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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(1): 77-102, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406487

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Cancer Educ ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400205

RESUMO

To address the increasing demand for inherited cancer genetic testing, we developed and evaluated a web-based educational tool to streamline genetic counseling (GC). Consented patients viewed the initial prototype containing core content (Version 1-Core) and provided feedback through three open-ended survey questions. Additional data were collected through individual interviews from a subgroup who viewed an enhanced version (Version 1-Enhanced), consisting of the same core content and additional optional content. Data were coded to synthesize most commonly repeated themes and conceptualize action items to guide refinement strategies. Of 305 participants, 80 responded to open-ended survey questions to suggest refinement strategies, after viewing Version 1-Core. Interviews with a subgroup of seven participants, who viewed Version 1-Enhanced, provided additional feedback. Of 11 unique action items identified, five overlapped across datasets (provide instructions, simplify language, improve visuals, embed knowledge questions with explanations, include more insurance-related information), three were identified only through open-ended survey data (incorporate automatic progression, clarify test result information, increase interactive content), and three were identified only through interviews (ensure core content is viewed, incorporate progress bar, feature embedded optional content at the end of the tool). Ten action items aligned with underlying tool objectives to provide an interactive online pre-test GC solution and were used to guide refinement strategies. Our results demonstrate the value of rigorous qualitative data collection and analysis in health research and the use of the self-directed learning framework and eHealth strategies to leverage technology in scaling up and innovating the delivery of pre-test GC for inherited cancer.

4.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored motivators and challenges/barriers to sharing personal genetic test results (GTR) with family members (FM). METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 62 women who had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant in aBRCA, PALB2, CHEK2, or ATM gene. Selective qualitative data analysis focused on eliciting motivators and challenges/barriers identified by participants when sharing their GTR with FM. RESULTS: Motivators to sharing personal GTR with FM included: health protection and prevention; moral obligation; decisional empowerment; familial ties; written resources; and contextualization for a familial cause for cancer. Challenges/barriers to family sharing included: concern for FM reactions; complexities of information; lack of closeness; perceived relevance; and emotional impact. CONCLUSIONS: All motivators and challenges/barriers were identified across BRCA and non-BRCA carriers, demonstrating commonalities in family sharing of GTR among high- to moderate-penetrance hereditary BC (breast cancer) genes. Despite challenges/barriers, participants disclosed their GTR with most close FM, yet restrictions in communication and/or strain on the timing, manner of disclosing, and strategies used varied across certain FM. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: These findings offer healthcare providers and researchers preliminary practical implications for broadly improving family sharing interventions across P/LP variants in BC risk genes by demonstrating important elements to include in family sharing letters.

5.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174380

RESUMO

Identification of inherited breast cancer may guide care. These benefits can be amplified through communication of genetic test results with at-risk family members and subsequent family testing (FT). Females with a pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2, and/or ATM were surveyed about family communication (FC) of genetic test results and FT. Comparisons were made across genes. The 235 participants with P/LP variants (186 BRCA1/2, 28 PALB2, 15 CHEK2, and 6 ATM) had a median age of 54 and most were non-Hispanic whites (89%) with a prior breast cancer diagnosis (61%). When controlling for other variables, FC was higher among younger participants (p<.0001), those with high FC self-efficacy (p=.019), and those with P/LP variants in BRCA1/2 compared to PALB2 (p =.040) and ATM/CHEK2 (p =.032). Higher rates of FC and FT were also observed among female relatives and relatives of closer kinship. Overall 94% of participants would find one or more resources helpful with FC and 70% reported using FC resources when telling family members about their genetic test result. The three most commonly used resources included the following: (a) a family sharing letter (38%); (b) printed materials (30%); and (c) web-based information (23%). Among the 86% who spoke with a genetic counselor (GC), 93% were given at least one FC resource and the three most common resources GCs provided to participants overlapped with the resources participants would find helpful and those that were used. Our results suggest lower FC and FT rates among women with P/LP variants in genes other than BRCA1/2, the reasons for which should be evaluated in future studies. As more data to refine cancer risks and management are generated across these other inherited breast cancer genes, strategies to improve FC and FT are needed to amplify the benefits of genetic testing.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 820-826, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838477

RESUMO

Considerable controversies exist regarding whether elderly patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) should forgo radiotherapy. We utilized the National Cancer Database to analyze data of 115 516 women aged ≥70 years, treated with BCS for T1-2N0-1M0 breast cancer between 2004 and 2014. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality 3, 5 and 10 years after 90 days of BCS associated with radiotherapy. Patients who received no radiotherapy had a higher mortality rate than those who received radiotherapy (5-year survival rate: 71.2% vs 83.8%), with multivariable-adjusted HRs of 1.65 (95% CI: 1.57-1.72) for 3-year mortality, 1.53 (1.47-1.58) for 5-year mortality and 1.43 (1.39-1.48) for 10-year mortality. The association held even for patients ≥90 years. This association was observed in all strata by reasons for radiotherapy omission, receipt of endocrine therapy or chemotherapy, calendar period and other clinical characteristics, with 40% to 65% increased 5-year mortality for patients without radiotherapy. This positive association persisted when analyses were restricted to patients with T1N0 and estrogen-receptor-positive disease who had received endocrine therapy (5-year mortality: HR 1.47 [1.39-1.57]) and in propensity score weighted analyses. Our study shows, in routine practice, elderly patients who received no post-BCS radiotherapy had higher total mortality than those who received radiotherapy. These findings suggest that the current recommendation of omission of post-BCS radiotherapy for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer may need to be reconsidered, particularly for those without contraindication.

9.
Breast J ; 26(8): 1513-1519, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639074

RESUMO

With technological advances, multi-gene panel testing has become increasingly used to identify patients at risk for hereditary breast cancer (HBC). There are currently evidence-based interventions and breast cancer screening strategies that exist for cancer prevention and early detection among patients with HBC. Moreover, in addition to the personal impact of identifying HBC, this information may be shared with at-risk family members to amplify the benefits of testing and subsequent care among those at high risk. Opportunities and challenges with the utilization of updated multi-gene panel testing for HBC, including: (a) tumor sequencing with germline consequences; (b) genetic counseling implications; and (c) strategies to improve the communication of genetic test results to family members will be reviewed. With the advances and expansion of genetic testing, all health care providers need to be updated on both the importance and complexities of HBC counseling and testing, in order to optimize patient care.

10.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(7): 841-847, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for genetic testing for inherited cancer risk coupled with a shortage of providers trained in genetics highlight the potential for automated tools embedded in the clinic process to meet this demand. We developed and tested a scalable, easy-to-use, 12-minute web-based educational tool that included standard pretest genetic counseling elements related to panel-based testing for multiple genes associated with cancer risk. METHODS: The tool was viewed by new patients at the Vanderbilt Hereditary Cancer Clinic before meeting with a board-certified genetics professional. Pre- and post-tool surveys measured knowledge, feeling informed/empowered to decide about testing, attitudinal values about genetic testing, and health literacy. Of the initial 100 participants, 50 were randomized to only have knowledge measured on the post-tool survey to assess for a priming effect. RESULTS: Of 360 patients approached, 305 consented and completed both the pre- and post-tool surveys, with a mean age of 47 years, including 80% female patients and 48% patients with cancer. Survey results showed an increase in knowledge and feeling informed/empowered after viewing the tool (P<.001), but no significant change in attitude (P=.64). Post-tool survey data indicated no difference in median knowledge between low and high health literacy groups (P=.30). No priming effect was present among the initial 100 participants (P=.675). CONCLUSIONS: Viewing the educational tool resulted in significant gains in knowledge across health literacy levels, and most individuals felt informed and empowered to decide about genetic testing. These findings indicate that the use of an automated pretest genetic counseling tool may help streamline the delivery of genetic services.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(2): 421-428, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445176

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identification of inherited breast cancer may guide cancer risk management. We sought to compare risk management practices across women with inherited breast cancer genes. METHODS: Females with a pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant in BRCA1/2, PALB2, CHEK2, and/or ATM were surveyed about cancer risk management. Comparisons were made across genes. RESULTS: The 235 participants with P/LP variants (186 BRCA1/2, 28 PALB2, 15 CHEK2, and 6 ATM) had a median age of 54 and 61% had a prior breast cancer diagnosis. For women with P/LP variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2, and ATM/CHEK2, bilateral mastectomy (BM) rates were 79%, 61%, and 52%, and bilateral oophorectomy (BO) rates were 89%, 30%, and 37%, respectively. Among women with P/LP variants in PALB2 and ATM/CHEK2, 27% of those who had a BO had a family history of ovarian cancer. Contralateral mastectomy rates for women with P/LP variants in PALB2 and ATM/CHEK2 with unilateral breast cancer were 60% and 58%, and BM rates for those without breast cancer were 57% and 29%, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest high rates of both contralateral mastectomies among those with unilateral breast cancer and BM among those without a breast cancer diagnosis across women with P/LP variants in high and moderate penetrance breast cancer genes. BO was also often utilized for risk reduction across these women. These findings suggest potential overtreatment through risk-reducing surgery, and highlight the importance of promoting guideline-adherent, risk-appropriate care.

14.
Psychooncology ; 29(7): 1115-1122, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the patterns and covariates of benefit finding over time among young Black breast cancer (BC) survivors. METHODS: Black women (N = 305) with invasive BC diagnosed ≤50 years were recruited an average of 1.9 years post-BC diagnosis. Participants completed self-report questionnaires of benefit finding, social support, and illness intrusions at three time points (M time since BC diagnosis: T2 = 3.1 years, T3 = 4.0 years). Relationships between posttraumatic growth constructs (social support, illness intrusions) and benefit finding over time were examined using mixed models. Models controlled for cultural variables (religiosity, time orientation, and collectivism), receipt of chemotherapy, general health status, and partner status. RESULTS: Participants reported high levels of benefit finding (M = 2.99, SE = 0.04 on a 0-4 scale). When accounting for covariates, benefit finding did not change over time since BC diagnosis (P = .21). Benefit finding scores at BC diagnosis were associated with more illness intrusions, greater religiosity, and having received chemotherapy (all Ps < .04). Social support was associated with change in benefit finding scores over time, such that a 1-point increase in social support was associated with a 0.05 increase in benefit finding per year (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses key gaps in knowledge regarding benefit finding among Black cancer survivors. Consistent with findings from majority White samples, social support and illness intrusions appear to play a key role in benefit finding in Black BC survivors. Cultural constructs-including religiosity-must also be considered in future studies of benefit finding among minority populations.

15.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(4): 380-391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259785

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

16.
Genet Med ; 22(6): 1088-1093, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: All women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) ≤age 50 should be referred for genetic counseling (GC) and testing. We sought to compare differences in provider practices and access across a racially and ethnically diverse population of young BC survivors. METHODS: A registry-based sample of women diagnosed with invasive BC ≤age 50 from 2009 to 2012 was recruited through the Florida Cancer Registry, and completed a questionnaire and medical record release. Differences were compared across those tested with or without the involvement of a board-certified or credentialed genetics health professional (GHP) in (1) clinical and demographic variables and (2) pretest GC elements. RESULTS: Of 1622 participants, there were 440 Blacks, 285 Hispanics, and 897 Non-Hispanic Whites. Of 831 participants with medical record verification of testing provider, 170 (20%) had documentation of GHP involvement. Among the 613 who recalled a pretest discussion and had GC elements collected, those with GHP involvement were significantly more likely to recall the seven recognized GC elements. CONCLUSION: GHP involvement was associated with adherence to nationally recommended best practices. With the expanding importance of identifying inherited cancers, it is critical to ensure equitable access to best practices across all populations.

17.
Cancer ; 126(8): 1651-1655, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of multigene panel tests, pathogenic and likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants are identified more frequently in the moderate-penetrance breast cancer genes ATM and CHEK2. Lifetime breast cancer risk among women with P/LP variants in these genes generally exceeds 20%, meeting the threshold at which high-risk breast cancer screening through breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended. METHODS: Among a registry-based sample of 56 ATM and 69 CHEK2 carriers, the authors sought to determine the percentage of relatives in whom a P/LP variant would impact breast cancer surveillance. Lifetime breast cancer risks for unaffected, female first-degree and second-degree relatives were estimated using the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA). RESULTS: Among first-degree relatives of ATM and CHEK2 carriers, only 22.6% and 14.9%, respectively, were found to have lifetime breast cancer risks of ≥20% based on family cancer history alone; however, when including the proband's P/LP variant in the model, these percentages increased significantly to 56.6% and 55.3%, respectively (P < .0001 and P < .0001, respectively). Similar increases in lifetime breast cancer risks were found among second-degree relatives. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that the majority of female first-degree and second-degree relatives of ATM and CHEK2 carriers do not qualify for breast MRI based on family cancer history alone. Therefore, testing for these genes, as well as awareness of positive moderate-penetrance breast cancer gene results in the family, may impact MRI eligibility. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of and need for breast cancer risk models that incorporate moderate-penetrance gene positivity to inform screening recommendations among at-risk family members.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Genet Couns ; 29(3): 410-422, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912597

RESUMO

Despite higher incidence and mortality of breast cancer among younger Black women, genetic testing outcomes remain severely understudied among Blacks. Past research on disclosure of genetic testing results to family members has disproportionately focused on White, educated, high socioeconomic status women. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by assessing (a) to whom Black women disclose genetic test results and (b) if patterns of disclosure vary based on test result (e.g., BRCA1/2 positive, negative, variant of uncertain significance [VUS]). Black women (N = 149) with invasive breast cancer diagnosed age ≤50 years from 2009 to 2012 received free genetic testing through a prospective, population-based study. At 12 months post-testing, women reported with whom they shared their genetic test results. The exact test by binomial distribution was used to examine whether disclosure to female relatives was significantly greater than disclosure to male relatives, and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in disclosure to any female relative, any male relative, parents, siblings, children, and spouses by genetic test result. Most (77%) women disclosed their results to at least one family member. Disclosure to female relatives was significantly greater than disclosure to males (p < .001). Compared to those who tested negative or had a VUS, BRCA1/2-positive women were significantly less likely to disclose results to their daughters (ORBRCA positive  = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07-0.94, p = .041) by 12 months post-genetic testing. Genetic test result did not predict any other type of disclosure (all ps > 0.12). Results suggest that in Black families, one benefit of genetic testing-to inform patients and their family about cancer risk information-is not being realized. To increase breast cancer preventive care among high-risk Black women, the oncology care team should prepare Black BRCA1/2-positive women to share genetic test results with family members and, in particular, their daughters.

19.
Health Commun ; 35(7): 832-841, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999777

RESUMO

Narrative messages may be superior to didactic messages when providing educational information due to their natural format for information sharing, ability to engage audiences, and engender positive thoughts about the message. Although narrative messages are gaining popularity in health promotion, little guidance exists regarding the development phase. Our team created a psychosocial narrative video intervention grounded in the Health Belief Model to increase breast cancer survivors' attendance at genetic counseling after treatment. Here we report the use of Learner Verification (LV) during an iterative video development process. Using LV, we conducted individual semi-structured interviews with patients and providers, after they viewed the video. Demographic information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and verbatim interview transcripts were used to conduct a two-phase qualitative content analysis. Patient and provider participants (n = 30) believed the video was attractive, relatable, and informative, and they identified areas for improvement including narrative coherence, changes to text and graphical information, and including more specific information. LV framework elicited audience feedback on the video intervention relevant to theoretical principles of narrative interventions, and highlighted audience preferences. In this study, LV interviews tapped into theoretical constructs of narratives and facilitated the iterative intervention design process.

20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(5): 1659-1670, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black women are overrepresented among premenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors. These patients warrant genetic testing (GT) followed by risk-reducing behaviors. This study documented patterns and predictors of cancer risk-management behaviors among young black BC survivors after GT. METHODS: Black women (n = 143) with a diagnosis of BC at the age of 50 years or younger received GT. At 1 year after GT, participants reported receipt of risk-reducing mastectomy, risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, mammogram, breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CA125 test, and transvaginal/pelvic ultrasound. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of BC risk management (risk-reducing mastectomy or breast MRI) and ovarian cancer risk management (risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, CA125 test, or transvaginal/pelvic ultrasound). RESULTS: Of the study participants, 16 (11%) were BRCA1/2-positive, 43 (30%) had a variant of uncertain significance, and 84 (59%) were negative. During the 12 months after GT, no women received risk-reducing mastectomy. The majority (93%) received a mammogram, and a smaller proportion received breast MRI (33%), risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (10%), CA125 test (11%), or transvaginal/pelvic ultrasound (34%). Longer time since the BC diagnosis predicted lower likelihood of BC risk management (odds ratio [OR] 0.54). BRCA1/2 carrier status (OR 4.57), greater perceived risk of recurrence (OR 8.03), and more hereditary breast and ovarian cancer knowledge (OR 1.37) predicted greater likelihood of ovarian cancer risk management. CONCLUSIONS: Young black BC survivors appropriately received mammograms and ovarian cancer risk management based on their BRCA1/2 test result. However, the low usage of MRI among BRCA1/2 carriers contrasts with national guidelines. Future research should examine barriers to MRI among black BC survivors. Finally, modifiable variables predicting risk management after GT were identified, providing implications for future interventions.

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