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Front Genet ; 12: 704075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394192


Here we report on comprehensive chloroplast (cp) genome analysis of 16 pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) genotypes representing commercial cultivars, ornamental and wild types, through large-scale sequencing and assembling using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the size of cp genomes varied from 158,593 bp (in wild, "1201" and "1181") to 158,662 bp (cultivar, "Gul-e-Shah Red") among the genotypes, with characteristic quadripartite structures separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The higher conservation for the total number of coding and non-coding genes (rRNA and tRNA) and their sizes, and IRs (IR-A and IR-B) were observed across all the cp genomes. Interestingly, high variations were observed in sizes of large single copy (LSC, 88,976 to 89,044 bp) and small single copy (SSC, 18,682 to 18,684 bp) regions. Although, the structural organization of newly assembled cp genomes were comparable to that of previously reported cp genomes of pomegranate ("Helow," "Tunisia," and "Bhagawa"), the striking differences were observed with the Lagerstroemia lines, viz., Lagerstroemia intermedia (NC_0346620) and Lagerstroemia speciosa (NC_031414), which clearly confirmed previous findings. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis also revealed that members outside the genus Punica were clubbed into a separate clade. The contraction and expansion analysis revealed that the structural variations in IRs, LSC, and SSC have significantly accounted for the evolution of cp genomes of Punica and L. intermedia over the periods. Microsatellite survey across cp genomes resulted in the identification of a total of 233 to 234 SSRs, with majority of them being mono- (A/T or C/G, 164-165 numbers), followed by di- (AT/AT or AG/CT, 54), tri- (6), tetra- (8), and pentanucleotides (1). Furthermore, the comparative structural variant analyses across cp genomes resulted in the identification of many varietal specific SNP/indel markers. In summary, our study has offered a successful development of large-scale cp genomics resources to leverage future genetic, taxonomical, and phylogenetic studies in pomegranate.

Saudi J Biol Sci ; 27(12): 3514-3528, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304163


Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit crop, rich in fiber, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals and source of different biologically active compounds. The bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodispv. punicae is a serious threat to the crop leading to 60-80% yield loss under epiphytotic conditions. In this work, we have generated comparative transcriptome profile to mark the gene expression signatures during resistance and susceptible interactions. We analyzed leaf and fruits samples of moderately resistant genotype (IC 524207) and susceptible variety (Bhagawa) of pomegranate at three progressive infection stages upon inoculation with the pathogen. RNA-Seq with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform revealed 1,88,337 non-redundant (nr) transcript sequences from raw sequencing data, for a total of 34,626 unigenes with size >2 kb. Moreover, 85.3% unigenes were annotated in at least one of the seven databases examined. Comparative analysis of gene-expression signatures in resistant and susceptible varieties showed that the genes known to be involved in defense mechanism in plants were up-regulated in resistant variety. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis successfully annotated 90,485 pomegranate unigenes, of which 68,464 were assigned to biological, 78,107 unigenes molecular function and 44,414 to cellular components. Significantly enriched GO terms in DEGs were related to oxidations reduction biological process, protein binding and oxidoreductase activity. This transcriptome data on pomegranate could help in understanding resistance and susceptibility nature of cultivars and further detailed fine mapping and functional validation of identified candidate gene would provide scope for resistance breeding programme in pomegranate.

J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5073-5082, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980532


BACKGROUND: Pomegranate fruit is an excellent source of bioactive polyphenolics, known to contribute significantly to human health. India is the largest producer of pomegranate in the world and produces the finest quality fruit with highly desirable consumer traits such as soft seeds, low acidity, and attractive fruit and aril color. Knowledge of the extent of variation in key metabolites (sugars, organic acids, phenolics, and anthocyanins) is key to selecting superior genotypes for germplasm improvement. Relevant information with respect to Indian genotypes is scarce. The present study therefore aims to evaluate quantitatively important metabolites in some cultivars and elite germplasm of pomegranate in India. RESULTS: Identification and quantification of primary and secondary metabolites such as sugars, organic acids, vitamin C, polyphenolics, and anthocyanins were conducted using a liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. Fructose and citric acid were the predominant sugar and organic acid, respectively. Wild genotypes had significantly higher concentrations of organic acids, antioxidant activity, and phenolics, namely punicalagin, ellagic acid, sinapic, and ferulic acid. CONCLUSION: Cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives of anthocyanins were more abundant in red aril commercial genotypes. Results suggest that wild-sour accessions represent a rich source of polyphenolics that can be utilized in future breeding programs to breed healthier varieties, food supplements, and pharmaceutical products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

Células Germinativas Vegetais/classificação , Lythraceae/química , Lythraceae/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Índia , Lythraceae/classificação , Lythraceae/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Açúcares/análise , Açúcares/metabolismo
Mol Genet Genomics ; 290(4): 1393-402, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25675870


This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies.

Variação Genética , Lythraceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Variância , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise por Conglomerados , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Índia , Lythraceae/classificação , Lythraceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Xanthomonas axonopodis/fisiologia
Plant Mol Biol ; 87(3): 249-60, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25537646


Diamine putrescine (Put) and polyamines; spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) are essential component of every cell because of their involvement in the regulation of cell division, growth and development. The aim of this study is to enhance the levels of Put during fruit development and see its implications in ripening and quality of tomato fruits. Transgenic tomato plants over-expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene under the control of fruit-specific promoter (2A11) were developed. Transgenic fruits exhibited enhanced levels of Put, Spd and Spm, with a concomitant reduction in ethylene levels, rate of respiration and physiological loss of water. Consequently such fruits displayed significant delay of on-vine ripening and prolonged shelf life over untransformed fruits. The activation of Put biosynthetic pathway at the onset of ripening in transgenic fruits is also consistent with the improvement of qualitative traits such as total soluble solids, titratable acids and total sugars. Such changes were associated with alteration in expression pattern of ripening specific genes. Transgenic fruits were also fortified with important nutraceuticals like lycopene, ascorbate and antioxidants. Therefore, these transgenic tomatoes would be useful for the improvement of tomato cultivars through breeding approaches.

Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Ornitina Descarboxilase/genética , Animais , Poliaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Etilenos/biossíntese , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Putrescina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Regulação para Cima
J Plant Physiol ; 170(11): 987-95, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23507024


The ripening hormone, ethylene is known to initiate, modulate and co-ordinate the expression of various genes involved in the ripening process. The burst in ethylene production is the key event for the onset of ripening in climacteric fruits, including tomatoes. Therefore ethylene is held accountable for the tons of post-harvest losses due to over-ripening and subsequently resulting in fruit rotting. In the present investigation, delayed ripening tomatoes were generated by silencing three homologs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) gene during the course of ripening using RNAi technology. The chimeric RNAi-ACS construct designed to target ACS homologs, effectively repressed the ethylene production in tomato fruits. Fruits from such lines exhibited delayed ripening and extended shelf life for ∼45 days, with improved juice quality. The ethylene suppression brought about compositional changes in these fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. Further, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits has led to the altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts, especially the up-regulation of PA biosynthesis and ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism genes and down-regulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits. Also, the chimeric gene fusion can be used as an effective design for simultaneous silencing of more than one gene. These observations would be useful in better understanding of the ethylene and PA signaling during fruit ripening and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules in affecting fruit quality traits.

Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Liases/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Liases/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA