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1.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(14): 2413-2420, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the content of promotional advertisements by alcohol brands on Instagram. METHODS: For a 30-day period, Instagram profiles of 15 distinct alcohol brands were examined. Pictorial posts/updates from each profile were screen captured and individually documented. Approximately 184 distinct posts constituted our final sample. The Content Appealing to Youth Index was independently employed by two raters to assess each post. For each characteristic, Cohen's Kappa measures, and associated 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: Posts increased throughout the week and peaked on Thursday and Friday. The production value of the posts examined was generally high, frequently featuring color, texture, shine, contrast, faces, and action. Character appeals and use of youth-oriented genres were uncommon. Many of the posts used product appeals and physical benefits to consumption. The posts also emphasized the following rewarding appeal characteristics: positive emotional experiences, achievement, individuality, and camaraderie. The most commonly coded risk-related feature was inappropriate use. Conclusions/Importance: This investigation represents an initial attempt to provide insights into the content alcohol brands are including in their promotional materials on social networking sites.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Emprego , Humanos , Individualidade , Rede Social
2.
J Public Health Res ; 7(1): 1269, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780765

RESUMO

Background: Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. Design and Methods: We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth (N=1032), a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults (N ~13,000), and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY) in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements (n=96) aired during the youth survey. The association between CAY scores for the 96 alcohol ads and youth (age 13-20) versus adult (age 21+) consumption of those ads' brands was tested through bivariate and multivariate models. Results: Brand CAY scores were (a) positively associated with brand-specific youth consumption after controlling for adult brand consumption; (b) positively associated with a ratio of youth-toadult brand-specific consumption; and (c) not associated with adult brand consumption. Conclusions: Alcohol brands with youth-appealing advertising are consumed more often by youth than adults, indicating that these ads may be more persuasive to relatively younger audiences, and that youth are not simply mirroring adult consumption patterns in their choice of brands. Future research should consider the content of alcohol advertising when testing marketing effects on youth drinking, and surveillance efforts might focus on brands popular among youth.

3.
Health Commun ; 33(2): 164-173, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982709

RESUMO

Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising has been indicated as a possible contributing factor. Although a number of studies have identified advertising content features that youth find appealing, a key limitation of this research is the absence of a broader tool to examine those features, especially those used by alcohol brands that are popular with underage drinkers. We created an index of content elements found in the research literature to be appealing to youth, and then used this index in a content analysis to identify the degree to which youth-appealing content appeared in a sample of alcohol ads that aired on television shows popular among youth. Finally, using bivariate analysis, we tested the relationship between alcohol brands' use of this content and the popularity of those brands among youth. We found that many of the ads featured youth-appealing content, and that the ads for the alcohol brands most popular among youth had more youth-appealing content than the less popular brands.


Assuntos
/tendências , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/tendências , Televisão , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(8): 954-961, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106669

RESUMO

Introduction: Very little is known about how e-cigarette marketing is being perceived by youth, and the potential effect it will have on youth vaping and smoking behaviors. This limits the ability to identify youth-focused marketing efforts and to design effective policies for the regulation of e-cigarette marketing content and placement. Methods: A sample of 417 nonsmoking youth (mean age = 15, SD = 1.3) were randomly assigned to either view four e-cigarette ads with low youth appeal, four e-cigarette ads with high youth appeal or four control ads. After exposure, participants completed covert and overt measurements of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette attitudes and susceptibility to use. Results: Youth in an e-cigarette ad condition were more likely to select an e-cigarette item in a product choice task compared to control, and had more positive e-cigarette beliefs. Contrary to hypotheses, youth in the low youth appeal condition reported greater susceptibility to trying e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes compared to control. Conclusions: Exposure to any e-cigarette advertising may play a role in teens' decision to initiate e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. As the Food and Drug Administration now has regulatory authority over the marketing of e-cigarettes, regulations on e-cigarette advertising are suggested. Implications: Teens are increasingly being exposed to e-cigarette advertising, and many places are considering e-cigarette regulations, yet we know very little about how e-cigarette advertisements might influence youth tobacco use. This study utilized a novel dataset of e-cigarette ads coded for youth appeal and presented them to a sample of 417 nonsmoking teens in a randomized controlled design to test the effect of features on youth susceptibility to initiating e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. The findings inform evidence-based recommendations for regulating the marketing of e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Marketing/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Tob Regul Sci ; 3(1): 95-101, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which e-cigarette advertisements use youth-appealing content. METHODS: A sample of e-cigarette video ads (N = 154) were coded by 3 independent coders using the content appealing to youth (CAY) index, which measures over 40 youth-appealing features. To calculate a total CAY score for each ad, scores were normalized and summed such that a higher score represented the presence of more youth-appealing elements. RESULTS: All ads included some youth-appealing content, with frequent use of emotional appeals, including happiness (68%), friendship (41%), sex (24%), and success (24%). Over half featured animation. However, product appeals, known to be disliked by youth, were also prevalent. Eighty-seven percent used a direct appeal to e-cigarettes' value over tobacco cigarettes; 66% mentioned product composition; and 40% mentioned health. CONCLUSIONS: Given the unregulated context in the US, e-cigarette marketing currently contains many features that may be particularly appealing to youth.

6.
J Health Commun ; 21(10): 1079-87, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668832

RESUMO

Social norms affect human behavior, and underage drinking is no exception. Using the theory of normative social behavior, this study tested the proposition that the association between perceptions about the prevalence of drinking (descriptive norms) and underage drinking is strengthened when perceived pressures to conform (injunctive norms) and beliefs about the benefits of drinking (outcome expectations) are high. This proposition was tested on a nationally representative sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20 (N = 1,031) in relation to their alcohol consumption, expanding on research with college-age youth. On average, males and females reported drinking 23 and 18 drinks per month, respectively. The main effect of descriptive norms (ß = .10, p < .01) on alcohol consumption was modified by interactions with injunctive norms (ß = .11, p < .01), benefit to self (ß = .12, p < .001), and benefit to others (ß = .10, p < .01). Underage drinkers are most vulnerable to excessive drinking if they believe that most others drink, that they themselves are expected to drink, and that drinking confers several benefits. Norms-based interventions to reduce youth alcohol use need to focus on changing not only descriptive norms but also injunctive norms and outcome expectations.


Assuntos
Motivação , Normas Sociais , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Conformidade Social , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Subst Abus ; 37(1): 222-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the United States. METHODS: We examined 3 issues of 8 magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads' appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from 1 graduate and 2 undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on 4 dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random-effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. RESULTS: On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviation for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. CONCLUSIONS: Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 50(3): 358-64, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754127

RESUMO

AIMS: We investigated the population-level relationship between exposure to brand-specific advertising and brand-specific alcohol use among US youth. METHODS: We conducted an internet survey of a national sample of 1031 youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all of the alcohol brands respondents consumed in the past 30 days, as well as which of 20 popular television shows they had viewed during that time period. Using a negative binomial regression model, we examined the relationship between aggregated brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on the 20 television shows [ad stock, measured in gross rating points (GRPs)] and youth brand-consumption prevalence, while controlling for the average price and overall market share of each brand. RESULTS: Brands with advertising exposure on the 20 television shows had a consumption prevalence about four times higher than brands not advertising on those shows. Brand-level advertising elasticity of demand varied by exposure level, with higher elasticity in the lower exposure range. The estimated advertising elasticity of 0.63 in the lower exposure range indicates that for each 1% increase in advertising exposure, a brand's youth consumption prevalence increases by 0.63%. CONCLUSIONS: At the population level, underage youths' exposure to brand-specific advertising was a significant predictor of the consumption prevalence of that brand, independent of each brand's price and overall market share. The non-linearity of the observed relationship suggests that youth advertising exposure may need to be lowered substantially in order to decrease consumption of the most heavily advertised brands.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Televisão , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 38(8): 2234-42, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24986257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being able to investigate the relationship between underage drinkers' preferences for particular brands and their exposure to advertising for those brands would represent a significant advance in alcohol marketing research. However, no previous national study has examined the relationship between underage youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and consumption of those brands. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a national sample of 1,031 youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed at least 1 drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all alcohol brands consumed by respondents in the past 30 days. The main outcome measure was brand-specific consumption during the past 30 days, measured as a dichotomous variable. The main predictor variable was exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising on television. The respondents reported which of 20 television shows popular with youth they had watched during the past 30 days. For each respondent, we calculated a standard measure of potential exposure to the brand-specific alcohol advertising that aired on those shows during the preceding 12 months, based on Nielsen (New York, NY) estimates of the youth audience for each show's telecasts. RESULTS: Compared to no brand-specific advertising exposure, any exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of brand-specific consumption (adjusted odds ratio 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 2.61-3.49) after controlling for several individual- and brand-level variables. When measured as a continuous variable, the relationship between advertising exposure and brand consumption was nonlinear, with a large association at lower levels of exposure and diminishing incremental effects as the level of exposure increased. CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust relationship between youth's brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on television and their consumption of those same alcohol brands during the past 30 days. This study provides further evidence of a strong association between alcohol advertising and youth drinking behavior.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Televisão , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 37(7): 1195-203, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23398328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage youth, as existing information is collected at the level of alcoholic beverage type. This study identifies the alcohol brands consumed by a nationally representative sample of underage youth in the United States. METHODS: We obtained a national sample of 1,032 underage youth, aged 13 to 20, using a pre-recruited Internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks. Youth aged 18 to 20 were recruited directly from the panel via email invitation. Teens aged 13 to 17 were identified by asking adult panelists to identify a member of their household. The survey assessed the past 30-day consumption of 898 brands of alcohol among 16 alcoholic beverage types, including the frequency and amount of each brand consumed in the past 30 days. Market share for a given brand was calculated by dividing the total number of drinks for that brand in the past 30 days across the entire sample by the total number of drinks for all identified brands. RESULTS: The alcohol brands with highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Bud Light (27.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.3 to 32.4%), Smirnoff malt beverages (17.0%, 95% CI 12.9 to 21.1%), and Budweiser (14.6%, 95% CI 11.0 to 18.3%). Brand market share was concentrated in a relatively small number of brands, with the top 25 brands accounting for nearly half of all market shares. CONCLUSIONS: Underage youth alcohol consumption, although spread out over several alcoholic beverage types, is concentrated among a relatively small number of alcohol brands. This finding has important implications for alcohol research, practice, and policy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/classificação , Marketing/tendências , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Coleta de Dados/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Adolesc Med State Art Rev ; 22(2): 183-94, vii, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22106733

RESUMO

It is well known that adolescents delay and avoid sexual health care and fail to disclose necessary information to providers when their confidentiality is not ensured. However, it is not always clear if adolescents are psychosocially, affectively, or cognitively ready for independent decision-making. Whether confidentiality can and should be maintained necessitates that parents and providers have an understanding of adolescents' need for confidentiality. This article explores the concepts of confidentiality and consent in the context of teenage development and behaviors and addresses the complexity of the decision-making triad in adolescent sexual health care.


Assuntos
Medicina do Adolescente/organização & administração , Confidencialidade , Pais , Relações Médico-Paciente , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Adolescente , Medicina do Adolescente/ética , Medicina do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Revelação , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/ética , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Sexual
12.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 6(1): 128-37, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20460300

RESUMO

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the experience and regulation of emotional states. Emotional experience is a complex construct, encompassing a range of more specific processes. This exploratory study aimed to delineate which (if any) aspects of emotional experience rely critically on either the ventromedial frontal (VMF) or lateral frontal (LF) lobes. The affective experience of individuals with damage to these regions was surveyed in detail using several measures and compared with that of control participants. Dependent measures included subjective and observer ratings of both dispositional affect and transient responses to laboratory mood inductions. VMF damage was associated with greater negative dispositional affect relative to controls and to individuals with LF damage; however, transient responses to emotional stimuli were largely normal. In contrast, LF damage was associated with an exaggerated subjective reactivity to sad emotional stimuli relative to control participants, but normal dispositional affect. Interestingly, neither form of PFC damage affected spontaneous emotion recovery following the mood inductions. These findings suggest a role for VMF in modulating dispositional negative affect; in contrast, LF areas appear to be critical in regulating transient emotional responses while emotional stimuli are present. This study also illustrates the dissociability of different aspects of emotional experience in patients with focal brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Medição da Dor , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 20(4): 721-33, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18052791

RESUMO

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of emotion processes. However, findings regarding the role of this region specifically in emotion recognition have been mixed. We used a sensitive facial emotion recognition task to compare the emotion recognition performance of 7 subjects with lesions confined to ventromedial prefrontal regions, 8 subjects with lesions elsewhere in prefrontal cortex, and 16 healthy control subjects. We found that emotion recognition was impaired following ventromedial, but not dorsal or lateral, prefrontal damage. This impairment appeared to be quite general, with lower overall ratings or more confusion between all six emotions examined. We also explored the relationship between emotion recognition performance and the ability of the same patients to experience transient happiness and sadness during a laboratory mood induction. We found some support for a relationship between sadness recognition and experience. Taken together, our results indicate that the ventromedial frontal lobe plays a crucial role in facial emotion recognition, and suggest that this deficit may be related to the subjective experience of emotion.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dano Encefálico Crônico/patologia , Dano Encefálico Crônico/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Percepção Social
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