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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Palliative care not only focuses on physical ailments associated with the disease, but also considers the psychological, social and spiritual needs of the patients. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of physical activity on palliative care patients, with special regard to the subjective assessment of severity of total pain and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 92 palliative care patients either in a hospice or at home. The tool used to assess the patients was an original questionnaire focusing on the area of their independence and motor abilities. The study attempted to understand whether an appropriate physical activity and the instruction of palliative care patients and their families in the field of independence would improve the quality of life and reduce the intensity of total pain in the patients. RESULTS: All of the patients were at an advanced stage of cancer. The survey at time "0", conducted before the start of the instructions for patients and their relatives, showed that a majority of patients (47, 51.09%) often experienced limitations during the performance of daily activities. In the fourth visit, conducted one week after the fourth educational session, there was a significant increase in patients who did not experience any limitations in performing their daily activities or experienced them just sometimes. CONCLUSIONS: The ultimate effect of the proposed educational program on physical activity was an increase in the quality of life, a reduction in pain and a mood improvement. These results would need confirmation with more extensive studies.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804565

RESUMO

Thoracic outlet syndrome comprises a group of disorders that result in compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian vessels exiting the thoracic outlet. Symptoms include pain, paresthesia, pallor, and weakness depending upon the compromised structures. While consensus in diagnostic criteria has not yet been established, a thorough patient history, physical exam, and appropriate imaging studies are helpful in diagnosis. General first-line therapy for thoracic outlet syndrome is a conservative treatment, and may include physical therapy, lifestyle modifications, NSAIDs, and injection therapy of botulinum toxin A or steroids. Patients who have failed conservative therapy are considered for surgical decompression. This article aims to review the epidemiology, etiology, relevant anatomy, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management of thoracic outlet syndrome.

4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670000

RESUMO

Background. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of flaccid paralysis, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Recently, the incidence of GBS has increased during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemics. We reviewed the literature to give a comprehensive overview of the demographic characteristics, clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2-related GBS patients. Methods. Embase, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Central Trials Register were systematically searched on 24 September 2020 for studies reporting on GBS secondary to COVID-19. Results. We identified 63 articles; we included 32 studies in our review. A total of 41 GBS cases with a confirmed or probable COVID-19 infection were reported: 26 of them were single case reports and 6 case series. Published studies on SARS-CoV-2-related GBS typically report a classic sensorimotor type of GBS often with a demyelinating electrophysiological subtype. Miller Fisher syndrome was reported in a quarter of the cases. In 78.1% of the cases, the response to immunomodulating therapy is favourable. The disease course is frequently severe and about one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS requires mechanical ventilation and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. Rarely the outcome is poor or even fatal (10.8% of the cases). Conclusion. Clinical presentation, course, response to treatment, and outcome are similar in SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS and GBS due to other triggers.

5.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(4): 403-412, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621439

RESUMO

Retinal disorders are leading causes of blindness and are due to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenger (in favor of pro-oxidant species) or a disruption of redox signaling and control. Indeed, it is well known that oxidative stress is one of the leading causes of retinal degenerative diseases. Different approaches using nutraceuticals resulted in protective effects in these disorders. This review will discuss the impact of oxidative stress in retinal neurodegenerative diseases and the potential strategies for avoiding or counteracting oxidative damage in retinal tissues, with a specific focus on taurine. Increasing data indicate that taurine may be effective in slowing down the progression of degenerative retinal diseases, thus suggesting that taurine can be a promising candidate for the prevention or as adjuvant treatment of these diseases. The mechanism by which taurine supplementation acts is mainly related to the reduction of oxidative stress. In particular, it has been demonstrated to improve retinal reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. Antiapoptotic effects are also involved; however, the protective mechanisms exerted by taurine against retinal damage remain to be further investigated.

6.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present paper focuses on the possible contribution of food compounds to alleviate symptomatic pains. Chronic pain can more easily be linked to anticipatory signals such as thirst and hunger than it is to sensory perceptions as its chronicity makes it fall under the behavioural category rather than it does senses. In fact, pain often negatively affects one's normal feeding behavioural patterns, both directly and indirectly, as it is associated with pain or because of its prostrating effects. NUTRITIONAL COMPOUNDS FOR PAIN: Several nutraceuticals and Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMPs) are reported to have significant pain relief efficacy with multiple antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Apart from the aforementioned properties, amino acids, fatty acids, trace elements and vitamins may have a role in the modulation of pain signals to and within the nervous system. CONCLUSION: In our opinion, this review could be of great interest to clinicians, as it offers a complementary perspective in the management of pain. Trials with well-defined patient and symptoms selection and a robust pharmacological design are pivotal points to let these promising compounds become better accepted by the medical community.

7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(2): 11, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547511

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding post-surgical cutaneous nerve entrapment, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. It focuses mainly on nerve entrapment leading to chronic pain and the available therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cutaneous nerve entrapment is not an uncommon result (up to 30% of patients) of surgery and could lead to significant, difficult to treat chronic pain. Untreated, entrapment can lead to neuropathy and damage to enervated structures and musculature, and significant morbidity and financial loss. Nerve entrapment is defined as pressure neuropathy from chronic compression. It causes changes to all layers of the nerve tissue. It is most significantly associated with hernia repair and other procedures employing a Pfannenstiel incision. The initial insult is usually incising of the nerve, followed by formation of a neuroma, incorporation of the nerve during closing, or constriction from adhesions. The three most commonly involved nerves are the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and genitofemoral nerves. Cutaneous abdominal nerve entrapment could occur during thoracoabdominal surgery. The presentation of nerve entrapment usually involved post-surgical pain in the territory innervated by the trapped nerve, possibly with radiation that tracks the nerve course. Once a suspected neuropathy is identified, it can be diagnosed with relief in pain after a nerve block has been instilled. Treatment is usually started with pharmaceutical solutions, topical first and oral if those fail. Most patients require escalation to a second line of treatment and see good result with injection therapy. Those that require further escalation can choose between ablation and surgical therapies. Post-surgical nerve entrapment is not uncommon and causes serious morbidity and financial loss. It is underdiagnosed and thus undertreated. Preventing nerve entrapment is the best treatment; when it does occur, options include topical and oral analgesics, nerve blocks, ablation therapy, and repeat surgery.

8.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20958979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294037

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic rhizotomy (ER) for denervation of lumbar facet joints in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) due to facet joint syndrome (FJS). Methods: A total of 50 consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP due to facet joints were screened to be treated with ER. The patients participating in the study had a 2-year follow up. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were assessed in the preoperative and postoperative period. To evaluate secondary endpoints, patients were divided into groups. One group included the patients previously treated with percutaneous radiofrequency (RF). The other group comprised patients at their first interventional treatment. We also compared patients dividing them by age and by number of joints treated, trying to elucidate if these parameters could be predictive of effectiveness of the procedure. Results: All patients had a reduction in NRS and an improvement in ODI. NRS was reduced significantly after 1 month and remained the same until the end of the study. ODI was significantly improved from T1 (1 month after surgery) up to T7 (end of the study). The improvements did not differ whether already treated with percutaneous rhizotomy or not. Patients less than 60 years or with 1-2 joints treated had better improvement compared with the others. Conclusion: The results obtained demonstrate that ER for denervation of the facet joint is an effective treatment in patients with chronic LBP, with consistent and stable results at 2-year follow up. The technique has a rapid learning curve and no major complications occurred. Moreover, the previous percutaneous RF treatment had no influence on the results obtained with endoscopic technique. There is evidence that best results are obtained in younger patients and/or in patients with 1-2 joints treated. Lay summary: Low-back pain has facet joints inflammation or degeneration as pain generator in 20-40% of cases. Nervous lesion of the dorsal ramus innervating the facet joints has been shown as an efficacious treatment to obtain good analgesia. Percutaneous techniques have provided short term results for several reasons. This research aimed to see whether endoscopic denervation, which guarantees a more precise approach to anatomical structure, would result in more durable results. The study conducted on 40 patients has made it clear that this approach gives significant analgesia for at least 2 years, which was the time of patient follow up.

9.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) arises either acutely or in the chronic phase of a lesion or disease of the peripheral nervous system and is associated with a notable disease burden. The management of PNP is often challenging. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence, derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed pharmacological interventions for the treatment of PNP due to polyneuropathy (PN). METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed database led to the identification of 538 papers, of which 457 were excluded due to not meeting the eligibility criteria, and two articles were identified through screening of the reference lists of the 81 eligible studies. Ultimately, 83 papers were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: The best available evidence for the management of painful diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is for amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, pregabalin and venlafaxine as monotherapies and oxycodone as add-on therapy (level II of evidence). Tramadol appears to be effective when used as a monotherapy and add-on therapy in patients with PN of various etiologies (level II of evidence). Weaker evidence (level III) is available on the effectiveness of several other agents discussed in this review for the management of PNP due to PN. DISCUSSION: Response to treatment may be affected by the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of the PN and, therefore, it is very important to thoroughly investigate patients presenting with PNP to determine the causes of this neuropathy. Future RCTs should be conducted to shed more light on the use of pharmacological approaches in patients with other forms of PNP and to design specific treatment algorithms.

10.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 355-368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004153

RESUMO

Reclassification of chronic pain as a disease may be helpful because patients with chronic pain require significant treatment and rehabilitation with a clear diagnosis. This can help address critical factors including suffering, quality of life, participation, and with family and social life, which continue to become more important in evaluating the quality of the health care we give our patients today. During the past decade of the opioid epidemic, methadone was the primary treatment for opioid addiction until buprenorphine was approved. Buprenorphine's high-affinity partial agonist properties make it a good alternative to methadone due to lower abuse potential and safer adverse effect profile while maintaining significant efficacy. Expanded out-patient prescribing options have allowed physician and physician extenders such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners to treat these patients that otherwise would have been required to utilize methadone. With unique pharmacological properties, buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for chronic pain. The literature for buprenorphine shows great potential for its utilization in the treatment of chronic pain.

11.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 369-382, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004154

RESUMO

Primary osteoarthritis (OA) hinders an aging global population as one of the leading causes of years-lost-to-disability (YLD). OA in most patients is considered to be an overuse injury that results in degenerative inflammation of the joints with the associated formation of bony outgrowths. Due to the escalating nature of this chronic pain disease, treatment management for OA can initially begin with a more conservative approach. It can eventually lead to more invasive surgical procedures. At present, the standard of care remains initial conservative management with lifestyle changes, including weight loss with concurrent anti-inflammatory regimens. Injections are frequently used for the escalation of care, but a significant number of patients ultimately resort to total knee arthroplasty. This review will focus specifically on knee OA, providing a brief overview of risk factors and early management and in-depth exploration of the invasive interventions that can offer symptomatic relief and return of function.

12.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 449-461, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004158

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a common condition that is being increasingly recognized, diagnosed, and treated in a variety of settings. Opioids can be used to treat chronic pain but at the cost of adverse effects and risk of dependence. Recently, there has been a movement to improve analgesic care in the setting of the opioid epidemic and the overprescribing of opioids, causing over-accessibility, dependence, and large numbers of overdose deaths. Opioid-specific receptors, including the µ, δ, κ, and opioid receptor like-1 (ORL-1) receptors, are each 7-transmembrane spanning proteins, which affect the G-protein and ß-arrestin cascades. Each opioid class can act differently on the receptors, resulting in full, partial, or antagonizing effects. This comprehensive review looks at different agents in major classes, nonselective and mixed/partial agonists/antagonists, including the nonselective partial agonists, levorphanol and tramadol. Mixed partial agonists/antagonists include buprenorphine, pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol. Oliceridine is the only current selective partial agonist that agonizes specific pathways to promote analgesic effects and discourage adverse effects.

13.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 463-477, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004159

RESUMO

Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each.

14.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 507-516, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004162

RESUMO

Chronic pain is typically defined as pain that persists after acute tissue damage and inflammation or as pain that follows a chronic disease process and lasts more than three months. Because of its debilitating impact on the quality of life of patients, recent research aims to investigate the mechanisms behind nociception to discover novel therapeutic agents to alleviate pain. One such target is the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which has shown to play an integral role in migraine pathophysiology. Effective treatments of migraines with CGRP antagonists have stimulated our efforts toward checking a possible involvement of CGRP in nonheadache pain conditions such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular ischemia. Here, we provide a brief overview of chronic pain, with a particular emphasis on the role of CGRP as a fundamental mediator of nociceptive pain as well as a target for novel therapeutic agents.

15.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 529-537, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004164

RESUMO

Although pain treatment has been described as a fundamental human right, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced healthcare systems worldwide to redistribute healthcare resources toward intensive care units and other COVID-19 dedicated sites. As most chronic pain services were subsequently deemed non-urgent, all outpatient and elective interventional procedures have been reduced or interrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce the risk of viral spread. The shutdown of pain services jointly to the home lockdown imposed by governments has affected chronic pain management worldwide with additional impact on patients' psychological health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic pain treatment and to address what types of strategies can be implemented or supported in order to overcome imposed limitations in delivery of chronic pain patient care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 539-551, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004165

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world with devastating consequences on patients, healthcare workers, health systems, as well as economies. While, healthcare systems are globally operating at maximum capacity, healthcare workers and especially anesthesia providers are facing extreme pressures, something that is also leading to declining availability and increasing stress. In this regard, it is extremely concerning the fact that some regions worldwide have reported up to 20% of their cases to be healthcare workers. When considering that the global case fatality rate may be as much as 5.4%, these numbers are concerning and unacceptable. As this pandemic accelerates, access to personal protective equipment for health workers is a key concern since at present, healthcare workers are every country's most valuable resource in the fight against COVID-19. Governments and heath organizations should take care of their staff and support them in any way possible. This review aims to describe the current situation anesthesia providers are facing in the setting of COVID-19 and provide solutions and evidence on important concerns, including which guidance to follow, the level of equipment that is adequate, and the level of protection they need for every patient being administered an anesthetic.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
17.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 569-582, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004168

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has influenced the entire health care system, including cardiac surgery. In this review, the authors reveal practical aspects that are important during the COVID-19 pandemic with regards to the safe delivery of cardiac anesthesia. Timing for operations of the cardio-vascular system may be well programmed in most cases. Hence, the level of priorities must be defined for any single patient. The postponement of surgery may be convenient for most cases, if it is made in the best interest of the patient. The preanesthetic evaluation should be attentive of the respiratory history of the patient. Cardiac anesthesia always implies some respiratory monitoring; hence the existing clinical situation of the patient's respiratory system should be clear. In case of emergency surgery, the patient should be treated as if they potentially have or are at risk for the virus. In the case of a COVID-19 confirmed or suspected patient, attention must be made to preserve operating room and team integrity. The machineries are to be draped with plastic to simplify the disinfection after the operation. Perioperative management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients must strictly follow the most relevant international guidelines. This review article has synthesized the common aspects present in the most important of these.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos
18.
Postgrad Med ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089707

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations are increasingly reported in a subset of COVID-19 patients. Previous infections related to coronaviruses, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) also appeared to have neurological effects on some patients. The viruses associated with COVID-19 like that of SARS enters the body via the ACE-2 receptors in the central nervous system, which causes the body to balance an immune response against potential damage to non-renewable cells. A few rare cases of neurological sequalae of SARS and MERS have been reported. A growing body of evidence is accumulating that COVID-19, particularly in severe cases, may have neurological consequences although respiratory symptoms nearly always develop prior to neurological ones. Patients with pre-existing neurological conditions may be at elevated risk for COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms. Neurological reports in COVID-19 patients have described encephalopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myopathy, neuromuscular disorders, encephalitis, cephalgia, delirium, critical illness polyneuropathy, and others. Treating neurological symptoms can pose clinical challenges as drugs that suppress immune response may be contraindicated in COVID-19 patients. It is possible that in some COVID-19 patients, neurological symptoms are being overlooked or misinterpreted. To date, neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have been described largely within the disease trajectory and the long-term effects of such manifestations remains unknown.

19.
Brain Res ; 1748: 147057, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898508

RESUMO

C5a is a crucial terminal effector of the C cascade, mostly involved in pain and neuroinflammatory conditions. DF3016A is a novel potent and selective C5a receptor (C5aR) inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may have pharmacological properties. We have previously demonstrated a protective effect of DF3016A on injured primary cortical neurons by oxygen-glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R) model to mimic the neuroinflammatory process. Here, we investigated the molecular pathway and factors involved in the neuroprotection previously reported. Our findings show that DF3016A protects against the neuroinflammatory insult by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription pathway, which involves methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and microRNA-132 (miR-132) regulatory factors, both required in nociceptive signaling and neuroinflammation. Further in vivo investigations will confirm the functionality of the DF3016A molecule as a therapeutic resource in neuroinflammation and pain injuries.

20.
Adv Ther ; 37(10): 4096-4106, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) is defined as the neuropathic pain that arises either acutely or in the chronic phase of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral nervous system. PNP is associated with a remarkable disease burden, and there is an increasing demand for new therapies to be used in isolation or combination with currently available treatments. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence, derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess non-pharmacological interventions for the treatment of PNP. METHODS: After a systematic Medline search, we identified 18 papers eligible to be included. RESULTS: The currently best available evidence (level II of evidence) exist for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In particular, spinal cord stimulation as adjuvant to conventional medical treatment can be effectively used for the management of patients with refractory pain. Similarly, adjuvant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex is effective in reducing the overall pain intensity, whereas adjuvant static magnetic field therapy can lead to a significant decrease in exercise-induced pain. Weaker evidence (level III of evidence) exists for the use of acupuncture as a monotherapy and neurofeedback, either as an add-on or a monotherapy approach, for treatment of painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy CONCLUSIONS: Future RCTs should be conducted to shed more light in the use of non-pharmacological approaches in patients with PNP.

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