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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

2.
J Autoimmun ; : 102340, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE. METHODS: Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). RESULTS: The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03-1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 616-624, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474319

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common immune-mediated arthritis. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) are highly specific to RA and assayed with the commercial CCP2 assay. Genetic drivers of RA within the MHC are different for CCP2-positive and -negative subsets of RA, particularly at HLA-DRB1. However, aspartic acid at amino acid position 9 in HLA-B (Bpos-9) increases risk to both RA subsets. Here we explore how individual serologies associated with RA drive associations within the MHC. To define MHC differences for specific ACPA serologies, we quantified a total of 19 separate ACPAs in RA-affected case subjects from four cohorts (n = 6,805). We found a cluster of tightly co-occurring antibodies (canonical serologies, containing CCP2), along with several independently expressed antibodies (non-canonical serologies). After imputing HLA variants into 6,805 case subjects and 13,467 control subjects, we tested associations between the HLA region and RA subgroups based on the presence of canonical and/or non-canonical serologies. We examined CCP2(+) and CCP2(-) RA-affected case subjects separately. In CCP2(-) RA, we observed that the association between CCP2(-) RA and Bpos-9 was derived from individuals who were positive for non-canonical serologies (omnibus_p = 9.2 × 10-17). Similarly, we observed in CCP2(+) RA that associations between subsets of CCP2(+) RA and Bpos-9 were negatively correlated with the number of positive canonical serologies (p = 0.0096). These findings suggest unique genetic characteristics underlying fine-specific ACPAs, suggesting that RA may be further subdivided beyond simply seropositive and seronegative.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16955-16960, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375628

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, likely autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, among which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a strong suspect. We have previously identified increased autoantibody levels toward the chloride-channel protein Anoctamin 2 (ANO2) in MS. Here, IgG antibody reactivity toward ANO2 and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) was measured using bead-based multiplex serology in plasma samples from 8,746 MS cases and 7,228 controls. We detected increased anti-ANO2 antibody levels in MS (P = 3.5 × 10-36) with 14.6% of cases and 7.8% of controls being ANO2 seropositive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]: 1.5 to 1.8). The MS risk increase in ANO2-seropositive individuals was dramatic when also exposed to 3 known risk factors for MS: HLA-DRB1*15:01 carriage, absence of HLA-A*02:01, and high anti-EBNA1 antibody levels (OR = 24.9; 95%CI: 17.9 to 34.8). Reciprocal blocking experiments with ANO2 and EBNA1 peptides demonstrated antibody cross-reactivity, mapping to ANO2 [aa 140 to 149] and EBNA1 [aa 431 to 440]. HLA gene region was associated with anti-ANO2 antibody levels and HLA-DRB1*04:01 haplotype was negatively associated with ANO2 seropositivity (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5 to 0.7). Anti-ANO2 antibody levels were not increased in patients from 3 other inflammatory disease cohorts. The HLA influence and the fact that specific IgG production usually needs T cell help provides indirect evidence for a T cell ANO2 autoreactivity in MS. We propose a hypothesis where immune reactivity toward EBNA1 through molecular mimicry with ANO2 contributes to the etiopathogenesis of MS.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(8): 1055-1061, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether genetic effects on response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be localised by considering known genetic susceptibility loci for relevant traits and to evaluate the usefulness of these genetic loci for stratifying drug response. METHODS: We studied the relation of TNFi response, quantified by change in swollen joint counts ( Δ SJC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( Δ ESR) with locus-specific scores constructed from genome-wide assocation study summary statistics in 2938 genotyped individuals: 37 scores for RA; scores for 19 immune cell traits; scores for expression or methylation of 93 genes with previously reported associations between transcript level and drug response. Multivariate associations were evaluated in penalised regression models by cross-validation. RESULTS: We detected a statistically significant association between Δ SJC and the RA score at the CD40 locus (p=0.0004) and an inverse association between Δ SJC and the score for expression of CD39 on CD4 T cells (p=0.00005). A previously reported association between CD39 expression on regulatory T cells and response to methotrexate was in the opposite direction. In stratified analysis by concomitant methotrexate treatment, the inverse association was stronger in the combination therapy group and dissipated in the TNFi monotherapy group. Overall, ability to predict TNFi response from genotypic scores was limited, with models explaining less than 1% of phenotypic variance. CONCLUSIONS: The association with the CD39 trait is difficult to interpret because patients with RA are often prescribed TNFi after failing to respond to methotrexate. The CD39 and CD40 pathways could be relevant for targeting drug therapy.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(7): 996-1002, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a spectrum of rare autoimmune diseases characterised clinically by muscle weakness and heterogeneous systemic organ involvement. The strongest genetic risk is within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Since autoantibody presence defines specific clinical subgroups of IIM, we aimed to correlate serotype and genotype, to identify novel risk variants in the MHC region that co-occur with IIM autoantibodies. METHODS: We collected available autoantibody data in our cohort of 2582 Caucasian patients with IIM. High resolution human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and corresponding amino acid sequences were imputed using SNP2HLA from existing genotyping data and tested for association with 12 autoantibody subgroups. RESULTS: We report associations with eight autoantibodies reaching our study-wide significance level of p<2.9×10-5. Associations with the 8.1 ancestral haplotype were found with anti-Jo-1 (HLA-B*08:01, p=2.28×10-53 and HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=3.25×10-9), anti-PM/Scl (HLA-DQB1*02:01, p=1.47×10-26) and anti-cN1A autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*03:01, p=1.40×10-11). Associations independent of this haplotype were found with anti-Mi-2 (HLA-DRB1*07:01, p=4.92×10-13) and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies (HLA-DRB1*11, p=5.09×10-6). Amino acid positions may be more strongly associated than classical HLA associations; for example with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies and position 74 of HLA-DRB1 (p=3.47×10-64) and position 9 of HLA-B (p=7.03×10-11). We report novel genetic associations with HLA-DQB1 anti-TIF1 autoantibodies and identify haplotypes that may differ between adult-onset and juvenile-onset patients with these autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights regarding the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms within the MHC. As autoantibodies in IIM correlate with specific clinical features of disease, understanding genetic risk underlying development of autoantibody profiles has implications for future research.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(6): 773-780, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The strong genetic contribution of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been generally attributed to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1. However, due to the high polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium within MHC, it is difficult to define novel and/or independent genetic risks using conventional HLA genotyping or chip-based microarray technology. This study aimed to identify novel RA risk variants by performing deep sequencing for MHC. METHODS: We first conducted target sequencing for the entire MHC region in 357 anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)-positive patients with RA and 1001 healthy controls, and then performed HLA typing in an independent case-control cohort consisting of 1415 samples for validation. All study subjects were Han Chinese. Genetic associations for RA susceptibility and severity were analysed. Comparative modelling was constructed to predict potential functions for the newly discovered RA association variants. RESULTS: HLA-DQα1:160D conferred the strongest and independent susceptibility to ACPA-positive RA (p=6.16×10-36, OR=2.29). DRß1:37N had an independent protective effect (p=5.81×10-16, OR=0.49). As predicted by comparative modelling, the negatively charged DQα1:160D stabilises the dimer of dimers, thus may lead to an increased T cell activation. The negatively charged DRß1:37N encoding alleles preferentially bind with epitope P9 arginine, thus may result in a decreased RA susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence that HLA-DQα1:160D, instead of HLA-DRB1*0405, is the strongest and independent genetic risk for ACPA-positive RA in Han Chinese. Our study also illustrates the value of deep sequencing for fine-mapping disease risk variants in the MHC region.

10.
J Rheumatol ; 46(5): 492-500, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. METHODS: We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. RESULTS: Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.

11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3): 311-319, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are heterogeneous and complex conditions with overlapping clinical symptoms and elevated familial aggregation, which suggests the existence of a shared genetic component. In order to identify this genetic background in a systematic fashion, we performed the first cross-disease genome-wide meta-analysis in systemic seropositive rheumatic diseases, namely, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: We meta-analysed ~6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 678 cases and 19 704 non-affected controls of European descent populations. The functional roles of the associated variants were interrogated using publicly available databases. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed five shared genome-wide significant independent loci that had not been previously associated with these diseases: NAB1, KPNA4-ARL14, DGQK, LIMK1 and PRR12. All of these loci are related with immune processes such as interferon and epidermal growth factor signalling, response to methotrexate, cytoskeleton dynamics and coagulation cascade. Remarkably, several of the associated loci are known key players in autoimmunity, which supports the validity of our results. All the associated variants showed significant functional enrichment in DNase hypersensitivity sites, chromatin states and histone marks in relevant immune cells, including shared expression quantitative trait loci. Additionally, our results were significantly enriched in drugs that are being tested for the treatment of the diseases under study. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified shared new risk loci with functional value across diseases and pinpoint new potential candidate loci that could be further investigated. Our results highlight the potential of drug repositioning among related systemic seropositive rheumatic IMIDs.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Miosite/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Doenças Reumáticas/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Quinases Lim/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Miosite/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/imunologia , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , alfa Carioferinas/imunologia
13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 188, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are two distinct subgroups of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, a chronic inflammatory disorder clinically characterized by muscle weakness and inflammatory cell infiltrates in muscle tissue. In PM, a major component of inflammatory cell infiltrates is CD8+ T cells, whereas in DM, CD4+ T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and B cells predominate. In this study, with the aim to differentiate involvement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subpopulations in myositis subgroups, we investigated transcriptomic profiles of T cells from peripheral blood of patients with myositis. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from CD4+ T cells (PM = 8 and DM = 7) and CD8+ T cells (PM = 4 and DM = 5) that were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via positive selection using microbeads. Sequencing libraries were generated using the Illumina TruSeq Stranded Total RNA Kit and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, yielding about 50 million paired-end reads per sample. Differential gene expression analyses were conducted using DESeq2. RESULTS: In CD4+ T cells, only two genes, ANKRD55 and S100B, were expressed significantly higher in patients with PM than in patients with DM (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05, model adjusted for age, sex, HLA-DRB1*03 status, and RNA integrity number [RIN]). On the contrary, in CD8+ T cells, 176 genes were differentially expressed in patients with PM compared with patients with DM. Of these, 44 genes were expressed significantly higher in CD8+ T cells from patients with PM, and 132 genes were expressed significantly higher in CD8+ T cells from patients with DM (FDR < 0.05, model adjusted for age, sex, and RIN). Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes differentially expressed in CD8+ T cells are involved in lymphocyte migration and regulation of T-cell differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that CD8+ T cells represent a major divergence between PM and DM patients compared with CD4+ T cells. These alterations in the gene expression in T cells from PM and DM patients might advocate for distinct immune mechanisms in these subphenotypes of myositis.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(10): 1454-1462, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis (ACPA-positive RA), a particular subset of HLA-DRB1 alleles, called shared epitope (SE) alleles, is a highly influential genetic risk factor. Here, we investigated whether non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), conferring low disease risk on their own, interact with SE alleles more frequently than expected by chance and if such genetic interactions influence the HLA-DRB1 SE effect concerning risk to ACPA-positive RA. METHODS: We computed the attributable proportion (AP) due to additive interaction at genome-wide level for two independent ACPA-positive RA cohorts: the Swedish epidemiological investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (EIRA) and the North American rheumatoid arthritis consortium (NARAC). Then, we tested for differences in the AP p value distributions observed for two groups of SNPs, non-associated and associated with disease. We also evaluated whether the SNPs in interaction with HLA-DRB1 were cis-eQTLs in the SE alleles context in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ACPA-positive RA (SE-eQTLs). RESULTS: We found a strong enrichment of significant interactions (AP p<0.05) between the HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and the group of SNPs associated with ACPA-positive RA in both cohorts (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test D=0.35 for EIRA and D=0.25 for NARAC, p<2.2e-16 for both). Interestingly, 564 out of 1492 SNPs in consistent interaction for both cohorts were significant SE-eQTLs. Finally, we observed that the effect size of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles for disease decreases from 5.2 to 2.5 after removal of the risk alleles of the two top interacting SNPs (rs2476601 and rs10739581). CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that there are massive genetic interactions between the HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and non-HLA genetic variants in ACPA-positive RA.

15.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 18(4): 528-538, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795407

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy is a common first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but many patients do not respond adequately. In order to identify genetic predictors of response, we have combined data from two consortia to carry out a genome-wide study of response to MTX in 1424 early RA patients of European ancestry. Clinical endpoints were change from baseline to 6 months after starting treatment in swollen 28-joint count, tender 28-joint count, C-reactive protein and the overall 3-component disease activity score (DAS28). No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached genome-wide statistical significance for any outcome measure. The strongest evidence for association was with rs168201 in NRG3 (p = 10-7 for change in DAS28). Some support was also seen for association with ZMIZ1, previously highlighted in a study of response to MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Follow-up in two smaller cohorts of 429 and 177 RA patients did not support these findings, although these cohorts were more heterogeneous.

16.
J Autoimmun ; 90: 28-38, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398253

RESUMO

Non-coding SNPs in the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) locus have been linked with several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the functional consequences of these SNPs are poorly characterized. Herein, we show in blood cells that SNPs in the PTPN2 locus are highly correlated with DNA methylation levels at four CpG sites downstream of PTPN2 and expression levels of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) LINC01882 downstream of these CpG sites. We observed that LINC01882 is mainly expressed in T cells and that anti-CD3/CD28 activated naïve CD4+ T cells downregulate the expression of LINC01882. RNA sequencing analysis of LINC01882 knockdown in Jurkat T cells, using a combination of antisense oligonucleotides and RNA interference, revealed the upregulation of the transcription factor ZEB1 and kinase MAP2K4, both involved in IL-2 regulation. Overall, our data suggests the involvement of LINC01882 in T cell activation and hints towards an auxiliary role of these non-coding SNPs in autoimmunity associated with the PTPN2 locus.

17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(5): 736-743, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune condition with heterogeneous presentation and complex aetiology where DNA methylation changes are emerging as a contributing factor. In order to discover novel epigenetic associations and investigate their relationship to genetic risk for SLE, we analysed DNA methylation profiles in a large collection of patients with SLE and healthy individuals. METHODS: DNA extracted from blood from 548 patients with SLE and 587 healthy controls were analysed on the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 k BeadChip, which targets 485 000 CpG sites across the genome. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data for 196 524 SNPs on the Illumina ImmunoChip from the same individuals were utilised for methylation quantitative trait loci (cis-meQTLs) analyses. RESULTS: We identified and replicated differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) in SLE at 7245 CpG sites in the genome. The largest methylation differences were observed at type I interferon-regulated genes which exhibited decreased methylation in SLE. We mapped cis-meQTLs and identified genetic regulation of methylation levels at 466 of the DMCs in SLE. The meQTLs for DMCs in SLE were enriched for genetic association to SLE, and included seven SLE genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci: PTPRC (CD45), MHC-class III, UHRF1BP1, IRF5, IRF7, IKZF3 and UBE2L3. In addition, we observed association between genotype and variance of methylation at 20 DMCs in SLE, including at the HLA-DQB2 locus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that several of the genetic risk variants for SLE may exert their influence on the phenotype through alteration of DNA methylation levels at regulatory regions of target genes.

18.
J Immunol ; 199(8): 2613-2617, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893956

RESUMO

IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is an immunological DNA sensor proposed to act in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of IFN genes pathway. Because mice do not have a clear ortholog of IFI16, this system is not suitable for genetic studies of IFI16. In this study, we have compared the dependency on IFI16, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, and stimulator of IFN genes for type I IFN induction by a panel of pathogenic bacteria and DNA viruses. The IFN response induced by HSV-2 was particularly dependent on IFI16. In a cohort of patients with genital herpes and healthy controls, the minor G allele of the IFI16 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2276404 was associated with resistance to infection. Furthermore, the combination of this allele with the C allele of rs1417806 was significantly overrepresented in uninfected individuals. Cells from individuals with the protective GC haplotype expressed higher levels of IFI16 and induced more IFN-ß upon HSV-2 infection. These data provide genetic evidence for a role for IFI16 in protection against genital herpes.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Herpes Genital/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5623, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717140

RESUMO

The involvement of the immune system, particularly the role of T-cells, in sarcoidosis is unclear. The existence of higher CD4+ T-cells and increased CD4/CD8 ratio may indicate a pathogenic role of T-cells in the disease. In this study, we quantified the contribution of T-cells associated variants and of CD4/CD8 ratio in sarcoidosis phenotypes, Löfgren's syndrome (LS) and non- Löfgren's syndrome (non-LS). We employed a polygenic-based approach using genome-wide association studies results on relative levels of T-cells in healthy individuals to measure the genetic contribution of T-cells in sarcoidosis entities. Results revealed that the genetic architecture of LS is highly influenced by genetic variants associated with CD8+ T-cells and CD4/CD8 ratio, explaining up to 7.94% and 6.49% of LS variation, respectively; whereas, the genetic architecture of non-LS is minimally influenced by T-cells, explaining a phenotypic variation of <1%. Moreover, pleiotropy assessment between T-cells and LS/non-LS associated-variants led to the discovery of highly scored pathway maps that shared common factors related to antigen presentation and T-cell regulatory mechanisms. Differences in significant polygenic scores, presence of pleiotropy, and distinct genetic factors provide further insights on how genetic variants and genes associated with relative levels of T-cell subtypes contribute differently to sarcoidosis phenotypes.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6236, 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740209

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified risk loci for SLE, but a large proportion of the genetic contribution to SLE still remains unexplained. To detect novel risk genes, and to predict an individual's SLE risk we designed a random forest classifier using SNP genotype data generated on the "Immunochip" from 1,160 patients with SLE and 2,711 controls. Using gene importance scores defined by the random forest classifier, we identified 15 potential novel risk genes for SLE. Of them 12 are associated with other autoimmune diseases than SLE, whereas three genes (ZNF804A, CDK1, and MANF) have not previously been associated with autoimmunity. Random forest classification also allowed prediction of patients at risk for lupus nephritis with an area under the curve of 0.94. By allele-specific gene expression analysis we detected cis-regulatory SNPs that affect the expression levels of six of the top 40 genes designed by the random forest analysis, indicating a regulatory role for the identified risk variants. The 40 top genes from the prediction were overrepresented for differential expression in B and T cells according to RNA-sequencing of samples from five healthy donors, with more frequent over-expression in B cells compared to T cells.

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