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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Curr Biol ; 30(20): 4085-4095.e6, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822607

RESUMO

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico/classificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Genetica ; 148(3-4): 183-193, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770285

RESUMO

The Monteiro is a feral pig found in the Brazilian Pantanal ecosystem. The goal of this research is to generate data and knolewdge related to animal populations wich can be used for management and development of an in vitro conservation program for animal resourses at Pantanal ecosystem. The present study evaluated animals sampled from 10 distinct locations within the region, using 19 microsatellite markers (N = 189) and the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (N = 392). Low genetic differences were found between populations with the microsatellite data. The FST range was between 0.009 and 0.063 (p-value < 0.05). The Mantel test corroborated with previous results, as low correlations between genetic and geographic distances were observed (r2 = 0.2309, p = 0.06). Bayesian analysis for genetic structure identification placed the Monteiro pigs into three main clusters (MOB, Pop 1 and all others Pantanal populations). Most of the Monteiro pigs share a single European haplotype as seen by mtDNA analyses. This haplotype is not exclusive, as it is shared with other swine populations (commercial and other locally adapted breeds). Monteiro populations from different geographic locations within Pantanal are not isolated and can be considered as a large unique population. Since animals roam freely to seek food and water, or even due to seasonal flooding of their habitat, the Monteiro populations presented absence of major genetic structure and evidence of high gene flow. These results can be used to create a management plan and in situ and ex situ conservation program for conservation and use of the Monteiro breed in the Pantanal ecosystem.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Suínos/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Suínos/fisiologia
4.
Front Genet ; 11: 710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754198

RESUMO

Cattle breeding routinely uses crossbreeding between subspecies (Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus) to form composite breeds, such as Brangus. These composite breeds provide an opportunity to identify recent selection signatures formed in the new population and evaluate the genomic composition of these regions of the genome. Using high-density genotyping, we first identified runs of homozygosity (ROH) and calculated genomic inbreeding. Then, we evaluated the genomic composition of the regions identified as selected (selective sweeps) using a chromosome painting approach. The genomic inbreeding increased at approximately 1% per generation after composite breed formation, showing the need of inbreeding control even in composite breeds. Three selected regions in Brangus were also identified as Angus selection signatures. Two regions (chromosomes 14 and 21) were identified as signatures of selection in Brangus and both founder breeds. Five of the 10 homozygous regions in Brangus were predominantly Angus in origin (probability >80%), and the other five regions had a mixed origin but always with Brahman contributing less than 50%. Therefore, genetic events, such as drift, selection, and complementarity, are likely shaping the genetic composition of founder breeds in specific genomic regions. Such findings highlight a variety of opportunities to better control the selection process and explore heterosis and complementarity at the genomic level in composite breeds.

5.
Theriogenology ; 155: 157-167, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679441

RESUMO

Climatic variables can trigger physiological, biochemical, haematological and hormonal alterations that influence the maintenance of homeothermy and can affect production and productivity in sheep. Different mechanisms are responsible for tolerance to heat stress (HS) including coat and skin colour, body size, fat distribution, physiological reactions and not just coat type (hair/wool). This review looks at physical, physiological, molecular and genetic aspects of heat tolerance in sheep and how they affect hair and wool sheep. We propose that it is the adaptation to hot environments and not the type of coat (wool/hair) itself that determines the capacity of the resistance of the animal to HS, due to modifications in essential pathways such as energy metabolism, physiological responses and body size. When studied in similar environments, commercial wool breeds tend to show higher heat stress, but hair breeds tend not to differ from wool breeds that are adapted to hot environments.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Cabelo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética ,
6.
Parasite ; 21: 56, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25350972

RESUMO

Helminthiases are among the most important livestock diseases worldwide, in particular for small ruminants, which are the focus of this review. Resource Allocation Theory implies that high-productivity farm animals proportionate insufficient resources for adequate coping with stressful conditions. Significant differences between breeds and within breeds are seen, as well as genotype vs. environment interactions. With improvement of genetic host resistance to infection, transmission of infection will be impacted. On the other hand, genetic improvement of resilience can lead to a reduction in clinical signs of disease, but not necessarily reduce transmission of infection to other animals. Faecal egg count (FEC) is the main measurement used to evaluate helminthiasis load, despite the fact that the protocols and analytical methods can affect the results, and the FEC data frequently shows aggregative, negative skewed distribution, and a high coefficient of variation. Mass selection where heritability is generally medium to low generally produces slow results and low economic returns. Many studies have been published linking resistance to nematodes in livestock to Quantitative Trait Loci and most studies have concentrated on chromosomes where the major histocompatibility complex region is located. Nevertheless, these complex traits have been seen to be affected by thousands of variants that each has a small effect. More recent studies have shown that genome-wide selection strategies can be useful in selecting animals for improved production and resistance traits in this case.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Cruzamento/métodos , Helmintíase Animal/prevenção & controle , Seleção Genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Alelos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras/genética , Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Genet Mol Biol ; 36(4): 511-9, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24385854

RESUMO

Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) from previous linkage studies was performed on pig chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 8, 17, and X which were known to harbor QTL. Traits were divided into: growth performance, carcass, internal organs, cut yields, and meat quality. Fifty families were used of a F2 population produced by crossing local Brazilian Piau boars with commercial sows. The linkage map consisted of 237 SNP and 37 microsatellite markers covering 866 centimorgans. QTL were identified by regression interval mapping using GridQTL. Individual marker effects were estimated by Bayesian LASSO regression using R. In total, 32 QTL affecting the evaluated traits were detected along the chromosomes studied. Seven of the QTL were known from previous studies using our F2 population, and 25 novel QTL resulted from the increased marker coverage. Six of the seven QTL that were significant at the 5% genome-wide level had SNPs within their confidence interval whose effects were among the 5% largest effects. The combined use of microsatellites along with SNP markers increased the saturation of the genome map and led to smaller confidence intervals of the QTL. The results showed that the tested models yield similar improvements in QTL mapping accuracy.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 43(7): 1449-57, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21533896

RESUMO

The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Endogamia/estatística & dados numéricos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
BMC Genet ; 8: 83, 2007 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18067665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. RESULTS: Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine). For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. CONCLUSION: This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The genetic data was able to shed light on a number of issues related to the local breeds origin and structure. The Brazilian Creole breeds are all important and viable targets for conservation for they display peculiar traits both phenotypic and of cultural and historical nature that deserve conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Brasil , Frequência do Gene
10.
Genet. mol. biol ; 25(4): 379-387, Dec. 2002. ilus, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-330595

RESUMO

In the Rio Doce basin of southeastern Brazil, the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus (trahira) is a widespread predatory characin and one of the few resilient native fishes in a highly impacted lake system. In order to test for genetic differentiation in populations within this basin and for biogeographic relationships among populations of this species in other basins, a study was conducted using RAPD-PCR analysis of Rio Doce samples (N = 63) and phylogeographic analyses with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, including the Rio Grande and Macacu river basins. In the Rio Doce basin, the patterns of genetic similarity of RAPD-PCR markers (individual fingerprinting and NeiÆs genetic distance) suggest the existence of two genetically different groups, one composed of the lacustrine populations Carioca and Dom Helvécio, and the other of riverine and the remaining lacustrine populations. The differences in the RAPD-PCR patterns may be explained by the existence of sub-basins within this lacustrine system. A maximum parsimony tree of cytochrome b fragment (383 base pairs) supports the view that trahiras of the Rio Doce share a complex biogeographic history with those of neighboring basins. The phylogeographic patterns may be explained by a common history of the watersheds of the Rio Doce, Paraíba do Sul, and Rio Grande basins, corroborating the hypothesis of a Plio-Pleistocene separation of these drainage systems, forming the Mantiqueira ôdivortium aquariumö


Assuntos
Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , Peixes , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
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