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1.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 180-190, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, the consumption of resources and the relevant costs in the management of hepatitis C in four Latin American countries: Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela. STUDY DESIGN: Bibliographic review, study of costs and elicitation by experts METHODS: A literature search was carried out to collect epidemiological and cost data for the management of the disease. Information was additionally elicited with hepatologists from each country using the modified Delphi Panel technique. For the estimation of costs, the perspective of the health system was adopted. The direct medical costs of the different stages associated with the natural history of the disease were considered through micro-costing. RESULTS: Extensive epidemiological and economic information is provided for the four countries under study. The age range between 40 and 60 years was the most affected. The frequency of genotypes showed a predominance of genotype 1 (68 to 88%), genotype 1b having been reported as the most prevalent in Argentina and Colombia and 1a in Uruguay and Venezuela. The costs of drug regimens, associated health events and adverse events present important differences in the four selected countries of Latin America. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis C presents a high burden of disease in the countries under study, and its management imposes significant costs on health systems.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1378, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 6% of total deaths are related to alcohol consumption worldwide. Mathematical models are important tools to estimate disease burden and to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to address this burden. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review on models, searching main health literature databases up to July 2017. Pairs of reviewers independently selected, extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We selected those models exploring: a) disease burden (main metrics being attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life years, quality-adjusted life years) or b) economic evaluations of health interventions or policies, based on models including the aforementioned outcomes. We grouped models into broad families according to their common central methodological approach. RESULTS: Out of 4295 reports identified, 63 met our inclusion criteria and were categorized in three main model families that were described in detail: 1) State transition -i.e Markov- models, 2) Life Table-based models and 3) Attributable fraction-based models. Most studies pertained to the latter one (n = 29, 48.3%). A few miscellaneous models could not be framed into these families. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can be useful for future researchers and decision makers planning to undertake alcohol-related disease burden or cost-effectiveness studies. We found several different families of models. Countries interested in adopting relevant public health measures may choose or adapt the one deemed most convenient, based on the availability of existing data at the local level, burden of work, and public health and economic outcomes of interest.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(8): e00129118, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483047

RESUMO

The prevalence of smoking in Brazil has decreased considerably in recent decades, but the country still has a high burden of disease associated with this risk factor. The study aimed to estimate the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society associated with smoking in 2015 and the potential impact on health outcomes and the economy based on price increases for cigarettes through taxes. Two models were developed: the first is a mathematical model based on a probabilistic microsimulation of thousands of individuals using hypothetical cohorts that considered the natural history, costs, and quality of life of these individuals. The second is a tax model applied to estimate the economic benefit and health outcomes in different price increase scenarios in 10 years. Smoking was responsible for 156,337 deaths, 4.2 million years of potential life lost, 229,071 acute myocardial infarctions, 59,509 strokes, and 77,500 cancer diagnoses. The total cost was BRL 56.9 billion (USD 14.7 billion), with 70% corresponding to the direct cost associated with healthcare and the rest to indirect cost due to lost productivity from premature death and disability. A 50% increase in cigarette prices would avoid 136,482 deaths, 507,451 cases of cardiovascular diseases, 64,382 cases of cancer, and 100,365 cases of stroke. The estimated economic benefit would be BRL 97.9 billion (USD 25.5 billion). In conclusion, the burden of disease and economic losses associated with smoking is high in Brazil, and tax increases are capable of averting deaths, illness, and costs to society.

4.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 142-148, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health problem that affects millions of hospitalized patients worldwide. In Argentina, evidence suggests that its incidence has risen in recent years. When severe, AKI may require a renal replacement therapy (RRT) where continuous RRT (CRRT) and intermittent RRT (IRRT) are plausible options for patients in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost utility of CRRT versus IRRT for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners, the largest social security health insurance for elders in Argentina. METHODS: This was a model-based cost-utility analysis. Long-term costs and health outcomes were estimated for a hypothetical cohort with a Markov model. Parameters used were obtained from published literature and validated with local experts. Local costs were estimated and expressed in $AR of 2016. Several sensitivity analyses were run to analyze the impact of uncertainty on results. RESULTS: Continuous RRT dominated IRRT by cumulating over the model more quality-adjusted life years and less costs. Total discounted quality-adjusted life years for both cohorts were 1049 and 1034, respectively, and total costs were $95 362 and $103 871. Cost-effectiveness (CE) results reflect these differences in favor of CRRT with a deterministic cost-saving incremental CE ratio and a probability of CRRT being CE of 65.4%, considering a CE threshold of 1 gross domestic product per capita. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous RRT for patients with AKI eligible for CRRT or IRRT would probably be a cost-effective intervention for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners' view. Nevertheless, there is considerable uncertainty around results, mainly due to the lack of adequate controlled studies and local data on the prognosis of these patients in Argentina.

5.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(38): 8-15, Abril 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-996317

RESUMO

NTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de alcohol es uno de los principales factores de riesgo. Para relevar las condiciones previas al establecimiento de políticas públicas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de alcohol en Argentina, se fijaron tres objetivos: a) caracterizar la demanda y oferta de bebidas alcohólicas; b) evaluar la situación normativa respecto de políticas de control de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio, y las pautas de publicidad televisiva; c) definir qué modelos de carga de enfermedad atribuible y costo-efectividad de las intervenciones podrían ser aplicables. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2004/5 y 2012/3 y de la base Euromonitor Internacional. Se examinaron el marco normativo y las acciones televisivas de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio. Se revisó la literatura sobre modelos de carga de enfermedad y costo-efectividad de intervenciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo de bebidas alcohólicas no se modificó entre 2004/5 y 2012/3, y la industria está muy concentrada. El marco de regulación de la publicidad es laxo; más de la mitad de los avisos de TV se emiten en horario diurno, por lo que se expone a menores y se incumplen los acuerdos internacionales subscritos. Hay tres enfoques principales de modelamiento epidemiológico y económico que podrían ser aplicables. CONCLUSIONES: Se caracterizaron aspectos económicos, jurídico-legales y epidemiológicos útiles para impulsar una agenda pública orientada a disminuir el consumo de alcohol


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Saúde Pública , Revisão , Publicidade como Assunto , Bebidas Alcoólicas
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(8): e00129118, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019619

RESUMO

A prevalência do tabagismo no Brasil reduziu sobremaneira nas últimas décadas, mas o país ainda tem uma elevada carga de doença associada a este fator de risco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a carga de mortalidade, morbidade e custos para a sociedade associada ao tabagismo em 2015 e o potencial impacto gerado em desfechos de saúde e para a economia a partir do aumento de preços dos cigarros por meio de impostos. Foram desenvolvidos dois modelos: o primeiro é um modelo matemático baseado em uma microssimulação probabilística de milhares de indivíduos usando-se coortes hipotéticas que considerou a história natural, custos e a qualidade de vida destes indivíduos. O segundo é um modelo de impostos aplicado para estimar o benefício econômico e em desfechos de saúde de diferentes cenários de aumento de preços em 10 anos. O tabagismo foi responsável por 156.337 mortes, 4,2 milhões de anos de vida perdidos, 229.071 infartos agudos do miocárdio, 59.509 acidentes vasculares cerebrais e 77.500 diagnósticos de câncer. O custo total foi de R$ 56,9 bilhões, dos quais 70% corresponderam ao custo direto associado à assistência à saúde e o restante ao custo indireto devido à perda de produtividade por morte prematura e incapacidade. Um aumento de 50% do preço do cigarro evitaria 136.482 mortes, 507.451 casos de doenças cardiovasculares, 64.382 de casos de câncer e 100.365 acidentes vasculares cerebrais. O benefício econômico estimado seria de R$ 97,9 bilhões. Concluiu-se que a carga da doença e econômica associada ao tabagismo é elevada no Brasil e o aumento de impostos é capaz de evitar mortes, adoecimento e custos para a sociedade.


La prevalencia del tabaquismo en Brasil se redujo sobremanera en las últimas décadas, pero el país todavía cuenta con una elevada carga de enfermedad asociada a este factor de riesgo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la carga de mortalidad, morbilidad y costes para la sociedad, asociada al tabaquismo en 2015, y el impacto potencial generado en los desenlaces de salud y para la economía a partir del aumento de precios del tabaco a través de impuestos. Se desarrollaron dos modelos: el primero es un modelo matemático, basado en una microsimulación probabilística de millares de individuos, a través de cohortes hipotéticas, que consideró la historia natural, costes y calidad de vida de esos individuos. El segundo se trata de un modelo de impuestos aplicado para estimar el beneficio económico y en desenlaces de salud de diferentes escenarios con el aumento de precios durante 10 años. El tabaquismo fue responsable de 156.337 muertes, 4,2 millones de años de vida perdidos, 229.071 infartos agudos de miocardio, 59.509 accidentes vasculares cerebrales y 77.500 diagnósticos de cáncer. El coste total fue de BRL 56,9 billones (USD 14,7 billones), de los cuales un 70% correspondieron al coste directo asociado a la asistencia a la salud y lo restante al coste indirecto, debido a la pérdida de productividad por muerte prematura e incapacidad. Un aumento de un 50% del precio del tabaco evitaría 136.482 muertes, 507.451 casos de enfermedades cardiovasculares, 64.382 de casos de cáncer y 100.365 accidentes vasculares cerebrales. El beneficio económico estimado sería de BRL 97,9 billones (USD 25,5 billones). Se concluyó que la carga de la enfermedad y económica asociada al tabaquismo es elevada en Brasil y el aumento de impuestos es capaz de evitar muertes, enfermedad y costes para la sociedad.


The prevalence of smoking in Brazil has decreased considerably in recent decades, but the country still has a high burden of disease associated with this risk factor. The study aimed to estimate the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society associated with smoking in 2015 and the potential impact on health outcomes and the economy based on price increases for cigarettes through taxes. Two models were developed: the first is a mathematical model based on a probabilistic microsimulation of thousands of individuals using hypothetical cohorts that considered the natural history, costs, and quality of life of these individuals. The second is a tax model applied to estimate the economic benefit and health outcomes in different price increase scenarios in 10 years. Smoking was responsible for 156,337 deaths, 4.2 million years of potential life lost, 229,071 acute myocardial infarctions, 59,509 strokes, and 77,500 cancer diagnoses. The total cost was BRL 56.9 billion (USD 14.7 billion), with 70% corresponding to the direct cost associated with healthcare and the rest to indirect cost due to lost productivity from premature death and disability. A 50% increase in cigarette prices would avoid 136,482 deaths, 507,451 cases of cardiovascular diseases, 64,382 cases of cancer, and 100,365 cases of stroke. The estimated economic benefit would be BRL 97.9 billion (USD 25.5 billion). In conclusion, the burden of disease and economic losses associated with smoking is high in Brazil, and tax increases are capable of averting deaths, illness, and costs to society.

7.
Value Health ; 21(12): 1357-1364, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Análise Custo-Benefício , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Hipertensão/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/economia , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Médicos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Mensagem de Texto
8.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(4): 599-609, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985793

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivos. Estimar la carga de enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en Paraguay y evaluar el potencial efecto económico y sanitario del aumento de precio mediante impuestos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un modelo de microsimulación de Monte Carlo que incorporó la historia natural, costos y calidad de vida de enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo para el 2015. Asimismo, se estimó el impacto en varios escenarios de aumento de impuestos sobre la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la recaudación fiscal. Resultados. 3354 personas mueren al año en Paraguay por consecuencia del tabaquismo. El 19 % de las muertes son por enfermedad isquémica cardíaca, el 15 % por accidentes cerebrovasculares. El 77 % de las muertes por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el 83 % de cáncer de pulmón son atribuibles al tabaquismo. Estas enfermedades en Paraguay representan un costo médico directo anual de más de 1,5 x 106 millones de guaraníes, mientras la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas llega a cubrir un 20 % de este gasto. Un aumento en el precio de los cigarrillos del 50 % vía impuestos, podría llevar a evitar 2507 muertes en diez años y generar recursos por 2,4 x 106 millones por ahorro en gastos sanitarios y aumento de recaudación. Conclusiones. El costo y la carga de enfermedad asociado al consumo de tabaco en el sistema de salud es elevado en Paraguay. Un aumento del precio de los cigarrillos a través de los impuestos tendría importantes beneficios sanitarios y podría compensar parcialmente los costos sanitarios.


ABSTRACT Objectives . To consider the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption in Paraguay and to evaluate the potential economic and health effect of price increase through taxes. Materials and Methods . A Monte Carlo simulation model was designed incorporating natural history, costs, and quality of life of diseases associated to smoking for 2015. Also, several scenarios were considered for the impact of tax raises on the prevalence of smoking and fiscal collection. Results . In Paraguay, 3,354 people die every year as a consequence of smoking. Nineteen percent of deaths are due to cardiac ischemia, 15% due to stroke. 77% of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 83% of lung cancer can be attributed to smoking. These diseases in Paraguay represent an annual direct medical cost of more than 1.5 trillion PYG, while the tax collection from cigarette sales barely covers 20% of this expense. A 50% increase in the price of cigarettes via taxes could avoid 2507 deaths in ten years and generate resources by 2.4 trillion in savings in health expenses and tax of collection. Conclusions . The cost and the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption is high in the health system in Paraguay. An increase in cigarette price through taxes could have significant health benefits and could offset health costs in part.

9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 35(4): 599-609, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To consider the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption in Paraguay and to evaluate the potential economic and health effect of price increase through taxes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Monte Carlo simulation model was designed incorporating natural history, costs, and quality of life of diseases associated to smoking for 2015. Also, several scenarios were considered for the impact of tax raises on the prevalence of smoking and fiscal collection. RESULTS: In Paraguay, 3,354 people die every year as a consequence of smoking. Nineteen percent of deaths are due to cardiac ischemia, 15% due to stroke. 77% of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 83% of lung cancer can be attributed to smoking. These diseases in Paraguay represent an annual direct medical cost of more than 1.5 trillion PYG, while the tax collection from cigarette sales barely covers 20% of this expense. A 50% increase in the price of cigarettes via taxes could avoid 2507 deaths in ten years and generate resources by 2.4 trillion in savings in health expenses and tax of collection. CONCLUSIONS: The cost and the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption is high in the health system in Paraguay. An increase in cigarette price through taxes could have significant health benefits and could offset health costs in part.


Assuntos
Comércio , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Impostos , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17385, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234054

RESUMO

GABAergic and dopaminergic pathways are co-localized in several areas of the central nervous system and recently several reports have shown co-release of both neurotransmitters. The GABA-A receptor (ß and ρ1 subunits) is modulated by dopamine (DA) and, interestingly, GABAρ1 can be modulated by several biogenic amines. Here we explored the effects of the metabolites of the dopaminergic pathway and other structural analogues of DA on GABAρ1 and the DA gated ion channel (LGC-53) from Caenorhabditis elegans expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our findings show an antagonistic effect of the metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT, IC50 = 285 ± 30 µM) with similar potency compared to DA on induced GABA currents; however, it was inactive on LGC-53. The structural DA analogues and metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 2-phenylethylamine (ß-PEA) and 4-amino-1-butanol (4-AM-1-OH), antagonized GABAρ1 currents, whereas ß-PEA acted as partial agonists on LGC-53, indicating that the putative binding sites of both receptors may share structural characteristics. These results suggest that the DA metabolites 3-MT, DOPAC and HVA modulate GABAρ1 and possibly affect the activity of the receptors that include this subunit in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/farmacologia , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de GABA-A/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Dopamina/análogos & derivados , Dopamina/farmacologia , Ácido Homovanílico/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oócitos , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/química , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/química , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/genética
11.
Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam ; 46(1): 8-17, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470878

RESUMO

International evidence show that screening for colorectal cancer is cost-effective; however, in Argentina is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The study shows the results of a cost-effectiveness evaluation based on two alternative mechanisms: annual faecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and colonoscopy every ten years in Argentina. METHODS: The study develops a Mar- kov model in ten stages, based on information provided by the INC, prior literature review and on-line questionnaires to physicians enrolled in the four major scientific societies related to cancer. Cost information arrived from the Na- tional Superintendence of Social Health Insurances and a sample of managers in social and private insurance schemes. RESULTS: The most cost-effective strategy consisted annual FIT, in comparison no intervention and colonoscopy every 10 years. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of FIT versus no intervention was of 980.5 pesos per QALY The findings were robust to deterministic sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that screening for CRC is a cost-effective intervention. Whereas the CCR is one of the leading causes of mortality in Argentina, these results support the widespread use of screening for CRC using anual FIT which proves to be highly cost effective for the country.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 23(11): 3244-7, 2013 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23597793

RESUMO

A tetrazole isosteric analogue of clofibric acid (1) was prepared using a short synthetic route and was characterized by elemental analysis, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of 1 against 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) was evaluated, showing a moderate inhibitory enzyme activity (51.17% of inhibition at 10 µM), being more active than clofibrate and clofibric acid. The antidiabetic activity of compound 1 was determined at 50 mg/Kg single dose using a non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus rat model. The results indicated a significant decrease of plasma glucose levels, during the 7h post-administration. Additionally, we performed a molecular docking of 1 into the ligand binding pocket of one subunit of human 11ß-HSD1. In this model, compound 1 binds into the catalytic site of 11ß-HSD1 in two different orientations. Both of them, show important short contacts with the catalytic residues Ser 170, Tyr 183, Asp 259 and also with the nicotinamide ring of NADP(+).


Assuntos
Ácido Clofíbrico/química , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Tetrazóis/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Glicemia/análise , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/síntese química , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico
14.
Buenos Aires; The Envelope; 1927. 70 p. (84585).
Monografia em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-84585
16.
Buenos Aires; Claridad; 4a. ed; 1944. 316 p. 21 cm.(Biblioteca de Obras Famosas, vol. 4 Bis). (73939).
Monografia em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-73939
17.
Buenos Aires; Claridad; 4. ed; 1944. 316 p. ilus. (105199).
Monografia em Espanhol | BINACIS | ID: bin-105199
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