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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2819-2828, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ticagrelor in the long-term post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with fibrinolytic therapy remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ticagrelor when compared with clopidogrel in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy. METHODS: This international, multicenter, randomized, open-label with blinded endpoint adjudication trial enrolled 3,799 patients (age <75 years) with STEMI receiving fibrinolytic therapy. Patients were randomized to ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) or clopidogrel (300- to 600-mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter). The key outcomes were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and the same composite outcome with the addition of severe recurrent ischemia, transient ischemic attack, or other arterial thrombotic events at 12 months. RESULTS: The combined outcome of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 129 of 1,913 patients (6.7%) receiving ticagrelor and in 137 of 1,886 patients (7.3%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio: 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.18; p = 0.53). The composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, severe recurrent ischemia, transient ischemic attack, or other arterial thrombotic events occurred in 153 of 1,913 patients (8.0%) treated with ticagrelor and in 171 of 1,886 patients (9.1%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 1.09; p = 0.25). The rates of major, fatal, and intracranial bleeding were similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients age <75 years with STEMI, administration of ticagrelor after fibrinolytic therapy did not significantly reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events when compared with clopidogrel. (Ticagrelor in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Pharmacological Thrombolysis [TREAT]; NCT02298088).

2.
Am Heart J ; 202: 89-96, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of ticagrelor in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with fibrinolytic therapy remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the TicagRElor in pAtients with ST elevation myocardial infarction treated with Thrombolysis (TREAT) trial is to evaluate the short-term safety of ticagrelor when compared with clopidogrel in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy. Key secondary objectives are to assess the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel at 12-months. DESIGN: The TREAT trial is a multicenter, randomized, phase III, Prospective randomized open blinded end-point (PROBE) study that enrolled 3,799 patients in 152 sites from 10 countries. Following administration of fibrinolytic therapy patients were randomized to a loading dose of ticagrelor 180 mg or clopidogrel 300 mg followed by a maintenance dose of ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg/day for 12-months. The primary outcome is the rate of TIMI major bleeding at 30-days and will be assessed for non-inferiority using an intention-to-treat analysis. Co-treatments include aspirin and anticoagulants. Other evidence based therapies are also recommended. Secondary efficacy outcome include a composite of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, severe recurrent ischemia, transient ischemic attack or other arterial thrombotic event. All-cause mortality as well as individual components of the combined efficacy endpoint will also be ascertained. SUMMARY: TREAT is an international randomized controlled trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice and international guidelines.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(5): 391-399, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525822

RESUMO

Importance: The bleeding safety of ticagrelor in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolytic therapy remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the short-term safety of ticagrelor when compared with clopidogrel in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolytic therapy. Design, Setting and Participants: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label with blinded end point adjudication trial that enrolled 3799 patients (younger than 75 years) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving fibrinolytic therapy in 152 sites from 10 countries from November 2015 through November 2017. The prespecified upper boundary for noninferiority for bleeding was an absolute margin of 1.0%. Interventions: Patients were randomized to ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) or clopidogrel (300-mg to 600-mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter). Patients were randomized with a median of 11.4 hours after fibrinolysis, and 90% were pretreated with clopidogrel. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding through 30 days. Results: The mean (SD) age was 58.0 (9.5) years, 2928 of 3799 patients (77.1%) were men, and 2177 of 3799 patients (57.3%) were white. At 30 days, TIMI major bleeding had occurred in 14 of 1913 patients (0.73%) receiving ticagrelor and in 13 of 1886 patients (0.69%) receiving clopidogrel (absolute difference, 0.04%; 95% CI, -0.49% to 0.58%; P < .001 for noninferiority). Major bleeding defined by the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes criteria and by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 3 to 5 bleeding occurred in 23 patients (1.20%) in the ticagrelor group and in 26 patients (1.38%) in the clopidogrel group (absolute difference, -0.18%; 95% CI, -0.89% to 0.54; P = .001 for noninferiority). The rates of fatal (0.16% vs 0.11%; P = .67) and intracranial bleeding (0.42% vs 0.37%; P = .82) were similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively. Minor and minimal bleeding were more common with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. The composite of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 76 patients (4.0%) treated with ticagrelor and in 82 patients (4.3%) receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.67-1.25; P = .57). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients younger than 75 years with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, delayed administration of ticagrelor after fibrinolytic therapy was noninferior to clopidogrel for TIMI major bleeding at 30 days. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02298088.

4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(4): 424-432, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-893807

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal dysfunctions are common in the postoperative period of kidney transplant patients and are often accompanied by low exercise tolerance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an early physiotherapy program during hospital stay on functional capacity and peripheral and respiratory muscle strength after kidney transplant. Methods: An open, randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant. Sixty-three patients were included (intervention group-IG: n = 30; control group-CG: n = 33). IG received an early physiotherapy program from first postoperative day until hospital discharge and CG received standard care. The variables of interest were measured preoperatively and at discharge except for respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity (VC), which were also measured on the first postoperative day. Functional capacity was evaluated through six-minute walk test (6MWT); peripheral and respiratory muscle strength using a dynamometer and manovacuometer, respectively; and VC through spirometer. Results: After surgery, there was a reduction in functional walking capacity and peripheral muscle strength without different between groups (p > 0.05); however, respiratory muscle strength was significantly higher in IG (p < 0.001) at hospital discharge, when comparing with CG. Conclusions: An early physiotherapy program during hospitalization for patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant caused a lower reduction in respiratory muscle strength and without additional benefits in the functional capacity, when compared to a control group, although the clinical relevance of this finding is uncertain.


Resumo Introdução: Distúrbios cardiorrespiratórios e musculoesqueléticos são comuns no período pós-operatório de pacientes de transplante renal, e são frequentemente acompanhados por baixa tolerância a exercícios. Objetivo: O presente estudo pretendeu avaliar o impacto de um programa precoce de fisioterapia durante a internação sobre a capacidade funcional e força muscular periférica e respiratória após transplante renal. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado aberto com pacientes submetidos a transplantes renais com doadores vivos. Sessenta e três pacientes foram incluídos (grupo de intervenção GI: n = 30; grupo de controle - GC: n = 33). O GI recebeu o programa precoce de fisioterapia a partir do primeiro dia de pós-operatório até a alta hospitalar e o GC recebeu tratamento padrão. As variáveis de interesse foram medidas no pré-operatório e na alta, exceto por força muscular respiratória e capacidade vital (CV), que foram medidas no primeiro dia de pós-operatório. A capacidade funcional foi avaliada através do teste da caminhada dos seis minutos (TC6); força muscular periférica e respiratória com o uso de um dinamômetro e um manovacuômetro, respectivamente; e a CV por meio de um espirômetro. Resultados: Após a cirurgia houve reduções na capacidade funcional de caminhar e na força muscular respiratória sem diferenças entre os grupos (p > 0,05); contudo, a força muscular respiratória foi significativamente mais elevada no GI (p < 0,001) no momento da alta hospitalar em comparação ao GC. Conclusões: O programa precoce de fisioterapia oferecido durante a internação dos pacientes submetidos a transplantes renais com doadores vivos produziu uma menor redução da força muscular respiratória e não resultou em benefícios adicionais na capacidade funcional, apesar da relevância clínica desse achado ser incerta.

5.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 29(2): 142-153, 2017 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Alveolar Recruitment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Trial (ART) is an international multicenter randomized pragmatic controlled trial with allocation concealment involving 120 intensive care units in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Malaysia, Spain, and Uruguay. The primary objective of ART is to determine whether maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration, adjusted according to the static compliance of the respiratory system (ART strategy), is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). OBJECTIVE: To describe the data management process and statistical analysis plan. METHODS: The statistical analysis plan was designed by the trial executive committee and reviewed and approved by the trial steering committee. We provide an overview of the trial design with a special focus on describing the primary (28-day survival) and secondary outcomes. We describe our data management process, data monitoring committee, interim analyses, and sample size calculation. We describe our planned statistical analyses for primary and secondary outcomes as well as pre-specified subgroup analyses. We also provide details for presenting results, including mock tables for baseline characteristics, adherence to the protocol and effect on clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: According to best trial practice, we report our statistical analysis plan and data management plan prior to locking the database and beginning analyses. We anticipate that this document will prevent analysis bias and enhance the utility of the reported results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01374022.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
JAMA ; 318(14): 1335-1345, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973363

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration on clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain uncertain. Objective: To determine if lung recruitment associated with PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance decreases 28-day mortality of patients with moderate to severe ARDS compared with a conventional low-PEEP strategy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized trial conducted at 120 intensive care units (ICUs) from 9 countries from November 17, 2011, through April 25, 2017, enrolling adults with moderate to severe ARDS. Interventions: An experimental strategy with a lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration according to the best respiratory-system compliance (n = 501; experimental group) or a control strategy of low PEEP (n = 509). All patients received volume-assist control mode until weaning. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality until 28 days. Secondary outcomes were length of ICU and hospital stay; ventilator-free days through day 28; pneumothorax requiring drainage within 7 days; barotrauma within 7 days; and ICU, in-hospital, and 6-month mortality. Results: A total of 1010 patients (37.5% female; mean [SD] age, 50.9 [17.4] years) were enrolled and followed up. At 28 days, 277 of 501 patients (55.3%) in the experimental group and 251 of 509 patients (49.3%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.42; P = .041). Compared with the control group, the experimental group strategy increased 6-month mortality (65.3% vs 59.9%; HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.38; P = .04), decreased the number of mean ventilator-free days (5.3 vs 6.4; difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.1 to -0.1; P = .03), increased the risk of pneumothorax requiring drainage (3.2% vs 1.2%; difference, 2.0%; 95% CI, 0.0% to 4.0%; P = .03), and the risk of barotrauma (5.6% vs 1.6%; difference, 4.0%; 95% CI, 1.5% to 6.5%; P = .001). There were no significant differences in the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ICU mortality, and in-hospital mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a strategy with lung recruitment and titrated PEEP compared with low PEEP increased 28-day all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the routine use of lung recruitment maneuver and PEEP titration in these patients. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01374022.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Falha de Tratamento
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(2): 142-153, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899511

RESUMO

RESUMO Fundamentação: O estudo Alveolar Recruitment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Trial (ART) é um ensaio clínico internacional, multicêntrico, randomizado, pragmático e controlado com ocultação da alocação que envolve 120 unidades de terapia intensiva no Brasil, Argentina, Colômbia, Espanha, Itália, Polônia, Portugal, Malásia e Uruguai, com o objetivo primário de determinar se o recrutamento alveolar gradual máximo associado com titulação da pressão positiva expiratória final, ajustada segundo a complacência estática do sistema respiratório (estratégia ART), é capaz de aumentar, quando comparada aos resultados do tratamento convencional (estratégia ARDSNet), a sobrevivência em 28 dias de pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. Objetivo: Descrever o processo de gerenciamento dos dados e o plano de análise estatística em um ensaio clínico internacional. Métodos: O plano de análise estatística foi delineado pelo comitê executivo e revisado pelo comitê diretivo do ART. Foi oferecida uma visão geral do delineamento do estudo, com foco especial na descrição de desfechos primário (sobrevivência aos 28 dias) e secundários. Foram descritos o processo de gerenciamento dos dados, o comitê de monitoramento de dados, a análise interina e o cálculo do tamanho da amostra. Também foram registrados o plano de análise estatística para os desfechos primário e secundários, e os subgrupos de análise pré-especificados. Detalhes para apresentação dos resultados, inclusive modelos de tabelas para as características basais, adesão ao protocolo e efeito nos desfechos clínicos, foram fornecidos. Conclusão: Em acordo com as melhores práticas em ensaios clínicos, submetemos nossos planos de análise estatística e de gerenciamento de dados para publicação antes do fechamento da base de dados e início das análises. Antecipamos que este documento deve prevenir viés em análises e incrementar a utilidade dos resultados a serem relatados. Registro do estudo: Número no registro ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01374022.


ABSTRACT Background: The Alveolar Recruitment for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Trial (ART) is an international multicenter randomized pragmatic controlled trial with allocation concealment involving 120 intensive care units in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Malaysia, Spain, and Uruguay. The primary objective of ART is to determine whether maximum stepwise alveolar recruitment associated with PEEP titration, adjusted according to the static compliance of the respiratory system (ART strategy), is able to increase 28-day survival in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome compared to conventional treatment (ARDSNet strategy). Objective: To describe the data management process and statistical analysis plan. Methods: The statistical analysis plan was designed by the trial executive committee and reviewed and approved by the trial steering committee. We provide an overview of the trial design with a special focus on describing the primary (28-day survival) and secondary outcomes. We describe our data management process, data monitoring committee, interim analyses, and sample size calculation. We describe our planned statistical analyses for primary and secondary outcomes as well as pre-specified subgroup analyses. We also provide details for presenting results, including mock tables for baseline characteristics, adherence to the protocol and effect on clinical outcomes. Conclusion: According to best trial practice, we report our statistical analysis plan and data management plan prior to locking the database and beginning analyses. We anticipate that this document will prevent analysis bias and enhance the utility of the reported results. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01374022.

8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 122(5): 1106-1113, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183817

RESUMO

Determining the presence of thoracoabdominal asynchrony in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is clinically relevant, but there is no consensus on the optimal parameters for performing this analysis. We assessed 22 COPD patients (FEV1 40 ± 10% predicted) and 13 healthy controls during rest and exercise with optoelectronic plethysmography (70% maximum workload) on a cycle ergometer. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony was calculated by using phase angle and phase shift parameters following a three-compartment model involving the upper and lower rib cages and abdomen. Patients were classified as having thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA+) or not (TAA-) based on control values (mean ± 2 SDs). The chest wall volume and compartmental contribution were also measured. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony was observed in the lower rib cage. The phase angle detected more TAA+ patients at rest (15 vs. 7 patients) and during exercise (14 vs. 8 patients) compared with the phase shift. TAA+ patients also presented a lower chest wall volume, lower rib cage contribution, and higher abdominal contribution to chest wall volume compared with the control and TAA- patients. Thoracoabdominal asynchrony was more detectable during rest and exercise using the phase angle parameter, and it was observed in the lower rib cage compartment, reducing the chest wall volume during exercise in patients with COPD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study contributes to advance the knowledge over the previous lack of consensus on the assessment of thoracoabdominal asynchrony. We rigorously evaluated the related features that interfere in the measurement of the asynchrony (measurement tool, chest wall model and calculation parameter). Our results suggest that phase angle detects more suitably thoracoabdominal asynchrony that occurs on the lower ribcage and leads to a reduction in the chest wall volume during exercise in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Abdome/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pletismografia/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Parede Torácica/fisiopatologia
9.
Am Heart J ; 184: 88-96, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892891

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence suggests that statins may prevent major perioperative vascular complications. METHODS: We randomized 648 statin-naïve patients who were scheduled for noncardiac surgery and were at risk for a major vascular complication. Patients were randomized to a loading dose of atorvastatin or placebo (80 mg anytime within 18hours before surgery), followed by a maintenance dose of 40 mg (or placebo), started at least 12hours after the surgery, and then 40 mg/d (or placebo) for 7days. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, and stroke at 30days. RESULTS: The primary outcome was observed in 54 (16.6%) of 326 patients in the atorvastatin group and 59 (18.7%) of 316 patients in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.60-1.26, P=.46). No significant effect was observed on the 30-day secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (4.3% vs 4.1%, respectively; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.53-2.47, P=.74), nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.4% vs 4.4%, respectively; HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.35-1.68, P=.50), myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (13.2% vs 16.5%; HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.19, P=.26), and stroke (0.9% vs 0%, P=.25). CONCLUSION: In contrast to the prior observational and trial data, the LOAD trial has neutral results and did not demonstrate a reduction in major cardiovascular complications after a short-term perioperative course of statin in statin-naïve patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. We demonstrated, however, that a large multicenter blinded perioperative statin trial for high-risk statin-naïve patients is feasible and should be done to definitely establish the efficacy and safety of statin in this patient population.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Troponina/sangue
10.
J Bras Nefrol ; 39(4): 424-432, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal dysfunctions are common in the postoperative period of kidney transplant patients and are often accompanied by low exercise tolerance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of an early physiotherapy program during hospital stay on functional capacity and peripheral and respiratory muscle strength after kidney transplant. METHODS: An open, randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant. Sixty-three patients were included (intervention group-IG: n = 30; control group-CG: n = 33). IG received an early physiotherapy program from first postoperative day until hospital discharge and CG received standard care. The variables of interest were measured preoperatively and at discharge except for respiratory muscle strength and vital capacity (VC), which were also measured on the first postoperative day. Functional capacity was evaluated through six-minute walk test (6MWT); peripheral and respiratory muscle strength using a dynamometer and manovacuometer, respectively; and VC through spirometer. RESULTS: After surgery, there was a reduction in functional walking capacity and peripheral muscle strength without different between groups (p > 0.05); however, respiratory muscle strength was significantly higher in IG (p < 0.001) at hospital discharge, when comparing with CG. CONCLUSIONS: An early physiotherapy program during hospitalization for patients undergoing living donor kidney transplant caused a lower reduction in respiratory muscle strength and without additional benefits in the functional capacity, when compared to a control group, although the clinical relevance of this finding is uncertain.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Força Muscular , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Músculos Respiratórios , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 11: 2691-2700, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD. DESIGN: This study was a randomized and controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG) or a control group (CG; n=15, each group). INTERVENTION: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks) of aerobic training. EVALUATIONS: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test), thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography), and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography) were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD) contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01). The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea in patients with COPD. These effects are associated with an increased efficacy of the respiratory muscles and participation of the ABD compartment.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios , Dispneia/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Brasil , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Capacidade Vital
12.
SAGE Open Med ; 4: 2050312116682256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28348739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle atrophy and prolonged inactivity are associated with an increased sensation of fatigue and reduced functional capacity in the postoperative period in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Cardiac rehabilitation after hospital discharge is highly recommended and contributes to improvement in functional capacity and quality of life. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of early mobilization protocols during hospitalization on the patterns of physical activity and functional capacity after coronary artery bypass grafting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of an early mobilization program on the functional capacity of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the short and long term. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial protocol that will evaluate 66 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients will be randomized into two training groups: the control group (N = 33), which will perform breathing exercises and the intervention group (N = 33), which will perform breathing exercises and aerobic exercises. The groups will receive treatment from first to the seventh postoperative day, twice daily. In the preoperative period, the following outcomes will be assessed: physical activity level (Baecke Questionnaire), Functional Independence Measure, and functional capacity (6-min walking test). Functional capacity will be reassessed after the 7th and 60th postoperative day. Pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay will also be evaluated. Statistical analysis will be calculated using linear mixed models and will be based on intention-to-treat. The level of significance will be set at α = 5%.

13.
Braz J Phys Ther ; 19(4): 264-70, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. METHOD: This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor. RESULTS: Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (p<0.001) but this improved over days 2, 3 and 5 but had not returned to preoperative levels. Patient quality of life was still impaired at 30 days with regards to functional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (p<0.05) but these parameters improved slowly. None of the patients developed PPCs. CONCLUSION: Kidney donors submitted to nephrectomy exhibited a reduction in pulmonary function, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Nefrectomia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Qualidade de Vida , Respiração
14.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(4): 264-270, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-761608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A living donor transplant improves the survival and quality of life of a transplant patient. However, the impact of transplantation on postoperative lung function and respiratory muscular strength in kidney donors remains unknown.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, quality of life and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy.METHOD: This prospective cohort enrolled 110 consecutive kidney donors undergoing nephrectomy. Subjects underwent pulmonary function (using spirometry) and respiratory muscular strength (using manovacuometry) assessments on the day prior to surgery and 1, 2, 3 and 5 days postoperatively. Quality of life (measured by the SF-36) was evaluated preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. PPCs were assessed daily by a blinded assessor.RESULTS: Donors exhibited a decrease of 27% in forced vital capacity, 58% in maximum inspiratory capacity and 51% in maximum expiratory pressure on the 1stpostoperative day (p<0.001) but this improved over days 2, 3 and 5 but had not returned to preoperative levels. Patient quality of life was still impaired at 30 days with regards to functional capacity, physical role, pain, vitality and social functioning (p<0.05) but these parameters improved slowly. None of the patients developed PPCs.CONCLUSION: Kidney donors submitted to nephrectomy exhibited a reduction in pulmonary function, respiratory muscular strength and quality of life, most of which were improving toward pre-surgical levels.

15.
Chest ; 148(4): 1003-1010, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25973670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lung expansion techniques (LETs) are widely used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). However, the effects of each of these techniques on thoracoabdominal mechanics and PPC incidence after abdominal surgery remain unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of LET on pulmonary volumes, respiratory muscle activation, and PPC incidence after major, elective upper abdominal surgery. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial enrolled 137 patients who were randomly assigned into four groups: control (n = 35), flow incentive spirometry (n = 33), deep breathing (n = 35), and volume incentive spirometry (n = 34). Each intervention was performed tid during 5 consecutive days. Subsequently, PPCs (pneumonia, atelectasis, or severe hypoxemia) were analyzed by a blinded assessor until hospital discharge. Lung volumes (optoelectronic plethysmography) and inspiratory muscular activation (surface electromyography) were assessed before and 3 days after surgery. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Before surgery, all groups were homogenous for age, sex, BMI, lung function, and thoracoabdominal mechanics. After surgery, no difference was observed in the lung volumes and inspiratory muscular activation during the lung expansion technique (P > .05). The PPC incidence was higher in the deep breathing group (P < .05). Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores and surgery duration were the only predictors of PPC (n = 14, 11.2%). CONCLUSIONS: LETs do not modify the changes on thoracoabdominal mechanics or prevent PPCs after abdominal surgery. The indiscriminate use of LETs should not be routinely prescribed to prevent PPCs; however, more studies are required to confirm our results and to change the standard practice. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01993602; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Espirometria
16.
Respir Care ; 60(5): 673-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25669217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough impairment is often described as part of the pathophysiological basis of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). However, there have been few studies examining cough effectiveness and its relationship with PPCs following open upper abdominal surgery. The goal of this study was to estimate (1) changes in cough efficacy after upper abdominal surgery through the assessment of peak cough flow and (2) the extent to which cough impairment is associated with postoperative pain, FVC, and risk of PPCs. METHODS: This prospective cohort study assessed 101 subjects (45% male, 56 ± 16 y old) admitted for elective upper abdominal surgery. Measurements of peak cough flow and FVC were performed on the day before surgery and repeated on postoperative days 1, 3, and 5. PPCs were assessed daily by a pulmonologist blinded to the cough measurement results. RESULTS: Peak cough flow dropped to 54% of the preoperative value on postoperative day 1 and gradually increased on postoperative days 3 (65%) and 5 (72%) (P < .05). On all postoperative days, peak cough flow was strongly correlated with FVC (P < .001) and weakly correlated with pain (P = .006). Six subjects (6%) developed PPCs. The association between peak cough flow and risk of PPCs was not statistically significant (unadjusted odds ratio of 0.80, 95% CI 0.45-1.40, P = .44; adjusted odds ratio of 0.66, 95% CI 0.32-1.38, P = .41). CONCLUSIONS: Cough effectiveness is impaired after upper abdominal surgery. Postoperative restrictive lung dysfunction seems to be associated with this impairment. There is no significant association between peak cough flow and PPCs; however, cough impairment might result in clinically important consequences in a high-risk population.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
17.
J Bras Pneumol ; 40(1): 21-9, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24626266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
18.
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(1): 21-29, jan-feb/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-703619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies. .


OBJETIVO: Determinar as taxas de morbidade e mortalidade por categoria de risco conforme as diretrizes do American College of Chest Physicians, verificar como exames funcionais participaram dessa categorização e identificar fatores de risco para complicações perioperatórias (CPOs). MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte histórica a partir de avaliações pré e pós-operatórias de casos diagnosticados ou suspeitos de câncer de pulmão avaliados entre 2001 e 2010. RESULTADOS: Dos 239 pacientes avaliados, apenas 13 (5,4%) foram considerados como de alto risco para CPOs. O cálculo do VEF1 previsto para o pós-operatório (VEF1ppo) foi suficiente para a estratificação do risco em 156 pacientes (65,3%); entretanto, o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar (TECP) foi necessário para a identificação de alto risco. Foram operados 145 pacientes, e as taxas globais de morbidade e mortalidade encontradas foram semelhantes às de outros estudos. Entretanto, as taxas de morbidade e mortalidade para aqueles com risco aceitável foram de 31,6% e 4,3%, respectivamente, enquanto as taxas para aqueles com alto risco foram de 83,3% e 33,3%. Idade mais avançada, presença da DPOC, ressecção de um ou mais lobos e VEF1ppo mais baixo estiveram relacionados à ocorrência de CPOs. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a espirometria tenha sido suficiente para a determinação de risco na maioria da população estudada, o TECP teve papel fundamental na identificação de pacientes com risco alto, que apresentaram uma taxa de mortalidade sete vezes maior que os de risco aceitável. Os fatores de risco relacionados a CPOs coincidiram aos relatados em outros estudos. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Algoritmos , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Morbidade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco
19.
Respir Care ; 59(3): 420-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23983269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging causes physiological and functional changes that impair pulmonary function. Incentive spirometry is widely used for lung expansion, but the effects of volume-oriented incentive spirometry (VIS) versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry (FIS) on chest wall volumes, inspiratory muscle activity, and thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly are poorly understood. We compared VIS and FIS in elderly subjects and healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Sixteen elderly subjects (9 women, mean ± SD age 70.6 ± 3.9 y, mean ± SD body mass index 23.8 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) and 16 healthy adults (8 women, mean ± age 25.9 ± 4.3 y, mean ± body mass index 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) performed quiet breathing, VIS, and FIS in randomized sequence. Chest wall kinematics (via optoelectronic plethysmography) and inspiratory muscle activity (via surface electromyography) were assessed simultaneously. Synchrony between the superior thorax and abdominal motion was calculated (phase angle). RESULTS: In the elderly subjects both types of incentive spirometry increased chest wall volumes similarly, whereas in the healthy adult subjects VIS increased the chest wall volume more than did FIS. FIS and VIS triggered similar lower thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly subjects, whereas in the healthy adults FIS induced lower synchrony than did VIS. FIS required more muscle activity in the elderly subjects to create an increase in chest wall volume. CONCLUSIONS: Incentive spirometry performance is influenced by age, and the differences between elderly and healthy adults response should be considered in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Espirometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parede Torácica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 186(1): 40-4, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23313854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic surgery on pulmonary volume distributions and inspiratory muscles activity. Respiratory consequences associated with postoperative pain were also evaluated. METHODS: This study enrolled 20 patients without lung disease performed spirometry and chest wall kinematic analyses (i.e., chest wall, upper and lower ribcage and abdominal volumes), and measured the activity of inspiratory muscular before and 2 days after laparoscopic surgery. Pain was also assessed. RESULTS: After laparoscopy, the patients demonstrated decreased volumes in all three thoracoabdominal compartments: abdomen (ABD), upper and lower rib cage (URC and LRC, respectively) compared with the pre-operative measurements: ABD=0.38±0.20L vs. 0.55±0.25L; URC=0.45±0.18L vs. 0.55±0.21L; and LRC=0.31±0.18L vs. 0.41±0.23L; p<0.05. A reduction in the inspiratory muscular activity after surgery was also observed (sternocleidomastoid: 10.6±5.1×10(-3)mV vs. 12.8±6.3×10(-3)mV; intercostals: 16.8±12.4×10(-3)mV vs. 25.1±21.3×10(-3)mV; p<0.05). In addition, lower volumes during deep breathing were observed in patients who reported significant pain than those who did not (0.51±0.17L vs. 0.79±0.29L; p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery reduces chest wall ventilation and inspiratory muscular activity during deep breathing. The effects appear to depend on the patient's reported pain level.


Assuntos
Inalação/fisiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Abdome/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Espirometria , Parede Torácica/fisiologia , Tórax/fisiologia
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