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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfemoral aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a guideline-recommended treatment option for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. Females and males present with different baseline characteristics, which may influence procedural outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate differences between females and males undergoing transfemoral TAVR across the globe during the last decade. METHODS: The CENTER collaboration was a global patient level dataset of patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR (N= 12,381) from 2007-2018. In this retrospective analysis we examined differences in baseline patient characteristics, 30-day stroke and mortality and in-hospital outcomes between female and male patients. We also assessed for temporal changes in outcomes and predictors for mortality per gender. RESULTS: We included 58% (n=7,120) female and 42% (n=5,261) male patients. Females had higher prevalence of hypertension and glomerular filtration rate <30ml/min/m2, but lower prevalence of all other traditional cardiovascular comorbidities. Both genders had similar rates of 30-day stroke (2.3% vs 2.5%, p=0.53) and mortality (5.9% vs. 5.5%, p=0.17). In contrast, females had a 50% higher risk of life-threatening or major bleeding (6.7% vs 4.4%, p<0.01). Over the study period mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in males than in females (60% vs 50% reduction, both p<0.001), with no reductions in stroke rates over time. CONCLUSIONS: In this global collaboration females and males had similar rates of 30-day mortality and stroke. However, females had higher rates of procedural life-threatening or major bleeding after TAVR. Between 2007 and 2018 mortality rates decreased to a greater extent in males than in females.

4.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(10): 911-920, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare differences in patient characteristics and clinical outcomes of nonagenarians undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus patients younger than 90 years of age and to test the predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation), the EuroSCORE II, and the STS-PROM (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality) for mortality after TAVR in nonagenarians. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe aortic valve stenosis is increasing due to the rising life expectancy. However, there are limited data evaluating outcomes in patients older than 90 years of age. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of risk scores for mortality has not been evaluated in nonagenarian patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR. METHODS: The CENTER (Cerebrovascular EveNts in Patients Undergoing TranscathetER Aortic Valve Implantation) collaboration (N = 12,381) is an international collaboration consisting of 3 national registries, 6 local or multicenter registries, and 1 prospective clinical study, selected through a systematic online search. The primary endpoint of this study was the difference in 30-day all-cause mortality and stroke after TAVR in nonagenarians versus patients younger than 90 years of age. Secondary endpoints included differences in baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and the differences in predictive accuracy of the logistic EuroSCORE, the EuroSCORE II, and STS-PROM. RESULTS: A total of 882 nonagenarians and 11,499 patients younger than 90 years of age undergoing transfemoral TAVR between 2007 and 2018 were included. Nonagenarians had considerably fewer comorbidities than their counterparts. Nevertheless, rates of 30-day mortality (9.9% vs. 5.4%; relative risk [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4 to 2.3; p = 0.001), in-hospital stroke (3.0% vs. 1.9%; RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3; p = 0.04), major or life-threatening bleeding (8.1% vs. 5.5%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.004), and new-onset atrial fibrillation (7.9% vs. 5.2%; RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2; p = 0.01) were higher in nonagenarians. The STS-PROM adequately estimated mortality in nonagenarians, with an observed-expected mortality ratio of 1.0. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, global, patient-level analysis, mortality after transfemoral TAVR was 2-fold higher in nonagenarians compared with patients younger than 90 years of age, despite the lower prevalence of baseline comorbidities. Moreover, nonagenarians had a higher risk of in-hospital stroke, major or life-threatening bleeding, and new-onset atrial fibrillation. The STS-PROM was the only surgical risk score that accurately predicted the risk of mortality in nonagenarians.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): 433-443, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Acurate neo (NEO) and Evolut PRO (PRO) devices. BACKGROUND: The NEO and PRO bioprostheses are 2 next-generation self-expanding devices developed for TAVR. METHODS: The NEOPRO (A Multicenter Comparison of Acurate NEO Versus Evolut PRO Transcatheter Heart Valves) registry retrospectively included patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR with either NEO or PRO valves at 24 centers between January 2012 and March 2018. One-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 251 pairs. Pre-discharge and 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined outcomes were evaluated. Binary logistic regression was performed to adjust the treatment effect for propensity score quintiles. RESULTS: A total of 1,551 patients (n = 1,263 NEO; n = 288 PRO) were included. The mean age was 82 years, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 5.1%. After propensity score matching (n = 502), VARC-2 device success (90.6% vs. 91.6%; p = 0.751) and pre-discharge moderate to severe (II+) paravalvular aortic regurgitation (7.3% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.584) were comparable between the NEO and PRO groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any 30-day clinical outcome between matched NEO and PRO pairs, including all-cause mortality (3.2% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.221), stroke (2.4% vs. 2.8%; p = 1.000), new permanent pacemaker implantation (11.0% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.565), and VARC-2 early safety endpoint (10.6% vs. 10.4%; p = 1.000). Logistic regression on the unmatched cohort confirmed a similar risk of VARC-2 device success, paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and 30-day clinical outcomes after NEO and PRO implantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter registry, transfemoral TAVR with the NEO and PRO bioprostheses was associated with high device success, acceptable rates of paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and good 30-day clinical outcomes. After adjusting for potential confounders, short-term outcomes were similar between the devices.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(3): e007546, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke remains one of the most devastating complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this study was to identify the incidence, timing, temporal trends, and predictors of stroke after TAVI and evaluate the outcomes of patients with stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: The CENTER-Collaboration is an international collaboration consisting of 3 national registries and 7 local registries or prospective clinical trials, selected through a systematic review. Accordingly, a total of 10 982 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI between 2007 and 2018 were included in the current patient-level pooled analyses. A total of 261 patients (2.4%) experienced stroke during the first month after TAVI. The median time between TAVI and stroke was 1 day (interquartile range, 0-6 days). The stroke rate was comparable in procedures performed in the early years of TAVI (2007-2012) to those in the more recent years of TAVI (2013-2018; both 2.4%; P=1.0). Independent predictors of stroke at 30 days were a history of cerebrovascular events (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6; P=0.0012) and a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.8; P=0.05). Stroke occurring within the first 30 days after TAVI was associated with a 6-fold increase of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% CI, 4.4-8.1; P<0.001). Moreover, patients with stroke more frequently had documented new-onset atrial fibrillation (16% versus 3%; P<0.001) and major or life-threatening bleedings (12% versus 7%; P=0.002) at 30-day follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, global, patient-level analysis, the incidence of stroke after transfemoral TAVI was 2.4%. Prior cerebrovascular events and a low glomerular filtration rate independently predicted the occurrence of stroke after TAVI. The occurrence of stroke after TAVI was associated with a strikingly 6-fold increase of 30-day mortality; additionally, there was a 5-fold higher rate of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with stroke. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03588247.

8.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 20(6): 535-536, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826205

RESUMO

A 83-year-old female with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and an horizontal ascending aorta was scheduled for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement. After the complete deployment, a Portico 29 mm valve embolized in the ascending aorta due to the unfavorable anatomy of the anchoring zone. A second Portico 29 mm was successfully implanted using the embolized valve for superior anchoring. The patient died 7 days after the procedure due to a retrograde aortic dissection. This case shows a rare but possible complication that occurs especially in unfavorable and complex aortic anatomies.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(1): 78-86, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to collect data on contemporary practice and outcome of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in oncology patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: Oncology patients with severe AS are often denied valve replacement. TAVR may be an emerging treatment option. METHODS: A worldwide registry was designed to collect data on patients who undergo TAVR while having active malignancy. Data from 222 cancer patients from 18 TAVR centers were compared versus 2,522 "no-cancer" patients from 5 participating centers. Propensity-score matching was performed to further adjust for bias. RESULTS: Cancer patients' age was 78.8 ± 7.5 years, STS score 4.9 ± 3.4%, 62% men. Most frequent cancers were gastrointestinal (22%), prostate (16%), breast (15%), hematologic (15%), and lung (11%). At the time of TAVR, 40% had stage 4 cancer. Periprocedural complications were comparable between the groups. Although 30-day mortality was similar, 1-year mortality was higher in cancer patients (15% vs. 9%; p < 0.001); one-half of the deaths were due to neoplasm. Among patients who survived 1 year after the TAVR, one-third were in remission/cured from cancer. Progressive malignancy (stage III to IV) was a strong mortality predictor (hazard ratio: 2.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.74 to 3.23; p < 0.001), whereas stage I to II cancer was not associated with higher mortality compared with no-cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: TAVR in cancer patients is associated with similar short-term but worse long-term prognosis compared with patients without cancer. Among this cohort, mortality is largely driven by cancer, and progressive malignancy is a strong mortality predictor. Importantly, 85% of the patients were alive at 1 year, one-third were in remission/cured from cancer. (Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Oncology Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis [TOP-AS]; NCT03181997).

11.
Eur Heart J ; 40(5): 456-465, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590565

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with balloon-expandable (BE) valves vs. self-expandable (SE) valves. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a minimally invasive and lifesaving treatment in patients with aortic valve stenosis. Even though BE-valves and SE-valves are both commonly used on a large scale, adequately sized trials comparing clinical outcomes in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves are lacking. Methods and results: In this CENTER-collaboration, data from 10 registries or clinical trials, selected through a systematic search, were pooled and analysed. Propensity score methodology was used to reduce treatment selection bias and potential confounding. The primary endpoints were mortality and stroke at 30 days follow-up in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. Secondary endpoints included clinical outcomes, e.g. bleeding during hospital admission. All outcomes were split for early-generation BE-valves compared with early-generation SE-valves and new-generation BE-valves with new-generation SE-valves. The overall patient population (N = 12 381) included 6239 patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves and 6142 patients with SE-valves. The propensity matched population had a mean age of 81 ± 7 years and a median STS-PROM score or 6.5% [interquartile range (IQR) 4.0-13.0%]. At 30-day follow-up, the mortality rate was not statistically different in patients undergoing TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves [BE: 5.3% vs. SE: 6.2%, relative risk (RR) 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.0, P = 0.10]. Stroke occurred less frequently in patients treated with BE-valves (BE: 1.9% vs. SE: 2.6%, RR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-1.0, P = 0.03). Also, patients treated with BE-valves had a three-fold lower risk of requiring pacemaker implantation (BE: 7.8% vs. SE: 20.3%, RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.4, P < 0.001). In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more frequently experienced major and life-threatening bleedings compared with new-generation SE-valves (BE: 4.8% vs. SE: 2.1%, RR 2.3; 95% CI 1.6-3.3, P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, which is the largest study to compare valve types in TAVI, we demonstrated that the incidence of stroke and pacemaker implantation was lower in patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. In contrast, patients treated with new-generation BE-valves more often suffered from major or life-threatening bleedings than patients with new-generation SE-valves. Mortality at 30-days was not statistically different in patients treated with BE-valves compared with SE-valves. This study was a propensity-matched analysis generated from observational data, accordingly current outcomes will have to be confirmed in a large scale randomized controlled trial.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(23 Pt A): 2886-2903, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522652

RESUMO

Following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heightened predisposition to atherothrombotic events may persist for years. Advances in understanding the pathobiology that underlies this elevated risk furnish a mechanistic basis for devising long-term secondary prevention strategies. Recent progress in ACS pathophysiology has challenged the focus on single "vulnerable plaques" and shifted toward a more holistic consideration of the "vulnerable patient," thus highlighting the primacy of medical therapy in secondary prevention. Despite current guideline-directed medical therapy, a consistent proportion of post-ACS patients experience recurrent atherothrombosis due to unaddressed "residual risk": contemporary clinical trials underline the pivotal role of platelets, coagulation, cholesterol, and systemic inflammation and provide a perspective on a personalized, targeted approach. Emerging data sheds new light on heretofore unrecognized residual risk factors. This review aims to summarize evolving evidence relative to secondary prevention of atherothrombosis, with a focus on recent advances that promise to transform the management of the post-ACS patient.

13.
EuroIntervention ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375336

RESUMO

AIMS: to assess the performance of a self-expandable valve in bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) stenosis. METHOD AND RESULTS: an international multicentre registry included a total of 712 patients with aortic stenosis treated with ACURATE neo in both bicuspid (n=54%; 7.5%) or tricuspid (n=658; 92,4%) anatomy. The overall mean age was 81±5.6 years. At baseline no significant differences were found between the 2 groups. BAV required more frequently both pre dilatation (94.4% vs 78.1%; p=0.004) and post dilation (57.4% vs 38.7%; p=0.007). A moderate perivalvular regurgitation was more frequently accepted in patients with BAV (7.4% vs 3.18%, p=0.0001). After Propensity score matching (PSM), the rate of pre dilation and post dilation was confirmed to be higher in the BAV group (94.4% vs 66.6%, p=0.001 and 57.4% vs 37.1%, p=0.034) while the incidence of moderate perivalvular regurgitation became similar between the 2 groups (BAV 3.1% vs 5.5% in tricuspid anatomy, p=0.734). In unmatched cohorts, the 30-day outcome showed a higher rate of stroke in the BAV group (7.4% vs 1.8%, p=0.001). After adjustment for PSM quintiles, the rate of stroke resulted to be similar [Odds Ratioadj 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.76; p=0.819)]. The other 30-day variable resulted similar between the 2 populations. CONCLUSIONS: this preliminary analysis shows that the use of ACURATE neo in bicuspid aortic valves is feasible and has acceptable 30-days outcome. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

14.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of in-hospital postoperative delirium (IHPOD) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Elective procedures PARTICIPANTS: Individuals undergoing TAVR. MEASUREMENTS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, BioMedCentral, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to December 2017). All observational studies reporting the incidence of IHPOD after TAVR (sample size > 25) were included in our meta-analysis. The reported incidence rates were weighted to obtain a pooled estimate rate with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of 96 potentially relevant articles, 31 with a total of 32,389 individuals who underwent TAVR were included in the meta-analysis. The crude incidence of IHPOD after TAVR ranged from 0% to 44.6% in included studies, with a pooled estimate rate of 8.1% (95% CI=6.7-9.4%); heterogeneity was high (Q = 449; I = 93%; pheterogeneity < .001). The pooled estimate rate of IHPOD was 7.2% (95% CI=5.4-9.1%) after transfemoral (TF) TAVR and 21.4% (95% CI=10.3-32.5%) after non-TF TAVR. CONCLUSION: Delirium occurs frequently after TAVR and is more common after non-TF than TF procedures. Recommendations are made with the aim of standardizing future research to reduce heterogeneity between studies on this important healthcare problem.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(15): 1519-1526, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine predictors of advanced conduction disturbances requiring late (≥48 h) permanent pacemaker replacement (PPM) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Data of consecutive patients were identified by retrospective review of a TAVR database of a single center in Milan, Italy, between October 2007 and July 2015. We defined delta PR (ΔPR) and delta QRS (ΔQRS) interval as the difference between the last PR and QRS length available 48 h after TAVR and the baseline PR and QRS length. RESULTS: Overall population included 740 patients. We excluded 78 patients who already had a PPM and 51 patients who received a PPM <48 h after TAVR. The final analysis included 611 patients. Fifty-four patients (8.8%) developed an advanced conduction disturbance requiring PPM ≥48 h following TAVR. Patients who required a late PPM implant had a wider QRS width (113 ± 25 ms vs. 105 ± 23 ms; p = 0.009) and a higher prevalence of baseline right bundle branch block (12.9% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.026) and were more likely to have a self-expandable valve implanted (51.8% vs. 31.9%; p = 0.003). The ΔPR was 40 ± 51 ms (p = 0.0001) and the ΔQRS was 22 ± 61 ms (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that baseline right bundle branch block (odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 11.77; p = 0.037) and ΔPR (odds ratio for each 10-ms increase: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 1.45; p = 0.0001) are independent predictors of delayed advanced conduction disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed that baseline right bundle branch block and the amount of increase of PR length after TAVR are independent predictors of late (≥48 h) advanced conduction disturbances requiring PPM replacement after TAVR in this cohort. A simple ECG analysis could help in detecting potentially lethal advanced conduction disturbances that could occur more than 48 h after TAVR.

16.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(8): 1088.e1-1088.e2, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056846

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is usually based on the correction of both annular dilation and leaflet disease to minimize the risk of recurrence of MR at follow-up. This combined approach may also represent an interesting strategy during transcatheter mitral valve repair systems. We report a successful case of combined Cardioband (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) and MitraClip (Abbott, Santa Clara, California) implantation for the treatment of functional MR, with good acute and medium-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 85, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018969

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a worldwide accepted alternative for treating patients at intermediate or high risk for surgery. In recent years, the rate of complications has markedly decreased except for new-onset atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction block that remains the most common complication after TAVI. Although procedural, clinical, and electrocardiographic predisposing factors have been identified as predictors of conduction disturbances, new strategies are needed to avoid such complications, particularly in the current TAVI era that is moving quickly toward the percutaneous treatment of low-risk patients. In this article, we will review the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical implications of conduction disturbances after TAVI.

18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(8): 784-792, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the Reducer in a real-world cohort of patients presenting with refractory angina. BACKGROUND: The coronary sinus Reducer is a novel device to aid in the management of patients with severe angina symptoms refractory to optimal medical therapy and not amenable to further revascularization. METHODS: Fifty patients with refractory angina and objective evidence of myocardial ischemia who were judged unsuitable for revascularization were treated with coronary sinus Reducer implantation at a single center between March 2015 and August 2016. Safety endpoints were procedural success and the absence of device-related adverse events. Efficacy endpoints, assessed at 4- and 12-month follow-up, were a reduction in Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class, improvement in quality of life assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, improvement in exercise tolerance assessed using the 6-min walk test, and reduction in pharmacological antianginal therapy. RESULTS: Procedural success was achieved in all patients, with no device-related adverse effects during the procedure or at follow-up. Regarding the efficacy endpoint, 40 patients (80%) had at least 1 reduction in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class, and 20 patients (40%) had at least 2 class reductions, with a mean class reduction to 1.67 ± 0.83 vs. 2.98 ± 0.52 (p < 0.001) at 4-month follow-up. All Seattle Angina Questionnaire items improved significantly (p < 0.001 for all). A significant increment in 6-min walk distance to 388.6 ± 119.7 m vs. 287.0 ± 138.9 m (p = 0.004) was observed. Sixteen patients (32%) and 3 patients (6%) demonstrated reductions of at least 1 or 2 antianginal drugs, respectively. The benefit of Reducer implantation observed at 4-month follow-up was maintained at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world, single-center experience, implantation of the coronary sinus Reducer appeared safe and was associated with reduction in anginal symptoms and improvement in quality of life in patients with refractory angina who were not candidates for further revascularization.

20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(6): 517-528, 2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566796

RESUMO

As new transcatheter mitral valve (MV) interventions continuously evolve, potential procedure-related adverse events demand careful investigation. The risk of cerebral embolic damage is ubiquitous in any left-sided structural heart intervention (and potentially linked to long-term neurocognitive sequelae); therefore, efforts to evaluate these aspects in the field of catheter-based MV procedures are justified. Given the peculiarities of MV anatomy, MV disease, and MV procedures, the lessons learned from other transcatheter heart interventions (i.e., transcatheter aortic valve replacement) cannot be directly translated to MV applications. Through a systematic assessment of available evidence, the authors present and discuss procedure- and patient-related factors potentially associated with cerebral embolic risk during catheter-based MV interventions. Given the paucity of available data in this field, future large, dedicated studies are needed to understand whether cerebral embolic injury represents a real clinical issue during MV procedures.

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