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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546827

RESUMO

Today, engineered nanomaterials are frequently used. Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been extensively used for many years and graphene is one type of emerging nanomaterial. Occupational airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials are important to ensure safe workplaces and to extend the information needed for complete risk assessments. The main aim of this study was to characterize workplace emissions and exposure of graphene nanoplatelets, graphene oxide, TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) and nanoparticles (NPs) during down-stream industrial handling. Surface contaminations were also investigated to assess the potential for secondary inhalation exposures. In addition, a range of different sampling and aerosol monitoring methods were used and evaluated. The results showed that powder handling, regardless of handling graphene nanoplatelets, graphene oxide, TiO2 NFs, or NPs, contributes to the highest particle emissions and exposures. However, the exposure levels were below suggested occupational exposure limits. It was also shown that a range of different methods can be used to selectively detect and quantify nanomaterials both in the air and as surface contaminations. However, to be able to make an accurate determination of which nanomaterial that has been emitted a combination of different methods, both offline and online, must be used.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412028

RESUMO

We spend about two thirds of our time in private homes where airborne particles of indoor and outdoor origins are present. The negative health effects of exposure to outdoor particles are known. The characteristics of indoor airborne particles, though, are not well understood. This study assesses the differences in chemical composition of PM1 (<1 µm) inside and outside of an occupied Swedish residence in real time with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Aethalometer. The chemical composition and concentration of particles indoors showed large differences compared to outdoors. The average indoor concentration was 15 µg m-3 and was higher than the outdoor 7 µg m-3. Organics dominated indoor particle composition (86% of the total mass) and originated from indoor sources (cooking, e-cigarette vaping). The average indoor to outdoor ratios were 5.5 for organic matter, 1.0 for black carbon, 0.6 for sulphate, 0.1 for nitrate, 0.2 for ammonium and 0.2 for chloride. The occupancy time accounted for 97% of the total measured period. Four factors were identified in the source apportionment of organic particle fraction by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF): two cooking factors, one e-cigarette factor and one outdoor contribution (OOA) organic factor penetrated from outside.

3.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 64(1): 38-54, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanowires are a high-aspect-ratio material of increasing interest for a wide range of applications. A new and promising method to produce nanowires is by aerotaxy, where the wires are grown in a continuous stream of gas. The aerotaxy method can grow nanowires much faster than by more conventional methods. Nanowires have important properties in common with asbestos fibers, which indicate that there can be potential health effects if exposure occurs. No conclusive exposure (or emission) data from aerotaxy-production of nanowires has so far been published. METHODS: Different work tasks during semiconductor nanowire production, post-production, and maintenance were studied. A combination of direct-reading instruments for number concentration (0.007-20 µm) and filter sampling was used to assess the emissions (a couple of centimeter from the emission sources), the exposure in the personal breathing zone (max 30 cm from nose-mouth), and the concentrations in the background zone (at least 3 m from any emission source). The filters were analyzed for metal dust composition and number concentration of nanowires. Various surfaces were sampled for nanowire contamination. RESULTS: The particle concentrations in the emission zone (measured with direct-reading instruments) were elevated during cleaning of arc discharge, manual reactor cleaning, exchange of nanowire outflow filters, and sonication of substrates with nanowires. In the case of cleaning of the arc discharge and manual reactor cleaning, the emissions affected the concentrations in the personal breathing zone and were high enough to also affect the concentrations in the background. Filter analysis with electron microscopy could confirm the presence of nanowires in some of the air samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that a major part of the potential for exposure occurs not during the actual manufacturing, but during the cleaning and maintenance procedures. The exposures and emissions were evaluated pre- and post-upscaling the production and showed that some work tasks (e.g. exchange of nanowire outflow filters and sonication of substrates with nanowires) increased the emissions post-upscaling.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(1): 85-91, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682111

RESUMO

We sampled ammonium sulfate particles and indoor particles of outdoor origin through a small chamber covered with polyvinyl chloride flooring. We measured the uptake of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) by the airborne particles in real time. The particles acquired SVOC mass fractions up to 10%. The phthalate ester (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) (DEHP), a known endocrine disruptor, contributed by approximately half of the sorbed SVOC mass. The indoor particles acquired a higher DEHP fraction than laboratory-generated ammonium sulfate aerosol. We attribute this increased uptake to absorption by organic matter present in the indoor particles. Using a thermodenuder to remove volatile components, predominantly organics, reduced the SVOC uptake. Positive matrix factorization applied to the organic mass spectra suggests that hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (typically fresh traffic exhaust) sorbs DEHP more efficiently than aged organic aerosol. The SVOC uptake is one of the processes that modify outdoor pollution particles after they penetrate buildings, where the majority of exposure occurs. Particles from indoor sources, typically dominated by organic matter, will undergo such processes as well. Aerosol mass spectrometry improves the time resolution of experimental investigations into these processes and enables experiments with lower, relevant particle concentrations. Additionally, particle size-resolved results are readily obtained.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aerossóis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Espectrometria de Massas , Tamanho da Partícula , Cloreto de Polivinila
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423997

RESUMO

Phthalate esters are suspected endocrine disruptors that are found in a wide range of applications. The aim of this study was to determine the excretion of urinary metabolites in 16 individuals after inhalation and/or dermal exposure to 100⁻300 µg/m³ of deuterium-labelled diethyl phthalate (D4-DEP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (D4-DEHP). Dermal exposure in this study represents a case with clean clothing acting as a barrier. After inhalation, D4-DEP and D4-DEHP metabolites were excreted rapidly, though inter-individual variation was high. D4-DEP excretion peaked 3.3 h (T½ of 2.1 h) after combined inhalation and dermal exposure, with total excreted metabolite levels ranging from 0.055 to 2.351 nmol/nmol/m³ (nmol of urinary metabolites per phthalates air concentration in (nmol/m³)). After dermal exposure to D4-DEP, metabolite excretion peaked 4.6 h (T½ of 2.7 h) after exposure, with excreted metabolite levels in between 0.017 and 0.223 nmol/nmol/m³. After combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D4-DEHP, the excretion of all five analysed metabolites peaked after 4.7 h on average (T½ of 4.8 h), and metabolite levels ranged from 0.072 to 1.105 nmol/nmol/m³ between participants. No dermal uptake of particle phase D4-DEHP was observed. In conclusion, the average excreted levels of metabolites after combined inhalation and dermal exposure to D4-DEP was three times higher than after combined exposure to D4-DEHP; and nine times higher than after dermal exposure of D4-DEP. This study was made possible due to the use of novel approaches, i.e., the use of labelled phthalate esters to avoid the background concentration, and innovative technique of phthalate generation, both in the particle and the gas phase.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(21): 12792-12800, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264993

RESUMO

Phthalates are ubiquitous in indoor environments, which raises concern about their endocrine-disrupting properties. However, studies of human uptake from airborne exposure are limited. We studied the inhalation uptake and dermal uptake by air-to-skin transfer with clean clothing as a barrier of two deuterium-labeled airborne phthalates: particle-phase D4-DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) and gas-phase D4-DEP (diethyl phthalate). Sixteen participants, wearing trousers and long-sleeved shirts, were under controlled conditions exposed to airborne phthalates in four exposure scenarios: dermal uptake alone and combined inhalation + dermal uptake of both phthalates. The results showed an average uptake of D4-DEHP by inhalation of 0.0014 ± 0.00088 (µg kg-1 bw)/(µg m-3)/h. No dermal uptake of D4-DEHP was observed during the 3 h exposure with clean clothing. The deposited dose of D4-DEHP accounted for 26% of the total inhaled D4-DEHP mass. For D4-DEP, the average uptake by inhalation + dermal was 0.0067 ± 0.0045 and 0.00073 ± 0.00051 (µg kg-1 bw)/(µg m-3)/h for dermal uptake. Urinary excretion factors of metabolites after inhalation were estimated to 0.69 for D4-DEHP and 0.50 for D4-DEP. Under the described settings, the main uptake of both phthalates was through inhalation. The results demonstrate the differences in uptake of gas and particles and highlight the importance of considering the deposited dose in particle uptake studies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pele , Absorção Cutânea
8.
Clin Proteomics ; 15: 20, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760600

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed. Such mediators will be helpful to clarify the pathomechanisms behind welding fume particle-induced effects. Methods: In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with work-related symptoms in the lower airways during the last month were exposed to mild-steel welding fume particles (1 mg/m3) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Nasal lavage samples were collected before, immediately after, and the day after exposure. The proteins in the nasal lavage were analyzed with two different mass spectrometry approaches, label-free discovery shotgun LC-MS/MS and a targeted selected reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS analyzing 130 proteins and four in vivo peptide degradation products. Results: The analysis revealed 30 significantly changed proteins that were associated with two main pathways; activation of acute phase response signaling and activation of LXR/RXR, which is a nuclear receptor family involved in lipid signaling. Connective tissue proteins and proteins controlling the degradation of such tissues, including two different matrix metalloprotease proteins, MMP8 and MMP9, were among the significantly changed enzymes and were identified as important key players in the pathways. Conclusion: Exposure to mild-steel welding fume particles causes measurable changes on the proteome level in nasal lavage matrix in exposed welders, although no clinical symptoms were manifested. The results suggested that the exposure causes an immediate effect on the proteome level involving acute phase proteins and mediators regulating lipid signaling. Proteases involved in maintaining the balance between the formation and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins are important key proteins in the induced effects.

9.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 90(5): 451-463, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Welders are exposed to airborne particles from the welding environment and often develop symptoms work-related from the airways. A large fraction of the particles from welding are in the nano-size range. In this study we investigate if the welders' airways are affected by exposure to particles derived from gas metal arc welding in mild steel in levels corresponding to a normal welding day. METHOD: In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with and 10 welders without work-related symptoms from the lower airways and 11 non-welders without symptoms, were exposed to welding fumes (1 mg/m3) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Symptoms from eyes and upper and lower airways and lung function were registered. Blood and nasal lavage (NL) were sampled before, immediately after and the morning after exposure for analysis of markers of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for analysis of leukotriene B4 (LT-B4) was sampled before, during and immediately after exposure. RESULTS: No adverse effects of welding exposure were found regarding symptoms and lung function. However, EBC LT-B4 decreased significantly in all participants after welding exposure compared to filtered air. NL IL-6 increased immediately after exposure in the two non-symptomatic groups and blood neutrophils tended to increase in the symptomatic welder group. The morning after, neutrophils and serum IL-8 had decreased in all three groups after welding exposure. Remarkably, the symptomatic welder group had a tenfold higher level of EBC LT-B4 compared to the two groups without symptoms. CONCLUSION: Despite no clinical adverse effects at welding, changes in inflammatory markers may indicate subclinical effects even at exposure below the present Swedish threshold limit (8 h TWA respirable dust).


Assuntos
Leucotrieno B4/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Soldagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Método Duplo-Cego , Poeira , Humanos , Interleucina-6/análise , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lavagem Nasal , Neutrófilos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
10.
Ann Occup Hyg ; 60(4): 493-512, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increased production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is occurring worldwide. In parallel, a growing concern is emerging on the adverse effects the unintentional inhalation of CNTs can have on humans. There is currently a debate regarding which exposure metrics and measurement strategies are the most relevant to investigate workplace exposures to CNTs. This study investigated workplace CNT emissions using a combination of time-integrated filter sampling for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and direct reading aerosol instruments (DRIs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Field measurements were performed during small-scale manufacturing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using the arc discharge technique. Measurements with highly time- and size-resolved DRI techniques were carried out both in the emission and background (far-field) zones. Novel classifications and counting criteria were set up for the SEM method. Three classes of CNT-containing particles were defined: type 1: particles with aspect ratio length:width >3:1 (fibrous particles); type 2: particles without fibre characteristics but with high CNT content; and type 3: particles with visible embedded CNTs. RESULTS: Offline sampling using SEM showed emissions of CNT-containing particles in 5 out of 11 work tasks. The particles were classified into the three classes, of which type 1, fibrous CNT particles contributed 37%. The concentration of all CNT-containing particles and the occurrence of the particle classes varied strongly between work tasks. Based on the emission measurements, it was assessed that more than 85% of the exposure originated from open handling of CNT powder during the Sieving, mechanical work-up, and packaging work task. The DRI measurements provided complementary information, which combined with SEM provided information on: (i) the background adjusted emission concentration from each work task in different particle size ranges, (ii) identification of the key procedures in each work task that lead to emission peaks, (iii) identification of emission events that affect the background, thereby leading to far-field exposure risks for workers other than the operator of the work task, and (iv) the fraction of particles emitted from each source that contains CNTs. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for a standardized/harmonized method for electron microscopy (EM) analysis of CNTs. The SEM method developed in this study can form the basis for such a harmonized protocol for the counting of CNTs. The size-resolved DRI techniques are commonly not specific enough to selective analysis of CNT-containing particles and thus cannot yet replace offline time-integrated filter sampling followed by SEM. A combination of EM and DRI techniques offers the most complete characterization of workplace emissions of CNTs today.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Ann Occup Hyg ; 59(7): 836-52, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26122528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The industrial use of novel-manufactured nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanodiscs is increasing globally. Occupational exposure can occur during production, downstream use, and disposal. The health effects of many nanomaterials are not yet fully characterized and to handle nano-objects, their aggregates and agglomerates >100nm (NOAA), a high degree of control measures and personal protective equipment are required. The emission of airborne NOAA during production and handling can contaminate workplace surfaces with dust, which can be resuspended resulting in secondary inhalation exposures and dermal exposures. This study surveys the presence of carbon-based nanomaterials, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon nanodiscs, as surface contamination at a small-scale producer using a novel tape sampling method. METHODS: Eighteen different surfaces at a small-scale producer were sampled with an adhesive tape sampling method. The surfaces selected were associated with the production and handling of MWCNT powder in the near-field zone. Surfaces in the far-field zone were also sampled. In addition, tape stripping of the skin was performed on one worker. The tape samples were analysed with scanning electron microscopy to detect the carbon-based NOAA. Air sampling with a personal impactor was also performed on a worker who was producing MWCNTs the same day as the tape samples were collected. RESULTS: MWCNTs were detected in 50% of the collected tape samples and carbon nanodiscs in 17%. MWCNTs and carbon nanodiscs were identified in all parts of the workplace, thus, increasing the risk for secondary inhalation and dermal exposure of the workers. Both airborne MWCNTs and carbon nanodiscs were detected in the personal impactor samples. The tape-strip samples from the worker showed no presence of carbon-containing nanoparticles. CONCLUSIONS: Tape sampling is a functional method for detecting surface contamination of carbon-based NOAA and for exposure control during production at potentially any workplace that produces or handles such manufactured nanomaterials. With the tape method, it is possible to monitor if a potential for secondary inhalation exposure or dermal exposure exists through resuspension of dust deposited on workplace surfaces. By means of air sampling, we could confirm that carbon nanodiscs were resuspended into the air at the workplace even though they were not handled during that particular work shift. MWCNTs were detected in the air samples, but can have been derived from either resuspension or from the work tasks with MWCNTs that were performed during the air sampling. Tape sampling is a complementary method to air sampling and together these two methods provide a better view of the hygienic situation in workplaces where NOAA can be emitted into work environments.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Local de Trabalho , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(11): 6300-8, 2014 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24798545

RESUMO

In urban environments, airborne particles are continuously emitted, followed by atmospheric aging. Also, particles emitted elsewhere, transported by winds, contribute to the urban aerosol. We studied the effective density (mass-mobility relationship) and mixing state with respect to the density of particles in central Copenhagen, in wintertime. The results are related to particle origin, morphology, and aging. Using a differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM), we determined that particles in the diameter range of 50-400 nm were of two groups: porous soot aggregates and more dense particles. Both groups were present at each size in varying proportions. Two types of temporal variability in the relative number fraction of the two groups were found: soot correlated with intense traffic in a diel pattern and dense particles increased during episodes with long-range transport from polluted continental areas. The effective density of each group was relatively stable over time, especially of the soot aggregates, which had effective densities similar to those observed in laboratory studies of fresh diesel exhaust emissions. When heated to 300 °C, the soot aggregate volatile mass fraction was ∼10%. For the dense particles, the volatile mass fraction varied from ∼80% to nearly 100%.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Cidades , Material Particulado/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Dinamarca , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Ann Occup Hyg ; 58(3): 355-79, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24389082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The production and use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is rapidly growing. With increased production, there is potential that the number of occupational exposed workers will rapidly increase. Toxicological studies on rats have shown effects in the lungs, e.g., inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis after repeated inhalation exposure to some forms of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs). Still, when it comes to health effects, it is unknown which dose metric is most relevant. Limited exposure data for CNTs exist today and no legally enforced occupational exposure limits are yet established. The aim of this work was to quantify the occupational exposures and emissions during arc discharge production, purification, and functionalization of MWCNTs. The CNT material handled typically had a mean length <5 µm. Since most of the collected airborne CNTs did not fulfil the World Health Organization fibre dimensions (79% of the counted CNT-containing particles) and since no microscopy-based method for counting of CNTs exists, we decided to count all particle that contained CNTs. To investigate correlations between the used exposure metrics, Pearson correlation coefficient was used. METHODS: Exposure measurements were performed at a small-scale producer of MWCNTs and respirable fractions of dust concentrations, elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, and number concentrations of CNT-containing particles were measured in the workers' breathing zones with filter-based methods during work. Additionally, emission measurements near the source were carried out during different work tasks. Respirable dust was gravimetrically determined; EC was analysed with thermal-optical analysis and the number of CNT-containing particles was analysed with scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: For the personal exposure measurements, respirable dust ranged between <73 and 93 µg m(-3), EC ranged between <0.08 and 7.4 µg C m(-3), and number concentration of CNT-containing particles ranged between 0.04 and 2.0 cm(-3). For the emission measurements, respirable dust ranged between <2800 and 6800 µg m(-3), EC ranged between 0.05 and 550 µg C m(-3), and number concentration of CNT-containing particles ranged between <0.20 and 11cm(-3). CONCLUSIONS: The highest exposure to CNTs occurred during production of CNTs. The highest emitted number concentration of CNT-containing particles occurred in the sieving, mechanical work-up, pouring, weighing, and packaging of CNT powder during the production stage. To be able to quantify exposures and emissions of CNTs, a selective and sensitive method is needed. Limitations with measuring EC and respirable dust are that these exposure metrics do not measure CNTs specifically. Only filter-based methods with electron microscopy analysis are, to date, selective and sensitive enough. This study showed that counting of CNT-containing particles is the method that fulfils those criteria and is therefore the method recommended for future quantification of CNT exposures. However, CNTs could be highly toxic not only because of their length but also because they could contain, for example transition metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or have surface defects. Lack of standardized counting criteria for CNTs to be applied at the electron microscopy analysis is a limiting factor, which makes it difficult to compare exposure data from different studies.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Nanotubos de Carbono/análise , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filtração/métodos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Limite de Detecção , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas
15.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 27(4): 229-54, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24151837

RESUMO

Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30-70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Inalação , Pulmão/fisiologia , Nanopartículas , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Animais , Química Farmacêutica , Difusão , Humanos , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Anatômicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Medição de Risco
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(21): 12123-30, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24107221

RESUMO

Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Atmosfera/química , Ácido Succínico/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Soluções , Termodinâmica , Volatilização , Água
17.
PLoS One ; 8(9): e74702, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24086363

RESUMO

An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Líquidos Corporais/química , Gases/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Ar , Animais , Hidrodinâmica , Luz , Pulmão/metabolismo , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Sus scrofa
18.
Nanotoxicology ; 7(6): 1052-63, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22630037

RESUMO

For nanotoxicology investigations of air-borne particles to provide relevant results it is ever so important that the particle exposure of, for example cells, closely resembles the "real" exposure situation, that the dosimetry is well defined, and that the characteristics of the deposited nanoparticles are known in detail. By synthesizing the particles in the gas-phase and directly depositing them on lung cells the particle deposition conditions in the lung is closely mimicked. In this work we present a setup for generation of gas-borne nanoparticles of a variety of different materials with highly controlled and tunable particle characteristics, and demonstrate the method by generation of gold particles. Particle size, number concentration and mass of individual particles of the population are measured on-line by means of differential mobility analyzers (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), whereas primary particle size and internal structure are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. A method for estimating the surface area dose from the DMA-APM measurements is applied and we further demonstrate that for the setup used, a deposition time of around 1 h is needed for deposition onto cells in an air-liquid interface chamber, using electrostatic deposition, to reach a toxicological relevant surface area dose.


Assuntos
Gases , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 7: 21, 2010 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20727160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 ± 22 µg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages. RESULTS: Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Madeira , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 6: 29, 2009 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19891791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. OUTLINE: The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. CONCLUSION: Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles.

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