-wide significant associations with cTnI, and a different set of 4 loci (4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) for cTnT. CONCLUSIONS: The upstream genetic causes of low-grade elevations in cTnI and cTnT appear distinct, and their associations with outcomes also differ. Elevations in cTnI are more strongly associated with some CVD outcomes, whereas cTnT is more strongly associated with the risk of non-CVD death. These findings help inform the selection of an optimal troponin assay for future clinical care and research in this setting.

8.
Exp Neurol ; 316: 20-26, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965038

RESUMO

Insulin resistance, broadly defined as the reduced ability of insulin to exert its biological action, has been associated with depression and cognitive dysfunction in observational studies. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal and whether they might be underpinned by other shared factors. To address this knowledge gap, we capitalized on the stability of genetic biomarkers through the lifetime, and on their unidirectional relationship with depression and cognition. Specifically, we determined the association between quantitative measures of cognitive function and depression and genetic instruments of insulin resistance traits in two large-scale population samples, the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS: SFHS; N = 19,994) and in the UK Biobank (N = 331,374). In the GS:SFHS, the polygenic risk score (PRS) for fasting insulin was associated with verbal intelligence and depression while the PRS for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was associated with verbal intelligence. Despite this overlap in genetic architecture, Mendelian randomization analyses in the GS:SFHS and in the UK Biobank samples did not yield evidence for causal associations from insulin resistance traits to either depression or cognition. These findings may be due to weak genetic instruments, limited cognitive measures and insufficient power but they may also indicate the need to identify other biological mechanisms that may mediate the relationship from insulin resistance to depression and cognition.

9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 19, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857519

RESUMO

Risk factors for hypertension consist of lifestyle and genetic factors. Family history and twin studies have yielded heritability estimates of BP in the range of 34-67%. The most recent paper of BP GWAS has explained about 20% of the population variation of BP. An overestimation of heritability may have occurred in twin studies due to violations of shared environment assumptions, poor phenotyping practices in control cohorts, failure to account for epistasis, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and other non-genetic sources of phenotype modulation that are suspected to lead to underestimations of heritability in GWAS. The recommendations of hypertension guidelines in major countries consist of the following elements: weight reduction, a healthy diet, dietary sodium reduction, increasing physical activity, quitting smoking, and moderate alcohol consumption. The hypertension guidelines are mostly the same for each country or region, beyond race and culture. In this review, we summarize gene-environmental interactions associated with hypertension by describing lifestyle modifications according to the hypertension guidelines. In the era of precision medicine, clinicians who are responsible for hypertension management should consider the gene-environment interactions along with the appropriate lifestyle components toward the prevention and treatment of hypertension. We briefly reviewed the interaction of genetic and environmental factors along the constituent elements of hypertension guidelines, but a sufficient amount of evidence has not yet accumulated, and the results of genetic factors often differed in each study.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hipertensão/terapia , Estilo de Vida , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Fatores de Risco
10.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

12.
Physiol Genomics ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216136

RESUMO

Previously, our comprehensive cardiovascular characterisation study validated Uromodulin as a blood pressure gene. Uromodulin is a glycoprotein exclusively synthesised at the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and is encoded by the Umod gene. Umod-/- mice have significantly lower blood pressure than Umod+/+ mice, are resistant to salt-induced changes in blood pressure, and show a leftward shift in pressure-natriuresis curves reflecting changes of sodium reabsorption. Salt stress triggers transcription factors and genes that alter renal sodium reabsorption. To date there are no studies on renal transcriptome responses to salt stress. Here we aimed to delineate salt stress pathways in tubules isolated from Umod+/+ mice (a model of sodium retention) and Umod-/- mice (a model of sodium depletion) ±300mOsmol sodium chloride (n=3 per group) performing RNA-Seq. In response to salt stress, the tubules of Umod+/+ mice displayed an up regulation of heat shock transcripts. The greatest changes occurred in the expression of: Hspa1a (Log2 fold change 4.35, p=2.48e-12) and Hspa1b (Log2 fold change 4.05, p=2.48e-12). This response was absent in tubules of Umod-/- mice. Interestingly, 7 of the genes discordantly expressed in the Umod-/- tubules were electrolyte transporters. Our results are the first to show that salt stress in renal tubules alters the transcriptome, increasing the expression of heat shock genes. This direction of effect in Umod+/+ tubules suggest the difference is due to the presence of Umod facilitating greater sodium entry into the tubule cell reflecting a specific response to salt stress.

13.
Clin Chem ; 64(11): 1607-1616, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data compare cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in a general population. We sought to evaluate the distribution and association between cTnT, cTnI, and cardiovascular risk factors in a large general population cohort. METHODS: High-sensitivity cTnT and cTnI were measured in serum from 19501 individuals in the Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study. Associations with cardiovascular risk factors were compared using age- and sex-adjusted regression. Observed age- and sex-stratified 99th centiles were compared with 99th centiles for cTnT (men, 15.5 ng/L; women, 9.0 ng/L) and cTnI (men, 34.2 ng/L; women, 15.6 ng/L) used in clinical practice. RESULTS: cTnT and cTnI concentrations were detectable in 53.3% and 74.8% of participants, respectively, and were modestly correlated in unadjusted analyses (R 2 = 21.3%) and only weakly correlated after adjusting for age and sex (R 2 = 9.5%). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with both troponins, but in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, cTnI was more strongly associated with age, male sex, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001 for all vs cTnT). cTnT was more strongly associated with diabetes (P < 0.0001 vs cTnI). The observed 99th centiles were broadly consistent with recommended 99th centiles in younger men and women. After the age of 60 years, observed 99th centiles increased substantially for cTnT, and beyond 70 years of age, the 99th centiles approximately doubled for both troponins. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, cTnT and cTnI concentrations are weakly correlated and are differentially associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The 99th centiles currently in use are broadly appropriate for men and women up to but not beyond the age of 60 years.

14.
Am Heart J ; 204: 102-108, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnicity, along with a variety of genetic and environmental factors, is thought to influence the efficacy of antihypertensive therapies. Current UK guidelines use a "black versus white" approach; in doing so, they ignore the United Kingdom's largest ethnic minority: Asians from South Asia. STUDY DESIGN: The primary purpose of the AIM-HY INFORM trial is to identify potential differences in response to antihypertensive drugs used as mono- or dual therapy on the basis of self-defined ethnicity. A multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized study with 2 parallel, independent trial arms (mono- and dual therapy), AIM-HY INFORM plans to enroll a total of 1,320 patients from across the United Kingdom. Those receiving monotherapy (n = 660) will enter a 3-treatment (amlodipine 10 mg od; lisinopril 20 mg od; chlorthalidone 25 mg od), 3-period crossover, lasting 24 weeks, whereas those receiving dual therapy (n = 660) will enter a 4-treatment (amlodipine 5 mg od and lisinopril 20 mg od; amlodipine 5 mg od and chlorthalidone 25 mg od; lisinopril 20 mg od and chlorthalidone 25 mg od; amiloride 10 mg od and chlorthalidone 25 mg od), 4-period crossover, lasting 32 weeks. Equal numbers of 3 ethnic groups (white, black/black British, and Asian/Asian British) will ultimately be recruited to each of the trial arms (ie, 220 participants per ethnic group per arm). Seated, automated, unattended, office, systolic blood pressure measured 8 weeks after each treatment period begins will serve as the primary outcome measure. CONCLUSION: AIM-HY INFORM is a prospective, open-label, randomized trial which aims to evaluate first- and second-line antihypertensive therapies for multiethnic populations.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2904, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046033

RESUMO

Electrocardiographic PR interval measures atrio-ventricular depolarization and conduction, and abnormal PR interval is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and heart block. Our genome-wide association study of over 92,000 European-descent individuals identifies 44 PR interval loci (34 novel). Examination of these loci reveals known and previously not-yet-reported biological processes involved in cardiac atrial electrical activity. Genes in these loci are over-represented in cardiac disease processes including heart block and atrial fibrillation. Variants in over half of the 44 loci were associated with atrial or blood transcript expression levels, or were in high linkage disequilibrium with missense variants. Six additional loci were identified either by meta-analysis of ~105,000 African and European-descent individuals and/or by pleiotropic analyses combining PR interval with heart rate, QRS interval, and atrial fibrillation. These findings implicate developmental pathways, and identify transcription factors, ion-channel genes, and cell-junction/cell-signaling proteins in atrio-ventricular conduction, identifying potential targets for drug development.

16.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 21(12): 1067-1075, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986042

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have highlighted the possible risk of neuropsychiatric adverse effects during treatment with lipid-lowering medications. However, there are still controversies that require a novel genetic-based approach to verify whether the impact of lipid-lowering drug treatment results in neuropsychiatric troubles including insomnia, depression, and neuroticism. Thus, we applied Mendelian randomization to assess any potential neuropsychiatric adverse effects of conventional lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, and ezetimibe. Methods: A 2-sample Mendelian randomization study was conducted based on summary statistics from genome-wide association studies for lipids, insomnia, depression, and neuroticism. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in or near drug target genes of HMGCR, PCSK9, and NPC1L1 were used as proxies for statins, PCSK9 inhibitors, and ezetimibe therapy, respectively. To assess the validity of the genetic risk score, their associations with coronary artery disease were used as a positive control. Results: The Mendelian randomization analysis showed a statistically significant (P <.004) increased risk of depression after correcting for multiple testing with both statins (odds ratio=1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.19) and PCSK9 inhibitor treatment (odds ratio =1.19, 95%CI: 1.1-1.29). The risk of neuroticism was slightly reduced with statin therapy (odds ratio=0.9, 95%CI: 0.83-0.97). No significant adverse effects were associated with ezetimibe treatment. As expected, the 3 medications significantly reduced the risk of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: Using a genetic-based approach, this study showed an increased risk of depression during statin and PCSK9 inhibitor therapy while their association with insomnia risk was not significant.

18.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 20(6): 54, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881931

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is recognised as the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease, but it is controlled in less than a fifth of patients worldwide, despite being relatively easy to detect and the availability of inexpensive safe generic drugs. Blood pressure is regulated by a complex network of physiologic pathways with currently available drugs targeting key receptors or enzymes in the top pathways. Major advances in the dissection of both monogenic and polygenic determinants of blood pressure regulation and variation have not resulted in rapid translation of these discoveries into clinical applications or precision medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Uromodulin is an example of a novel gene for hypertension identified from genome-wide association studies, currently the basis of a clinical trial to reposition loop diuretics in hypertension management. Gene-editing studies have established a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) SNP in chromosome 6p24, implicated in six conditions including hypertension, as a distal regulator of the endothelin-1 gene around 3000 base pairs away. Genomics of aldosterone-producing adenomas bring to focus the paradox in genomic medicine where availability of cheap generic drugs may render precision medicine uneconomical. The speed of technology-driven genomic discoveries and the sluggish traditional pathways of drug development and translation need harmonisation to make a timely and early impact on global public health. This requires a directed collaborative effort for which we propose a hypertension moonshot to make a quantum leap in hypertension management and cardiovascular risk reduction by bringing together traditional bioscience, omics, engineering, digital technology and data science.

19.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(1): e001758, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.

20.
Am Heart J ; 201: 86-94, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary angiography is performed to assess for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), but "nonobstructive CAD" is a common finding. Microvascular or vasospastic angina may be relevant, but routine confirmatory testing is not evidence based and thus rarely performed. AIM: The aim was to assess the effect of stratified medicine guided by coronary function testing on the diagnosis, treatment, and well-being of patients with angina and nonobstructive CAD. DESIGN: The BHF CorMicA trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial of stratified medicine (NCT03193294). All-comers referred for elective coronary angiography for investigation of suspected CAD will be screened. Following informed consent, eligible patients with angina and nonobstructive CAD will be randomized 1:1 immediately in the catheter laboratory to either coronary artery function-guided diagnosis and treatment (intervention group) or not (control group). Coronary function will be assessed using a pressure-temperature-sensitive guidewire and adenosine followed by pharmacological testing with intracoronary acetylcholine. Patients will be stratified into endotypes with linked therapy. The primary outcome is change in Seattle Angina Questionnaire score at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include safety, feasibility, diagnostic utility (impact on diagnosis and diagnostic certainty), and clinical utility (impact on treatment and investigations). Health status is a key secondary outcome assessed according to the following domains: quality of life, treatment satisfaction, illness perception, physical activity, and anxiety-depression score. Patients with obstructive disease who are not randomized will form a registry group who will be followed up as a comparator for secondary outcomes including health status. Health and economic outcomes will be evaluated in the longer term using electronic health record linkage. VALUE: CorMicA is a proof-of-concept clinical trial of a disruptive stratified intervention with potential benefits to patients and health care providers.

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