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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
2.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

3.
Stat Med ; 38(18): 3346-3360, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074092

RESUMO

We address the problem of testing whether a possibly high-dimensional vector may act as a mediator between some exposure variable and the outcome of interest. We propose a global test for mediation, which combines a global test with the intersection-union principle. We discuss theoretical properties of our approach and conduct simulation studies that demonstrate that it performs equally well or better than its competitor. We also propose a multiple testing procedure, ScreenMin, that provides asymptotic control of either familywise error rate or false discovery rate when multiple groups of potential mediators are tested simultaneously. We apply our approach to data from a large Norwegian cohort study, where we look at the hypothesis that smoking increases the risk of lung cancer by modifying the level of DNA methylation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2062-2074, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation, can contribute to childhood asthma. Identifying DNA methylation profiles in asthmatic patients can inform disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify differential DNA methylation in newborns and children related to childhood asthma. METHODS: Within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics consortium, we performed epigenome-wide meta-analyses of school-age asthma in relation to CpG methylation (Illumina450K) in blood measured either in newborns, in prospective analyses, or cross-sectionally in school-aged children. We also identified differentially methylated regions. RESULTS: In newborns (8 cohorts, 668 cases), 9 CpGs (and 35 regions) were differentially methylated (epigenome-wide significance, false discovery rate < 0.05) in relation to asthma development. In a cross-sectional meta-analysis of asthma and methylation in children (9 cohorts, 631 cases), we identified 179 CpGs (false discovery rate < 0.05) and 36 differentially methylated regions. In replication studies of methylation in other tissues, most of the 179 CpGs discovered in blood replicated, despite smaller sample sizes, in studies of nasal respiratory epithelium or eosinophils. Pathway analyses highlighted enrichment for asthma-relevant immune processes and overlap in pathways enriched both in newborns and children. Gene expression correlated with methylation at most loci. Functional annotation supports a regulatory effect on gene expression at many asthma-associated CpGs. Several implicated genes are targets for approved or experimental drugs, including IL5RA and KCNH2. CONCLUSION: Novel loci differentially methylated in newborns represent potential biomarkers of risk of asthma by school age. Cross-sectional associations in children can reflect both risk for and effects of disease. Asthma-related differential methylation in blood in children was substantially replicated in eosinophils and respiratory epithelium.

6.
Thorax ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear what underlies the greater risk of asthma reported among children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to clarify the role of parental subfertility and unmeasured confounding on the association between ART and childhood asthma, and to examine the possibility for common mechanisms underlying parental subfertility and miscarriages influencing asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: We used data from national Norwegian health registries (n=474 402) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=75 797). We used log-linear regression to estimate overall associations, and fixed-effects logistic regression to estimate associations within siblings. RESULTS: ART offspring had greater asthma risk, the adjusted relative risk (aRR) was 1.20 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.32) in the registry-based cohort, and 1.42 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.76) in MoBa. The sibling analysis yielded similar associations, although the CI included the null value. The elevated asthma risk among ART offspring was attenuated when they were compared with spontaneously conceived offspring with time to conception >12 months, aRR 1.22 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.57). Asthma risk also increased with maternal history of early miscarriages (≤12 weeks), with an aRR of 1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.11) for one, aRR 1.18 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26) for two and aRR 1.24 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.37) for three or more. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that both parental subfertility and characteristics related to the ART procedure itself might increase offspring asthma risk, although this needs to be confirmed in future studies, and further suggest that common mechanisms underlying parental subfertility and recurrent miscarriages might influence offspring asthma pathogenesis.

7.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275883

RESUMO

Background: A Bayesian mixed model approach using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) allows us to construct flexible models that can account for pedigree structure. Using these models, we estimate genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation heritability (h 2 ), which are currently not well understood, as well as h 2 of blood lipid measurements. Methods: We included individuals from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study with Infinium 450 K cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation and blood lipid data pre- and posttreatment with fenofibrate in families with up to three-generation pedigrees. For genome-wide patterns, we constructed 1 model per CpG with methylation as the response variable, with a random effect to model kinship, and age and gender as fixed effects. Results: In total, 425,791 CpG sites pre-, but only 199,027 CpG sites posttreatment were found to have nonzero heritability. Across these CpG sites, the distributions of h 2 estimates are similar in pre- and posttreatment (pre: median = 0.31, interquartile range [IQR] = 0.16; post: median = 0.34, IQR = 0.20). Blood lipid h 2 estimates were similar pre- and posttreatment with overlapping 95% credibility intervals. Heritability was nonzero for treatment effect, that is, the difference between pre- and posttreatment blood lipids. Estimates for triglycerides h 2 are 0.48 (pre), 0.42 (post), and 0.21 (difference); likewise for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol h 2 the estimates are 0.61, 0.68, and 0.10. Conclusions: We show that with INLA, a fully Bayesian approach to estimate DNA methylation h 2 is possible on a genome-wide scale. This provides uncertainty assessment of the estimates, and allows us to perform model selection via deviance information criterion (DIC) to identify CpGs with strong evidence for nonzero heritability.

8.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 66, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An important feature in many genomic studies is quality control and normalization. This is particularly important when analyzing epigenetic data, where the process of obtaining measurements can be bias prone. The GAW20 data was from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN), a study with multigeneration families, where DNA cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation was measured pre- and posttreatment with fenofibrate. We performed quality control assessment of the GAW20 DNA methylation data, including normalization, assessment of batch effects and detection of sample swaps. RESULTS: We show that even after normalization, the GOLDN methylation data has systematic differences pre- and posttreatment. Through investigation of (a) CpGs sites containing a single nucleotide polymorphism, (b) the stability of breeding values for methylation across time points, and (c) autosomal gender-associated CpGs, 13 sample swaps were detected, 11 of which were posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: This paper demonstrates several ways to perform quality control of methylation data in the absence of raw data files and highlights the importance of normalization and quality control of the GAW20 methylation data from the GOLDN study.

9.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 77, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal data and repeated measurements in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) provide a rich resource for understanding epigenetics. We summarize 7 analytical approaches to the GAW20 data sets that addressed challenges and potential applications of phenotypic and epigenetic data. All contributions used the GAW20 real data set and employed either linear mixed effect (LME) models or marginal models through generalized estimating equations (GEE). These contributions were subdivided into 3 categories: (a) quality control (QC) methods for DNA methylation data; (b) heritability estimates pretreatment and posttreatment with fenofibrate; and (c) impact of drug response pretreatment and posttreatment with fenofibrate on DNA methylation and blood lipids. RESULTS: Two contributions addressed QC and identified large statistical differences with pretreatment and posttreatment DNA methylation, possibly a result of batch effects. Two contributions compared epigenome-wide heritability estimates pretreatment and posttreatment, with one employing a Bayesian LME and the other using a variance-component LME. Density curves comparing these studies indicated these heritability estimates were similar. Another contribution used a variance-component LME to depict the proportion of heritability resulting from a genetic and shared environment. By including environmental exposures as random effects, the authors found heritability estimates became more stable but not significantly different. Two contributions investigated treatment response. One estimated drug-associated methylation effects on triglyceride levels as the response, and identified 11 significant cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites with or without adjusting for high-density lipoprotein. The second contribution performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis and identified 6 significant modules of at least 30 CpG sites, including 3 modules with topological differences pretreatment and posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Four conclusions from this GAW20 working group are: (a) QC measures are an important consideration for EWAS studies that are investigating multiple time points or repeated measurements; (b) application of heritability estimates between time points for individual CpG sites is a useful QC measure for DNA methylation studies; (c) drug intervention demonstrated strong epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns across the 2 time points; and (d) new statistical methods are required to account for the environmental contributions of DNA methylation across time. These contributions demonstrate numerous opportunities exist for the analysis of longitudinal data in future epigenetic studies.

10.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 17(5)2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231014

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in human health and disease, and methods for the identification of differently methylated regions are of increasing interest. There is currently a lack of statistical methods which properly address multiple testing, i.e. control genome-wide significance for differentially methylated regions. We introduce a scan statistic (DMRScan), which overcomes these limitations. We benchmark DMRScan against two well established methods (bumphunter, DMRcate), using a simulation study based on real methylation data. An implementation of DMRScan is available from Bioconductor. Our method has higher power than alternative methods across different simulation scenarios, particularly for small effect sizes. DMRScan exhibits greater flexibility in statistical modeling and can be used with more complex designs than current methods. DMRScan is the first dynamic approach which properly addresses the multiple-testing challenges for the identification of differently methylated regions. DMRScan outperformed alternative methods in terms of power, while keeping the false discovery rate controlled.

11.
BMJ ; 361: k2167, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use mendelian randomisation to investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration has a causal effect on gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: One and two sample mendelian randomisation analyses. SETTING: Two European pregnancy cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and Generation R Study), and two case-control studies (subgroup nested within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and the UK Genetics of Pre-eclampsia Study). PARTICIPANTS: 7389 women in a one sample mendelian randomisation analysis (751 with gestational hypertension and 135 with pre-eclampsia), and 3388 pre-eclampsia cases and 6059 controls in a two sample mendelian randomisation analysis. EXPOSURES: Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with vitamin D synthesis (rs10741657 and rs12785878) and metabolism (rs6013897 and rs2282679) were used as instrumental variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia defined according to the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. RESULTS: In the conventional multivariable analysis, the relative risk for pre-eclampsia was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.07) per 10% decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and 2.04 (1.02 to 4.07) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <25 nmol/L compared with ≥75 nmol/L. No association was found for gestational hypertension. The one sample mendelian randomisation analysis using the total genetic risk score as an instrument did not provide strong evidence of a linear effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the risk of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia: odds ratio 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.03) and 1.19 (0.92 to 1.52) per 10% decrease, respectively. The two sample mendelian randomisation estimate gave an odds ratio for pre-eclampsia of 0.98 (0.89 to 1.07) per 10% decrease in 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, an odds ratio of 0.96 (0.80 to 1.15) per unit increase in the log(odds) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <75 nmol/L, and an odds ratio of 0.93 (0.73 to 1.19) per unit increase in the log(odds) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <50 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: No strong evidence was found to support a causal effect of vitamin D status on gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Future mendelian randomisation studies with a larger number of women with pre-eclampsia or more genetic instruments that would increase the proportion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels explained by the instrument are needed.

12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9067, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899542

RESUMO

Iron overload due to environmental or genetic causes have been associated diabetes. We hypothesized that prenatal iron exposure is associated with higher risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. In the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort study (n = 94,209 pregnancies, n = 373 developed type 1 diabetes) the incidence of type 1 diabetes was higher in children exposed to maternal iron supplementation than unexposed (36.8/100,000/year compared to 28.6/100,000/year, adjusted hazard ratio 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.67). Cord plasma biomarkers of high iron status were non-significantly associated with higher risk of type 1 diabetes (ferritin OR = 1.05 [95%CI: 0.99-1.13] per 50 mg/L increase; soluble transferrin receptor: OR = 0.91 [95%CI: 0.81-1.01] per 0.5 mg/L increase). Maternal but not fetal HFE genotypes causing high/intermediate iron stores were associated with offspring diabetes (odds ratio: 1.45, 95%CI: 1.04, 2.02). Maternal anaemia or non-iron dietary supplements did not significantly predict type 1 diabetes. Perinatal iron exposures were not associated with cord blood DNA genome-wide methylation, but fetal HFE genotype was associated with differential fetal methylation near HFE. Maternal cytokines in mid-pregnancy of the pro-inflammatory M1 pathway differed by maternal iron supplements and HFE genotype. Our results suggest that exposure to iron during pregnancy may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 107(5): 789-798, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722838

RESUMO

Background: Western diets may provide excess vitamin A, which is potentially toxic and could adversely affect respiratory health and counteract benefits from vitamin D. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine child asthma at age 7 y in relation to maternal intake of vitamins A and D during pregnancy, infant supplementation with these vitamins, and their potential interaction. Design: We studied 61,676 school-age children (born during 2002-2007) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort with data on maternal total (food and supplement) nutrient intake in pregnancy (food-frequency questionnaire validated against biomarkers) and infant supplement use at age 6 mo (n = 54,142 children). Linkage with the Norwegian Prescription Database enabled near-complete follow-up (end of second quarter in 2015) for dispensed medications to classify asthma. We used log-binomial regression to calculate adjusted RRs (aRRs) for asthma with 95% CIs. Results: Asthma increased according to maternal intake of total vitamin A [retinol activity equivalents (RAEs)] in the highest (≥2031 RAEs/d) compared with the lowest (≤779 RAEs/d) quintile (aRR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40) and decreased for total vitamin D in the highest (≥13.6 µg/d) compared with the lowest (≤3.5 µg/d) quintile (aRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.97) during pregnancy. No association was observed for maternal intake in the highest quintiles of both nutrients (aRR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18) and infant supplementation with vitamin D or cod liver oil. Conclusions: Excess vitamin A (≥2.5 times the recommended intake) during pregnancy was associated with increased risk, whereas vitamin D intake close to recommendations was associated with a reduced risk of asthma in school-age children. No association for high intakes of both nutrients suggests antagonistic effects of vitamins A and D. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03197233.

14.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 79(1): 118-125.e1, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Errors in Breslow thickness reporting can give misclassification of T category, an important classifier in melanoma staging. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate precision (number of digits) and terminal digit clustering in Breslow thickness and potential consequences for T category. METHODS: All first primary and morphologically verified invasive melanomas in Norway between 2008 and 2015 were included. A smoothing model was fitted to estimate the underlying Breslow thickness distribution without digit clustering. RESULTS: Thickness was reported for 13,057 (97.5%) patients; the median was 1.0 mm (range, 0.09-85). It was reported as whole numbers (15.6%), to 1 decimal (78.2%) and 2 decimal places (6.2%)-thin tumors with more precision than thick tumors. Terminal digit clustering was found with marked peaks in the observed frequency distribution for terminal digits 0 and 5, and with drops around these peaks. Terminal digit clustering increased proportions of patients classified with T1 and T4 tumors and decreased proportions classified with T2 and T3. LIMITATIONS: Breslow thickness was not reported in 2.5% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The Norwegian recommendation of measurement to the nearest 0.1 mm was not followed. Terminal digit clustering was marked, with consequences for T category. Pathologists, clinicians, and epidemiologists should know that clustering of thickness data around T category cut points can impact melanoma staging with consequent effect on patient management and prognosis.

15.
Epigenomics ; 10(1): 27-42, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172695

RESUMO

AIM: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is sometimes associated with adverse outcomes in offspring, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. We aimed to investigate genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood of newborns exposed to alcohol in utero. MATERIALS & METHODS: We meta-analyzed information from six population-based birth cohorts within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics consortium. RESULTS: We found no strong evidence of association at either individual CpGs or across larger regions of the genome. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest no association between maternal alcohol consumption and offspring cord blood DNA methylation. This is in stark contrast to the multiple strong associations previous studies have found for maternal smoking, which is similarly socially patterned. However, it is possible that a combination of a larger sample size, higher doses, different timings of exposure, exploration of a different tissue and a more global assessment of genomic DNA methylation might show evidence of association.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Metilação de DNA , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Troca Materno-Fetal , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cephalalgia ; 38(2): 312-322, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28103696

RESUMO

Background The biological mechanisms of headache chronification are poorly understood. We aimed to identify changes in DNA methylation associated with the transformation from episodic to chronic headache. Methods Participants were recruited from the population-based Norwegian HUNT Study. Thirty-six female headache patients who transformed from episodic to chronic headache between baseline and follow-up 11 years later were matched against 35 controls with episodic headache. DNA methylation was quantified at 485,000 CpG sites, and changes in methylation level at these sites were compared between cases and controls by linear regression analysis. Data were analyzed in two stages (Stages 1 and 2) and in a combined meta-analysis. Results None of the top 20 CpG sites identified in Stage 1 replicated in Stage 2 after multiple testing correction. In the combined meta-analysis the strongest associated CpG sites were related to SH2D5 and NPTX2, two brain-expressed genes involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Functional enrichment analysis pointed to processes including calcium ion binding and estrogen receptor pathways. Conclusion In this first genome-wide study of DNA methylation in headache chronification several potentially implicated loci and processes were identified. The study exemplifies the use of prospectively collected population cohorts to search for epigenetic mechanisms of disease.

17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(6): 1199-1209, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244063

RESUMO

Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000-2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries.

18.
Eur J Radiol ; 95: 28-32, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment of ventricular enlargement is subjective and based on the radiologist's experience. Linear indices, such as the Evans Index (EI), have been proposed as markers of ventricular volume with an EI≥0.3 indicating pathologic ventricular enlargement in any subject. However, normal range for EI measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are lacking in healthy elderly according to age and sex. We propose new age and sex specific cut-off values for ventricular enlargement in the elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 534 participants (53% women) aged 65-84 years; 226 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 308 healthy elderly controls (CTR) from the AddNeuroMed and ADNI studies were included. The cut-off for pathological ventricular enlargement was estimated from healthy elderly categorized into age groups of 5 years range and defined as EI 97,5 percentile (mean+2SD). Cut-off values were tested on patients with Alzheimer's disease and a small sample of patients with probable idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) to assess the sensitivity. RESULTS: The range of the EI in healthy elderly is wide and 29% of the CTR had an EI of 0.3 or greater. The EI increases with age in both CTR and AD, and the overall EI for women were lower than for men (p<0.001). New EI cut off values for male/female: 65-69 years 0.34/0.32, 70-74 years 0.36/0.33, 75-79 years 0.37/0.34 and 80-84 years 0.37/0.36. When applying the proposed cut-offs for EI in men and women aged 65-84, they differentiated between iNPH and CTR with a sensitivity of 80% and for different age and sex categories of AD and CTR with a sensitivity and specificity of 0-27% and 91-98%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The range of the EI measurements in healthy elderly is wide, and a cut-off value of 0.3 cannot be used to differentiate between normal and enlarged ventricles in individual cases. The proposed EI thresholds from the present study show good sensitivity for the iNPH diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(20): 4067-4085, 2017 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016858

RESUMO

Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation. In four additional cohorts (1,817 mother-child pairs), we meta-analysed the association between maternal BMI at the start of pregnancy and blood methylation in adolescents. In newborns, maternal BMI was associated with small (<0.2% per BMI unit (1 kg/m2), P < 1.06 × 10-7) methylation variation at 9,044 sites throughout the genome. Adjustment for estimated cell proportions greatly attenuated the number of significant CpGs to 104, including 86 sites common to the unadjusted model. At 72/86 sites, the direction of the association was the same in newborns and adolescents, suggesting persistence of signals. However, we found evidence for acausal intrauterine effect of maternal BMI on newborn methylation at just 8/86 sites. In conclusion, this well-powered analysis identified robust associations between maternal adiposity and variations in newborn blood DNA methylation, but these small effects may be better explained by genetic or lifestyle factors than a causal intrauterine mechanism. This highlights the need for large-scale collaborative approaches and the application of causal inference techniques in epigenetic epidemiology.


Assuntos
Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/fisiologia , Mães , Gravidez/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
20.
Epigenomics ; 9(3): 253-265, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28234025

RESUMO

AIMS: Assessing whether epigenetic alterations mediate associations between environmental exposures and health outcomes is increasingly popular. We investigate the impact of exposure misclassification in such investigations. MATERIALS & METHODS: We quantify bias and false-positive rates due to exposure misclassification in mediation analysis and assess the performance of the simulation extrapolation method (SIMEX). We evaluate whether DNA-methylation mediates smoking-birth weight relationship in the Norwegian Mother and Child Study birth cohort. RESULTS: Ignoring exposure misclassification increases type I error in mediation analysis. The direct effect is underestimated and, when the mediator is a biomarker of the exposure, as is true for smoking, the indirect effect is overestimated. CONCLUSION: Misclassification correction plus cautious interpretation are recommended for mediation analyses in the presence of exposure misclassification.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/normas , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Viés , Epigenômica/métodos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética
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