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1.
Pituitary ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823249

RESUMO

AIM: The ACROPRAXIS program aims to describe the management of acromegaly in Spain and provide guidance. METHODS: Ninety-three endocrinologists were organized into 13 panels to discuss the practical issues in managing acromegaly. Based on the key learnings, an online Delphi survey with 62 statements was performed, so those statements achieving consensus could be used as guidance. Statements were rated on a 9-point scale (9, full agreement; consensus > 66.6% of response in the same tertile). RESULTS: Ninety-two endocrinologists (98.8%) answered two rounds of the survey (mean age 47.6 years; 59.8% women; median 18.5 years of experience). Consensus was achieved for 49 (79%) statements. DIAGNOSIS: The levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) is the preferred screening test. If IGFI levels 1-1.3 ULN, the test is repeated and growth hormone (GH) after oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is assessed. A pituitary magnetic resonance is performed after biochemical diagnosis. TREATMENT: Surgery is the first treatment choice for patients with microadenoma or macroadenoma with/without optical pathway compression. Pre-surgical somatostatin analogues (SSA) are indicated when surgery is delayed and/or to reduce anaesthesia-associated risks. After unsuccessful surgery, reintervention is performed if the residual tumor is resectable, while if non-resectable, SSA are administered. Follow-up First biochemical and clinical controls are performed 1-3 months after surgery. Disease remission is considered if random GH levels are < 1 µg/L or OGTT is < 1 or ≤ 0.4 µg/L, depending on the assay's sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Current clinical management for acromegaly is homogeneous across Spain and generally follows clinical guidelines.

3.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 70(5): 301-305, sept.-oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186374

RESUMO

El hipoparatiroidismo es la complicación más frecuente tras la tiroidectomía total. Se define por la presencia de hipocalcemia con unos niveles de hormona paratiroidea (PTH) bajos o inadecuadamente normales. La hipocalcemia aguda es una complicación potencialmente grave. Su tratamiento se basa, según la gravedad del cuadro, en la administración de calcio por vía oral o intravenosa, pudiendo requerir asimismo calcitriol oral. El riesgo de hipocalcemia sintomática tras una tiroidectomía es muy bajo si la PTH postoperatoria desciende menos del 80% respecto de la preoperatoria. Estos pacientes podrían ser dados de alta sin tratamiento, aunque los umbrales son variables entre laboratorios y recomendamos extremar la vigilancia en los casos de riesgo aumentado (enfermedad de Graves, grandes bocios, reintervenciones o constancia de la extirpación de alguna paratiroides). El tratamiento a largo plazo busca controlar los síntomas manteniendo la calcemia en el límite bajo de la normalidad, vigilando el producto calcio-fósforo y la aparición de hipercalciuria


Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication after total or completion thyroidectomy. It is defined as the presence of hypocalcemia accompanied by low or inappropriately normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Acute hypocalcemia is a potential lethal complication. Hypocalcemia treatment is based on endovenous or oral calcium supplements as well as oral calcitriol, depending on the severity of the symptoms. The risk of clinical hypocalcemia after bilateral thyroidectomy is considered very low if postoperative intact PTH decrease less than 80% with respect to preoperative levels. These patients could be discharged home without treatment, although this threshold may vary between institutions, and we recommend close surveillance in cases with increased risk (Graves disease, large goiters, reinterventions or evidence of parathyroid gland removal). Long-term treatment objectives are to control the symptoms and to keep serum calcium levels at the lower limit of the normal range, while preserving the calcium phosphate product and avoiding hypercalciuria


Assuntos
Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doença de Graves/cirurgia , Hipercalciúria/prevenção & controle , Hipercalciúria/terapia , Hiperfosfatemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperfosfatemia/etiologia , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoparatireoidismo/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Glândulas Paratireoides/transplante , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Reimplante
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 459-463, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182865

RESUMO

El hipoparatiroidismo es la complicación más frecuente tras la tiroidectomía total. Se define por la presencia de hipocalcemia con unos niveles de hormona paratiroidea (PTH) bajos o inadecuadamente normales. La hipocalcemia aguda es una complicación potencialmente grave. Su tratamiento se basa, según la gravedad del cuadro, en la administración de calcio por vía oral o intravenosa, pudiendo requerir asimismo calcitriol oral. El riesgo de hipocalcemia sintomática tras una tiroidectomía es muy bajo si la PTH postoperatoria desciende menos del 80% respecto de la preoperatoria. Estos pacientes podrían ser dados de alta sin tratamiento, aunque los umbrales son variables entre laboratorios y recomendamos extremar la vigilancia en los casos de riesgo aumentado (enfermedad de Graves, grandes bocios, reintervenciones o constancia de la extirpación de alguna paratiroides). El tratamiento a largo plazo busca controlar los síntomas manteniendo la calcemia en el límite bajo de la normalidad, vigilando el producto calcio-fósforo y la aparición de hipercalciuria


Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication after total or completion thyroidectomy. It is defined as the presence of hypocalcemia accompanied by low or inappropriately normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Acute hypocalcemia is a potential lethal complication. Hypocalcemia treatment is based on endovenous or oral calcium supplements as well as oral calcitriol, depending on the severity of the symptoms. The risk of clinical hypocalcemia after bilateral thyroidectomy is considered very low if postoperative intact PTH decrease less than 80% with respect to preoperative levels. These patients could be discharged home without treatment, although this threshold may vary between institutions, and we recommend close surveillance in cases with increased risk (Graves disease, large goiters, reinterventions or evidence of parathyroid gland removal). Long-term treatment objectives are to control the symptoms and to keep serum calcium levels at the lower limit of the normal range, while preserving the calcium phosphate product and avoiding hypercalciuria


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Hipoparatireoidismo/epidemiologia , Tireoidectomia/métodos , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Liberação de Cirurgia/normas
5.
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp ; 70(5): 301-305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387688

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication after total or completion thyroidectomy. It is defined as the presence of hypocalcemia accompanied by low or inappropriately normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Acute hypocalcemia is a potential lethal complication. Hypocalcemia treatment is based on endovenous or oral calcium supplements as well as oral calcitriol, depending on the severity of the symptoms. The risk of clinical hypocalcemia after bilateral thyroidectomy is considered very low if postoperative intact PTH decrease less than 80% with respect to preoperative levels. These patients could be discharged home without treatment, although this threshold may vary between institutions, and we recommend close surveillance in cases with increased risk (Graves disease, large goiters, reinterventions or evidence of parathyroid gland removal). Long-term treatment objectives are to control the symptoms and to keep serum calcium levels at the lower limit of the normal range, while preserving the calcium phosphate product and avoiding hypercalciuria.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo/etiologia , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doença de Graves/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/prevenção & controle , Hipercalciúria/terapia , Hiperfosfatemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperfosfatemia/etiologia , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoparatireoidismo/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Glândulas Paratireoides/transplante , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Reimplante
6.
Endocrine ; 66(2): 405-415, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism has been studied in registries and in surgical series with highly variable and imprecise results. However, the frequency of this hormonal deficiency in the clinical practice of endocrinologists is not known with accuracy. We aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoparathyroidism in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy in Spain. METHODS: We designed a retrospective, multicentre and nation-wide protocol including all patients with total thyroidectomy who were seen in the endocrinology clinic of the participant centers from January to March 2018. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism was evaluated at discharge of surgery, 3-6 months after surgery, 12 months after surgery and at last visit. Twenty hospitals participated in the study. RESULTS: Of 1792 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, 866 (48.3%) developed postoperative hypoparathyroidism at discharge of surgery. Most of them recover parathyroid function over time. Prevalence of hypoparathyroidism at 3-6 months, 12 months and at last visit was 22.9%, 16.7% and 14.5%, respectively. The risk of developing definitive hypoparathyroidism was related to the presence of parathyroid tissue at histology, lymph node dissection, and two-stage thyroidectomy. Patients with thyroid cancer, with higher postoperative calcium levels and treated by expert surgical teams exhibited lower risk of developing permanent hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism recover parathyroid function, the prevalence of permanent disease in clinical practice is non negligible (14.5%). Postoperative calcium, extent and timing of surgery, the presence of cancer, expert surgical team, and parathyroid tissue at histology are predictors of permanent hypoparathyroidism.

7.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(7): 459-463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182347

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism is the most common complication after total or completion thyroidectomy. It is defined as the presence of hypocalcemia accompanied by low or inappropriately normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Acute hypocalcemia is a potential lethal complication. Hypocalcemia treatment is based on endovenous or oral calcium supplements as well as oral calcitriol, depending on the severity of the symptoms. The risk of clinical hypocalcemia after bilateral thyroidectomy is considered very low if postoperative intact PTH decrease less than 80% with respect to preoperative levels. These patients could be discharged home without treatment, although this threshold may vary between institutions, and we recommend close surveillance in cases with increased risk (Graves disease, large goiters, reinterventions or evidence of parathyroid gland removal). Long-term treatment objectives are to control the symptoms and to keep serum calcium levels at the lower limit of the normal range, while preserving the calcium phosphate product and avoiding hypercalciuria.

8.
Eur Radiol ; 29(9): 4889-4896, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of core-needle biopsy (CNB) in thyroid using a cohort of patients in which it was used as first choice. METHODS: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed all CNB performed in our center over a period of 11 years. Ultrasound-guided CNBs were performed using a spring-loaded 18-gauge biopsy needle. We used a classification with four diagnostic categories for CNB results: insufficient, benign, follicular lesion (indeterminate), and malignant. Final diagnosis was based on surgical diagnosis or follow-up of at least 2 years in non-operated patients. RESULTS: The study included 4412 CNB in 4112 nodules of 3768 patients, 300 of them repeated biopsies. Results were 148 insufficient (3.4%), 3706 benign (84%), 278 follicular lesions (6.3%), and 280 malignant (6.3%). Considering follicular lesion and malignancy CNB results as positive (both lead to the recommendation of surgery) sensitivity was 96% (CI 93.2-97.8) and specificity 93.7% (CI 92.9-94.5). Predictive positive value for a follicular lesion diagnosis was 12.2% and for a malignancy diagnosis, 98.6%. CNB likelihood ratio for malignancy of a malignant diagnosis was 841.9 (CI 315.8-2313.3), of a malignant/follicular lesion diagnosis was 23.4 (CI 20.1-27.3), and of a benign diagnosis was 0.04 (CI 0.02-0.07). Repeated CNB in 53 insufficient biopsies obtained 50 diagnostic results. Minor complications occurred in 2.2% of CNB, and major in four procedures (0.09%). CONCLUSIONS: CNB in thyroid nodules is accurate and has few complications and a low rate of non-diagnostic and indeterminate diagnoses. It can be an alternative method when FNAC has poor performance. Repeating biopsy is useful after non-diagnostic biopsies. KEY POINTS: • Core-needle biopsy of thyroid has a low ratio non-diagnostic and indeterminate results. • Core-needle biopsy results are highly reliable, especially benign results. • Complication rate of core-needle biopsy of thyroid is low.


Assuntos
Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/efeitos adversos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/normas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Endocrinol. nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 63(8): 397-408, oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-156269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe real-world use of lanreotide combination therapy for acromegaly. Patients and methods. ACROCOMB is a retrospective observational Spanish study of patients with active acromegaly treated with lanreotide combination therapy between 2006 and 2011. 108 patients treated at 44 Spanish Endocrinology Departments were analyzed separately: 61 patients received lanreotide/cabergoline (cabergoline cohort) and 47 lanreotide/pegvisomant (pegvisomant cohort). Results. Patient median age was 50.8 years in the cabergoline cohort and 42.7 years in the pegvisomant cohort. Prior medical treatments were somatostatin analogue (SSA) monotherapy (40 [66%] patients) or dopamine agonists (7 [11%] patients) in the cabergoline cohort and SSA (29 [62%] patients) or pegvisomant monotherapy (16 [34%] patients) in the pegvisomant cohort. Across both cohorts 12 patients were previously untreated, and prior therapy was unknown/missing in 4 patients. Median duration of combined treatment was 1.6 years (0.1–6) and 2.1 years (0.4–6.3) in the cabergoline and pegvisomant cohorts, respectively. At baseline, median insulin growth factor (IGF)-I values were 149% upper limit of normal (ULN) (15–505%) in the cabergoline cohort and 156% ULN (15–534%) in the pegvisomant cohort, and decreased to 104% ULN (13–557%) p<0.001 and 86% ULN (23–345%) p<0.0001, respectively, at end of study (EOS). Normal age-adjusted values of IGF-I were obtained in 48% of lanreotide/cabergoline-treated patients and 70% of lanreotide/pegvisomant-treated patients at EOS. There were no significant changes in hepatic, cardiac or glycaemic parameters in either cohort. Conclusion. In clinical practice lanreotide treatment combinations are useful options for patients with acromegaly when monotherapy is insufficient; particularly, the combination of lanreotide and pegvisomant in patients not controlled with either SSA or pegvisomant alone has high efficacy and is well-tolerated


Propósito. Describir el uso de lanreotida en combinación terapéutica en acromegalia en la práctica clínica. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: ACROCOMB es un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, de pacientes con acromegalia activa tratados en centros hospitalarios españoles con lanreotida en combinación con cabergolina o pegvisomant entre 2006 y 2011. Se revisaron los datos clínicos de 108 pacientes tratados en 44 departamentos de endocrinología: 61 pacientes recibieron lanreótido/cabergolina (cohorte cabergolina) y 47 lanreotida/pegvisomant (cohorte pegvisomant). RESULTADOS: La edad mediana de los pacientes fue de 50,8 años en la cohorte de cabergolina y 42,7 años en la de pegvisomant. Los tratamientos médicos previos a la combinación con lanreótido fueron análogos de somatostatina (SSA) en monoterapia (40 [66%] pacientes) o agonistas de la dopamina (7 [11%] pacientes) en la cohorte de cabergolina y SSA (29 [62%] pacientes) y pegvisomant en monoterapia (16 [34%] pacientes) en la de pegvisomant. Doce pacientes no habían recibido tratamiento previo y en 4 pacientes se desconocía la terapia previa. La mediana de duración del tratamiento fue de 1,6 años (0,1-6) y 2,1 años (rango 0,4 a 6,3) en las cohortes de cabergolina y pegvisomant, respectivamente. Al inicio del estudio el valor mediano del factor de crecimiento de insulina-I era 149% el límite superior normal (LSN) (15-505%) en la cohorte de cabergolina y 156% LSN (15-534%) en la de pegvisomant. Al final del estudio se redujeron a 104% LSN (13-557%) p < 0,001 y 86% LSN (23-345%) p < 0,0001, respectivamente. Al final del estudio, se reportaron valores normales de factor de crecimiento de insulina-I ajustados por edad en el 48% de los pacientes tratados con lanreotida/cabergolina y 70% de los tratados con lanreotida/pegvisomant. No hubo cambios significativos en los parámetros hepáticos, cardíacos o glucémicos. CONCLUSIÓN: En la práctica clínica las combinaciones con lanreotida son una opción útil en el tratamiento de pacientes con acromegalia que no está bien controlada en monoterapia, ya sea con SSA carbegolina o pegvisomant; particularmente, la combinación de lanreotida y pegvisomant tiene una alta eficacia y se tolera bien


Assuntos
Humanos , Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacocinética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Quimioterapia Combinada
12.
Endocrinol Nutr ; 63(8): 397-408, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe real-world use of lanreotide combination therapy for acromegaly. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ACROCOMB is a retrospective observational Spanish study of patients with active acromegaly treated with lanreotide combination therapy between 2006 and 2011. 108 patients treated at 44 Spanish Endocrinology Departments were analyzed separately: 61 patients received lanreotide/cabergoline (cabergoline cohort) and 47 lanreotide/pegvisomant (pegvisomant cohort). RESULTS: Patient median age was 50.8 years in the cabergoline cohort and 42.7 years in the pegvisomant cohort. Prior medical treatments were somatostatin analogue (SSA) monotherapy (40 [66%] patients) or dopamine agonists (7 [11%] patients) in the cabergoline cohort and SSA (29 [62%] patients) or pegvisomant monotherapy (16 [34%] patients) in the pegvisomant cohort. Across both cohorts 12 patients were previously untreated, and prior therapy was unknown/missing in 4 patients. Median duration of combined treatment was 1.6 years (0.1-6) and 2.1 years (0.4-6.3) in the cabergoline and pegvisomant cohorts, respectively. At baseline, median insulin growth factor (IGF)-I values were 149% upper limit of normal (ULN) (15-505%) in the cabergoline cohort and 156% ULN (15-534%) in the pegvisomant cohort, and decreased to 104% ULN (13-557%) p<0.001 and 86% ULN (23-345%) p<0.0001, respectively, at end of study (EOS). Normal age-adjusted values of IGF-I were obtained in 48% of lanreotide/cabergoline-treated patients and 70% of lanreotide/pegvisomant-treated patients at EOS. There were no significant changes in hepatic, cardiac or glycaemic parameters in either cohort. CONCLUSION: In clinical practice lanreotide treatment combinations are useful options for patients with acromegaly when monotherapy is insufficient; particularly, the combination of lanreotide and pegvisomant in patients not controlled with either SSA or pegvisomant alone has high efficacy and is well-tolerated.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Ergolinas/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Cabergolina , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Ergolinas/administração & dosagem , Ergolinas/química , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/administração & dosagem , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/farmacologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Somatostatina/administração & dosagem , Somatostatina/química , Somatostatina/farmacologia
13.
Eur Radiol ; 26(1): 1-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25956937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) of thyroid nodules. METHODS: Of 3517 CNBs performed using an 18G spring-loaded device in one institution, we retrospectively reviewed 676 nodules in 629 consecutive patients who underwent surgery. CNB and pathological examination were compared. CNB diagnosis was standardized in four categories: insufficient (I), benign (B), follicular lesion (FOL), and malignant (M). Main outcome measures were predictive positive values (PPV), false positives (FP), and false negatives (FN). RESULTS: CNB showed a low rate of insufficient and FOL diagnoses (5.8 % and 4.5 %). On surgery, there were eight FNs in 374 benign CNBs and three FPs in 148 malignant CNBs. The 154 nodules classified as FOL in CNB included, at surgery, 122 neoplasms; 28 of them malignant. PPV for malignancy of a malignant CNB was 98 %, and for a CNB diagnosis of FOL 18.2 %. Sensitivity for malignancy if CNB of FOL and M are considered positive was 95.6. Only one major complication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: CNB is reliable, safe, and accurate to evaluate thyroid nodules and can be an alternative technique to FNA. It has low rate of non-diagnostic and undetermined cases, with high sensitivity and PPV. KEY POINTS: Thyroid core-needle biopsy (CNB) has high sensitivity and PPV. Pitfalls of CNB are rare. Pitfalls are due to cystic cancer, histological heterogeneity, and mistakes in analysis. CNB is a reliable, safe, and accurate method to approach thyroid nodules. CNB can be used primarily or after insufficient or indeterminate FNA.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
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