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2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(5): 1068-1076, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has a strong epigenetic component that is accompanied by frequent DNA methylation (DNAm) alterations in addition to heritable genetic risk. It is of interest to understand the interrelationship of germline genetics, DNAm, and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation quantitative trait locus (meQTL) analysis in 1,355 people, assessing the pairwise associations between genetic variants and lymphocytes methylation data. In addition, we used penalized regression with cis-genetic variants ± 1 Mb of methylation to identify genome-wide heritable DNAm. We evaluated the association of genetically predicted methylation with colorectal cancer risk based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of over 125,000 cases and controls using the multivariate sMiST as well as univariately via examination of marginal association with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Of the 142 known colorectal cancer GWAS loci, 47 were identified as meQTLs. We identified four novel colorectal cancer-associated loci (NID2, ATXN10, KLHDC10, and CEP41) that reside over 1 Mb outside of known colorectal cancer loci and 10 secondary signals within 1 Mb of known loci. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging information of DNAm regulation into genetic association of colorectal cancer risk reveals novel pathways in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis. Our summary statistics-based framework sMiST provides a powerful approach by combining information from the effect through methylation and residual direct effects of the meQTLs on disease risk. Further validation and functional follow-up of these novel pathways are needed. IMPACT: Using genotype, DNAm, and GWAS, we identified four new colorectal cancer risk loci. We studied the landscape of genetic regulation of DNAm via single-SNP and multi-SNP meQTL analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(3)2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296560

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis (ICIC) affects approximately 15% of cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Although histological evaluation is potentially valuable for both the diagnosis of ICIC and evaluation of disease activity, use in clinical practice is heterogeneous. We aimed to develop expert recommendations to standardize histological assessment of disease activity in patients with ICIC. Using the modified Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA) appropriateness methodology, an international panel of 11 pathologists rated the appropriateness of 99 statements on a 9-point Likert scale during two rounds of anonymous voting. Results were discussed between rounds using moderated videoconferences. There are currently no disease-specific instruments for assessing histological features of ICIC. The panel considered that colonoscopy with at least three biopsies per segment from a total of at least five segments, including both endoscopically normal and inflamed areas, was appropriate for tissue acquisition. They agreed that biopsies should be oriented such that the long axis of the colonic crypts is visualized and should be stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological items that the panel voted were appropriate to evaluate in ICIC included the degree of structural/architectural change, chronic inflammatory infiltrate, lamina propria and intraepithelial neutrophils, crypt abscesses and destruction, erosions/ulcerations, apoptosis, surface intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and subepithelial collagen thickness. The appropriateness of routine immunohistochemistry was uncertain. These expert recommendations will help standardize assessment of histological activity in patients with ICIC. The panel also identified the development and validation of an ICIC-specific histological index as a research priority.


Assuntos
Colite , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Biópsia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/patologia , Colonoscopia , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of Colorectal cancer(CRC) is not fully understood. METHODS: Using genetic variants and metabolomics data including 217 metabolites from the Framingham Heart Study(n=1,357), we built genetic prediction models for circulating metabolites. Models with prediction R2>0.01(Nmetabolite=58) were applied to predict levels of metabolites in two large consortia with a combined sample size of ~46,300 cases and 59,200 controls of European and ~21,700 cases and 47,400 controls of East Asian(EA) descent. Genetically predicted levels of metabolites were evaluated for their associations with CRC risk in logistic regressions within each racial group, after which the results were combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of the 58 metabolites tested, 24 metabolites were significantly associated with CRC risk(BH-FDR<0.05) in the European population(odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 0.91 to 1.06;P-values ranged from 0.02 to 6.4x10-8). Twenty one of the twenty-four associations were replicated in the EA population(ORs ranged from 0.26 to 1.69,BH-FDR<0.05). Additionally, the genetically predicted levels of C16:0 cholesteryl ester was significantly associated with CRC risk in the EA population only(OREA:1.94,1.60-2.36,P=2.6x10-11;OREUR:1.01,0.99-1.04,P=0.3). Nineteen of the 25 metabolites were glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols(TAG). Eighteen associations exhibited significant heterogeneity between the two racial groups(PEUR-EA-Het<0.005), which were more strongly associated in the EA population. This integrative study suggested a potential role of lipids, especially certain glycerophospholipids and TAGs, in the etiology of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified potential novel risk biomarkers for colorectal cancer by integrating genetics and circulating metabolomics data. IMPACT: The identified metabolites could be developed into new tools for risk assessment of colorectal cancer in both European and East Asian populations.

5.
Hepatology ; 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The NASH Clinical Research Network histologic scoring system, the gold-standard NASH histology assessment for clinical trials, has demonstrated intrarater and interrater variability. An expert panel in a previous systematic Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA) study determined that existing histologic scoring systems do not fully capture NASH disease activity and fibrosis, and standardized definitions of histologic features are needed. We evaluated the reliability of existing and alternate histologic measures and their correlations with a disease activity visual analog scale to propose optimal components for an expanded NAFLD activity score (NAS). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Four liver pathologists who were involved in the prior RAND/UCLA study underwent standardized training and multiple discussions with the goal of improving agreement. They were blinded to clinical information and scored histologic measures twice, ≥2 weeks apart, for 40 liver biopsies representing the full spectrum of NAFLD. Index intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates demonstrated intrarater (0.80-0.85) and interrater (0.60-0.72) reliability. Hepatocyte ballooning items had similar interrater ICCs (0.68-0.79), including those extending scores from 0-2 to 0-4. Steatosis measures (interrater ICCs, 0.72-0.80) correlated poorly with disease activity. Correlations with disease activity were largest for hepatocyte ballooning and Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs), with both used to develop the expanded NAS (intrarater ICC, 0.90; interrater ICC, 0.80). Fibrosis measures had ICCs of 0.70-0.87. CONCLUSIONS: After extensive preparation among a group of experienced pathologists, we demonstrated improved reliability of multiple existing histologic NAFLD indices and fibrosis staging systems. Hepatocyte ballooning and MDBs most strongly correlated with disease activity and were used for the expanded NAS. Further validation including evaluation of responsiveness is required.

6.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003897, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting findings on the potential adverse effects of long-term antihypertensive medication use on cancer risk. Naturally occurring variation in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets can be used as proxies for these targets to examine the effect of their long-term therapeutic inhibition on disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a mendelian randomization analysis to examine the association between genetically proxied inhibition of 3 antihypertensive drug targets and risk of 4 common cancers (breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACE, ADRB1, and SLC12A3 associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to proxy inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ß-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1), and sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), respectively. Summary genetic association estimates for these SNPs were obtained from GWAS consortia for the following cancers: breast (122,977 cases, 105,974 controls), colorectal (58,221 cases, 67,694 controls), lung (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls), and prostate (79,148 cases, 61,106 controls). Replication analyses were performed in the FinnGen consortium (1,573 colorectal cancer cases, 120,006 controls). Cancer GWAS and FinnGen consortia data were restricted to individuals of European ancestry. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects models were used to examine associations between genetically proxied inhibition of these drug targets and risk of cancer. Multivariable mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses were employed to examine robustness of findings to violations of mendelian randomization assumptions. Genetically proxied ACE inhibition equivalent to a 1-mm Hg reduction in SBP was associated with increased odds of colorectal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22; P = 3.6 × 10-4). This finding was replicated in the FinnGen consortium (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.92; P = 0.035). There was little evidence of association of genetically proxied ACE inhibition with risk of breast cancer (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02, P = 0.35), lung cancer (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.10; P = 0.93), or prostate cancer (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13; P = 0.08). Genetically proxied inhibition of ADRB1 and NCC were not associated with risk of these cancers. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of drug targets in relation to some less common histological subtypes of cancers examined and the restriction of the majority of analyses to participants of European ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that genetically proxied long-term ACE inhibition was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, warranting comprehensive evaluation of the safety profiles of ACE inhibitors in clinical trials with adequate follow-up. There was little evidence to support associations across other drug target-cancer risk analyses, consistent with findings from short-term randomized controlled trials for these medications.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Membro 3 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética
7.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35136998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an unpredictable disease course and variable response to therapy. Recent studies suggest a role for eosinophils in both pathogenesis and predicting treatment response. The goal of this study was to determine the association between eosinophils and clinical outcomes in UC. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature from database inception to May 2021 was performed to identify all studies evaluating the relationship between eosinophils and/or eosinophil-derived proteins (EDPs) and clinical outcomes, such as disease activity, clinical relapse, severity of disease, and response to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 55 studies were identified. Thirty-four studies evaluated the relationship between eosinophils in colonic tissue and outcomes and 15 in blood. Eighteen studies assessed the relationship between EDPs and outcomes. In 25 of 34 studies, a positive correlation between eosinophils and/or EDPs and disease activity was reported, 3 studies found a negative correlation, and 9 studies found no correlation. Positive correlations between eosinophils and clinical relapse were shown in 4 of 9 studies and disease outcomes severity in 5 of 7 studies. Four of 15 studies showed that subjects with higher eosinophil levels had a poor response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that higher eosinophil levels may be associated with increased disease activity, and poorer clinical outcomes and response to therapy. Future studies are needed to determine whether a distinct eosinophil-rich UC phenotype exists and whether eosinophil-targeted therapy can alter the disease course.

8.
Pathology ; 54(3): 262-268, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35221041

RESUMO

Incomplete gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the interobserver variability of GIM subtyping (incomplete vs complete) in histological diagnosis of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and to identify factors with potential impact on agreement. Nine international gastrointestinal expert pathologists assessed 46 cases with complete, incomplete or mixed-type GIM on scanned haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides. Results were compared with the consensus diagnosis driven by two experts. Interobserver variability was evaluated by kappa statistics. Focusing on the predominant pattern, the agreement between each observer and the consensus diagnosis ranged from 78% to 98%. The level of agreement was moderate to almost perfect (weighted kappa=0.464-0.984). The participating pathologists reached substantial overall agreement (Fleiss' kappa=0.716, 95% confidence interval 0.677-0.755). Misclassification with potential impact on clinical decision making occurred in 5.7% of case ratings. The pattern of GIM (pure GIM versus mixed-type GIM) differed significantly between cases with high and low agreement (p=0.010), while the number of biopsy pieces per sample and the portion of mucosal surface involved by GIM did not. Pathologists who apply subtyping in daily routine performed better than those who do not (p=0.040). In conclusion, subtyping GIM on H&E-stained slides can be achieved satisfactorily with high interobserver agreement. The implementation of GIM subtyping as a risk stratifying tool in current practice guidelines by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) carries a low rate of misclassification, at least among gastrointestinal expert pathologists.


Assuntos
Gastrite Atrófica , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Biópsia , Gastrite Atrófica/diagnóstico , Gastrite Atrófica/patologia , Humanos , Metaplasia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
9.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(4): 401-411, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial barrier dysfunction contributes to a dysregulated intestinal immune response in ulcerative colitis (UC). GB004 is an orally administered, small molecule, gut-targeted stabiliser of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, a transcription factor with protective roles at the epithelial layer of the inflamed gut. AIMS: To evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficacy of GB004 in patients with active UC. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomised patients 2:1 to receive an oral solution of GB004 120 mg or placebo once daily for 28 days. Eligible patients had a Robarts Histopathology Index score ≥4 with neutrophils in the epithelium, total Mayo Clinic score 3-12, Mayo Clinic endoscopic subscore ≥1, and blood in the stool, despite treatment with 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids or immunosuppressants. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were randomised. GB004 120 mg for 28 days was generally well-tolerated. Adverse events occurred in 27.3% (3/11) and 39.1% (9/23) of patients in the placebo and GB004 groups respectively. Nausea and dysgeusia were most commonly reported in the GB004 group (0% for placebo and 21.7% [5/23] and 13.0% [3/23] respectively for GB004). There were no treatment-related serious adverse events or deaths. GB004 exhibited minimal accumulation, with higher colonic concentrations relative to plasma. Exploratory pharmacodynamic and efficacy analyses demonstrated GB004 target engagement and numerically higher proportions of patients achieving improvement in multiple measures of disease activity, respectively, at day 28 for GB004 compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: Results from this phase 1b trial support evaluation of the full therapeutic potential of GB004 for the treatment of UC. A phase 2 study (NCT04556383) is ongoing. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03860896.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(5): 740-752, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycemic traits-such as hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes-have been associated with higher colorectal cancer risk in observational studies; however, causality of these associations is uncertain. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate the causal effects of fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and type 2 diabetes with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Genome-wide association study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with circulating levels of fasting insulin (n = 34), 2-hour glucose (n = 13), fasting glucose (n = 70), HbA1c (n = 221), and type 2 diabetes (n = 268). Using 2-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to colorectal cancer risk (48 214 case patient and 64 159 control patients). RESULTS: In inverse-variance models, higher fasting insulin levels increased colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] per 1-SD = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 2.36). We found no evidence of any effect of 2-hour glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.21) or fasting glucose (OR per 1-SD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.23) concentrations on colorectal cancer risk. Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes (OR per 1-unit increase in log odds = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.07) and higher HbA1c levels (OR per 1-SD = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.19) increased colorectal cancer risk, although these findings may have been biased by pleiotropy. Higher HbA1c concentrations increased rectal cancer risk in men (OR per 1-SD = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.40), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a causal effect of higher fasting insulin, but not glucose traits or type 2 diabetes, on increased colorectal cancer risk. This suggests that pharmacological or lifestyle interventions that lower circulating insulin levels may be beneficial in preventing colorectal tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperinsulinismo , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Insulina , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 127, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996992

RESUMO

Identification of new genetic markers may improve the prediction of colorectal cancer prognosis. Our objective was to examine genome-wide associations of germline genetic variants with disease-specific survival in an analysis of 16,964 cases of colorectal cancer. We analyzed genotype and colorectal cancer-specific survival data from a consortium of 15 studies. Approximately 7.5 million SNPs were examined under the log-additive model using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for clinical factors and principal components. Additionally, we ran secondary analyses stratifying by tumor site and disease stage. We used a genome-wide p-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to assess statistical significance. No variants were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival in the full case analysis or in the stage-stratified analyses. Three SNPs were statistically significantly associated with disease-specific survival for cases with tumors located in the distal colon (rs698022, HR = 1.48, CI 1.30-1.69, p = 8.47 × 10-9) and the proximal colon (rs189655236, HR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.65-2.77, p = 9.19 × 10-9 and rs144717887, HR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.58, p = 3.14 × 10-8), whereas no associations were detected for rectal tumors. Findings from this large genome-wide association study highlight the potential for anatomical-site-stratified genome-wide studies to identify germline genetic risk variants associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival. Larger sample sizes and further replication efforts are needed to more fully interpret these findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(4): 528-539, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) among individuals aged younger than 50 years has been increasing. As screening guidelines lower the recommended age of screening initiation, concerns including the burden on screening capacity and costs have been recognized, suggesting that an individualized approach may be warranted. We developed risk prediction models for early-onset CRC that incorporate an environmental risk score (ERS), including 16 lifestyle and environmental factors, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 141 variants. METHODS: Relying on risk score weights for ERS and PRS derived from studies of CRC at all ages, we evaluated risks for early-onset CRC in 3486 cases and 3890 controls aged younger than 50 years. Relative and absolute risks for early-onset CRC were assessed according to values of the ERS and PRS. The discriminatory performance of these scores was estimated using the covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Increasing values of ERS and PRS were associated with increasing relative risks for early-onset CRC (odds ratio per SD of ERS = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.20; odds ratio per SD of PRS = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.51 to 1.68), both contributing to case-control discrimination (area under the curve = 0.631, 95% CI = 0.615 to 0.647). Based on absolute risks, we can expect 26 excess cases per 10 000 men and 21 per 10 000 women among those scoring at the 90th percentile for both risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: Personal risk scores have the potential to identify individuals at differential relative and absolute risk for early-onset CRC. Improved discrimination may aid in targeted CRC screening of younger, high-risk individuals, potentially improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1447-1454, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888857

RESUMO

Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. We evaluated genetic variants associated with CRP levels and their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors in association with CRC-specific mortality. Our study included 16 142 CRC cases from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We identified 618 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRP levels from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between SNPs and CRC-specific mortality adjusting for age, sex, genotyping platform/study and principal components. We investigated their interactions with sex and lifestyle factors using likelihood ratio tests. Of 5472 (33.9%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3547 (64.8%) were due to CRC. No variants were associated with CRC-specific mortality after multiple comparison correction. We observed strong evidence of interaction between variant rs1933736 at FRK gene and sex in relation to CRC-specific mortality (corrected Pinteraction  = .0004); women had higher CRC-specific mortality associated with the minor allele (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.19) whereas an inverse association was observed for men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94). There was no evidence of interactions between CRP-associated SNPs and alcohol, obesity or smoking. Our study observed a significant interaction between sex and a CRP-associated variant in relation to CRC-specific mortality. Future replication of this association and functional annotation of the variant are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(2): 264-271, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal instrument for assessing histologic disease activity in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unclear. We assessed the responsiveness of the EoE Histologic Scoring System (EoE-HSS) when compared with that of the peak eosinophil count (PEC). METHODS: Histopathology slides were obtained from patients with EoE at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment with swallowed topical budesonide or elimination diet. Two blinded gastrointestinal pathologists scored biopsies on the EoE-HSS, PEC, and 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) of overall histologic severity. Change was defined as an improvement by ≥0.5 SD in baseline VAS. Responsiveness was quantified using the standardized effect size (SES) and the probability that the index distinguishes a patient with improvement from a patient without improvement, which is the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Longitudinal validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between changes in EoE-HSS and both PEC and VAS. RESULTS: The EoE-HSS grade (SES 2.18 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.46-2.88]; AUC 0.73 [95% CI: 0.57-0.84]) and stage (SES 2.07 [95% CI: 1.37-2.77]; AUC 0.73 [95% CI: 0.58-0.84]) were highly responsive, similar to PEC (SES 1.44 [95% CI: 0.80-2.07]; AUC 0.73 [95% CI: 0.58-0.84]). The EoE-HSS grade and stage were more highly correlated with changes in VAS (grade 0.92 [95% CI: 0.86-0.95]; stage 0.89 [95% CI: 0.81-0.94]) than with changes in PEC (grade 0.74 [95% CI: 0.58-0.85]; stage 0.66 [95% CI: 0.47-0.80]). DISCUSSION: The EoE-HSS is highly responsive, performs similarly to PEC, and is better correlated with changes in overall histologic activity in patients with EoE.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Gut ; 71(3): 479-486, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective medical therapy and validated trial outcomes are lacking for small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) strictures. Histopathology of surgically resected specimens is the gold standard for correlation with imaging techniques. However, no validated histopathological scoring systems are currently available for small bowel stricturing disease. We convened an expert panel to evaluate the appropriateness of histopathology scoring systems and items generated based on panel opinion. DESIGN: Modified RAND/University of California Los Angeles methodology was used to determine the appropriateness of 313 candidate items related to assessment of CD small bowel strictures. RESULTS: In this exercise, diagnosis of naïve and anastomotic strictures required increased bowel wall thickness, decreased luminal diameter or internal circumference, and fibrosis of the submucosa. Specific definitions for stricture features and technical sampling parameters were also identified. Histopathologically, a stricture was defined as increased thickness of all layers of the bowel wall, fibrosis of the submucosa and bowel wall, and muscularisation of the submucosa. Active mucosal inflammatory disease was defined as neutrophilic inflammation in the lamina propria and any crypt or intact surface epithelium, erosion, ulcer and fistula. Chronic mucosal inflammatory disease was defined as crypt architectural distortion and loss, pyloric gland metaplasia, Paneth cell hyperplasia, basal lymphoplasmacytosis, plasmacytosis and fibrosis, or prominent lymphoid aggregates at the mucosa/submucosa interface. None of the scoring systems used to assess CD strictures were considered appropriate for clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Standardised assessment of gross pathology and histopathology of CD small bowel strictures will improve clinical trial efficiency and aid drug development.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/patologia , Obstrução Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Consenso , Constrição Patológica , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 28(4): 539-546, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and have been associated with disease course and therapeutic response. However, associations between eosinophil density, histologic activity, and clinical features have not been rigorously studied. METHODS: A deep learning algorithm was trained to identify eosinophils in colonic biopsies and validated against pathologists' interpretations. The algorithm was applied to sigmoid colon biopsies from a cross-sectional cohort of 88 ulcerative colitis patients with histologically active disease as measured by the Geboes score and Robarts histopathology index (RHI). Associations between eosinophil density, histologic activity, and clinical features were determined. RESULTS: The eosinophil deep learning algorithm demonstrated almost perfect agreement with manual eosinophil counts determined by 4 pathologists (interclass correlation coefficients: 0.805-0.917). Eosinophil density varied widely across patients (median 113.5 cells per mm2, interquartile range 108.9). There was no association between eosinophil density and RHI (P = 0.5). Significant differences in eosinophil density were seen between patients with Montreal E3 vs E2 disease (146.2 cells per mm2 vs 88.2 cells per mm2, P = 0.005). Patients on corticosteroids had significantly lower eosinophil density (62.9 cells per mm2 vs 124.1 cells per mm2, P = 0.006). No association between eosinophil density and biologic use was observed (P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a deep learning algorithm to quantify eosinophils in colonic biopsies. Eosinophil density did not correlate with histologic activity but did correlate with disease extent and corticosteroid use. Future studies applying this algorithm in larger cohorts with longitudinal follow-up are needed to further elucidate the role of eosinophils in ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Aprendizado Profundo , Biópsia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Eosinófilos/patologia , Humanos
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 659-670, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End points used to determine treatment efficacy in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have evolved over time. With multiple novel therapies in development for EoE, harmonization of outcomes measures will facilitate evidence synthesis and appraisal when comparing different treatments. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a core outcome set (COS) for controlled and observational studies of pharmacologic and diet interventions in adult and pediatric patients with EoE. METHODS: Candidate outcomes were generated from systematic literature reviews and patient engagement interviews and surveys. Consensus was established using an iterative Delphi process, with items voted on using a 9-point Likert scale and with feedback from other participants to allow score refinement. Consensus meetings were held to ratify the outcome domains of importance and the core outcome measures. Stakeholders were recruited internationally and included adult and pediatric gastroenterologists, allergists, dieticians, pathologists, psychologists, researchers, and methodologists. RESULTS: The COS consists of 4 outcome domains for controlled and observational studies: histopathology, endoscopy, patient-reported symptoms, and EoE-specific quality of life. A total of 69 stakeholders (response rate 95.8%) prioritized 42 outcomes in a 2-round Delphi process, and the final ratification meeting generated consensus on 33 outcome measures. These included measurement of the peak eosinophil count, Eosinophilic Esophagitis Histology Scoring System, Eosinophilic Esophagitis Endoscopic Reference Score, and patient-reported measures of dysphagia and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: This interdisciplinary collaboration involving global stakeholders has produced a COS that can be applied to adult and pediatric studies of pharmacologic and diet therapies for EoE and will facilitate meaningful treatment comparisons and improve the quality of data synthesis.


Assuntos
Esofagite Eosinofílica/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Esofagite Eosinofílica/patologia , Esofagite Eosinofílica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 29(1): 37-47, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879037

RESUMO

Histology is used to confirm the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, exclude superimposed infections, and to evaluate for dysplasia. Histology has rarely been used to measure disease activity and guide therapy despite evidence that histologic measurements have value in predicting important clinical outcomes. More recently, there have been numerous studies supporting a role for histologic disease activity measurements in predicting a variety of outcomes including relapse, hospitalizations, steroid use, and dysplasia. The histologic assessment was superior to endoscopic measurements in many of these studies. This review will summarize the recent literature regarding histologic disease activity measurements in ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. A detailed description of histologic scoring systems will also be provided to provide pathologists with the necessary tools to accurately measure disease activity.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico
20.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 29(1): 2-14, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310370

RESUMO

The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are frequently obscured by classic ileal and colonic symptoms and are reported to involve only 0.5% to 4% of adult patients. However, because of the improvement of endoscopic techniques and the growing use of esophagogastroduodenososcopy with biopsy, both asymptomatic and clinically significant esophageal, gastric, and duodenal manifestations are increasingly recognized. The UGI involvement in IBD was historically synonymous with Crohn's disease (CD), but the doctrine of ulcerative colitis (UC) being limited to the colon has been challenged, and UC-related gastroduodenal lesions have been reported. The diagnosis of UGI IBD should ideally rely on a combination of the clinical history, endoscopic picture, and histologic features. Although endoscopic changes such as aphthoid or longitudinal ulcers and bamboo-joint-like pattern are suggestive of CD, histologic evaluation increases the sensitivity of the IBD diagnosis since histologic alterations may be present in endoscopically unremarkable mucosa. Conversely, in many cases, the histologic findings are nonspecific, and the knowledge of clinical history is vital for reaching an accurate diagnosis. The presence of epithelioid granuloma is highly suggestive of CD but is present in a minority of CD cases; thus, pathologists should be aware of how to diagnose UGI IBD in the absence of granulomata. This article reviews the most important clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of IBD-associated esophagitis, gastritis, and duodenitis, as well as the IBD-related manifestations in the biliary tract and the postcolectomy setting.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doença de Crohn , Gastrite , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior , Adulto , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/diagnóstico por imagem
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