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1.
Neuroradiology ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent randomized-controlled clinical trials have provided preliminary evidence for expanding the time window of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients by applying certain neuroimaging criteria. We prospectively assessed the potential eligibility for IVT in the extended time window (4.5-9 h) among consecutive AIS patients treated in a comprehensive stroke center during a nine-month period. METHODS: Potential eligibility for IVT in the extended time window was evaluated by using inclusion criteria from the EXTEND trial. All patients were underwent baseline emergent neurovascular imaging using either computed tomography angiography/computed tomography perfusion (CTA/CTP) or magnetic resonance angiography/magnetic resonance perfusion (MRA/MRP). Images were post processed by the automated software RAPID. RESULTS: Our study population consisted of 317 AIS patients, and, among them, 31 (9.8 %) patients were presented in the time window of 4.5-9 h. Seven patients (2.2 %) fulfilled the EXTEND neuroimaging criteria. Four patients (1.3 %) were treated with IVT because they fulfilled both clinical and neuroimaging EXTEND criteria. Patients eligible for EXTEND neuroimaging criteria had no ischemic core lesion, whereas the mean volume of critical hypoperfusion was relatively small (17.0 ± 11.8 ml). There was no hemorrhagic complication in any of the patients treated with IVT. The median mRS score at three months was 0 (range: 0-3) among patients who were eligible for EXTEND neuroimaging criteria. CONCLUSION: Our everyday clinical practice experience suggests 9.8 % of consecutive AIS patients present in the 4.5-9 h window and 2.2 % adhere to EXTEND neuroimaging eligibility criteria for IVT. Only 1.3% of AIS is eligible for IVT according to EXTEND neuroimaging and clinical eligibility criteria.

2.
Neurology ; 94(7): e657-e666, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist on the safety and efficacy of IV thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) receiving dual antiplatelet pretreatment (DAPP). The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the safety and outcome of DAPP history among patients with AIS treated with IVT. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature review to identify studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of DAPP among patients with AIS treated with IVT. RESULTS: We identified 9 studies comprising 66,675 patients. In unadjusted analyses, DAPP was associated with a higher likelihood of pooled symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH; odds ratio [OR] 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.67) and 3-month mortality (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.25-1.73). DAPP was also related to higher odds of sICH according to Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke Monitoring Study (OR 2.71; 95% CI 2.05-3.59), European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.46-3.40), and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.38-1.83) definitions. There was no association between DAPP and 3-month favorable functional outcome (FFO, modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-1) and 3-month functional independence (FI; mRS score 0-2). In adjusted analyses, history of DAPP was not associated with pooled sICH (OR 2.03; 95% CI 0.75-5.52), 3-month mortality (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.87-1.40), 3-month FFO (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.77-1.09), and 3-month FI (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.89-1.15). CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for potential confounders, DAPP appears not to be associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes in patients with AIS treated with IVT.

3.
J Neurol Sci ; 409: 116590, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811985

RESUMO

BACKROUND & PURPOSE: Perioperative neck hematoma (PNH) requiring re-intervention is an important complication after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). There are limited data regarding the potential risk factors associated with PNH. The aim of this prospective, multicenter study was to document the rate of PNH in symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (sCAS) patients treated with CEA within the first 14 days of cerebrovascular symptom onset and to identify possible predictors of this complication. METHODS: Patients with non-disabling (mRS ≤ 2) acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack due to sCAS (≥70%) underwent CEA at three stroke-centers during a seven-year period. PNH requiring surgical re-intervention or transfusion during a 30-day follow-up period was determined by the attending surgeon but was also confirmed by an independent neurologist. RESULTS: A total of 280 patients with sCAS underwent CEA within 14 days of ictus. PNH occurred in 10 cases (3.6%; 95%CI: 1.4%-5.8%). Pretreatment with therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) and history of atrial fibrillation were more prevalent in patients with PNH (20% vs. 3.1%, p= 0.047 & 30% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.05 respectively). Elapsed time between symptom onset and carotid surgery, pretreatment with dual antiplatelets, intravenous thrombolysis or prophylactic anticoagulation were not related to PNH in univariable analyses. Pretreatment with TA was independently associated with higher likelihood of PNH [OR: 10.69, 95%CI (1.74-65.72), p = 0.011] in multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: PNH is uncommon in patients with sCAS that are operated during the first 14 days of ictus. Pretreatment with TA appears to be associated with higher risk of PNH.

4.
J Neurol ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every anticoagulation decision has in inherent risk of hemorrhage; intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating hemorrhagic complication. We examined whether combining ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke risk in individual patients might provide a meaningful paradigm for risk stratification. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients with anticoagulation-associated ICH in 15 tertiary centers in the USA, Europe and Asia between 2015 and 2017. Each patient was assigned baseline ischemic stroke and hemorrhage risk based on their CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores. We computed a net risk by subtracting hemorrhagic from ischemic risk. If the sum was positive the patient was assigned a "Favorable" indication for anticoagulation; if negative, "Unfavorable". RESULTS: We enrolled 357 patients [59% men, median age 76 (68-82) years]. 31% used non-vitamin K antagonist (NOAC). 191 (53.5%) patients had a favorable indication for anticoagulation prior to their ICH; 166 (46.5%) unfavorable. Those with unfavorable indication were younger [72 (66-80) vs 78 (73-84) years, p = 0.001], with lower CHA2DS2-VASc score [3(3-4) vs 5(4-6), p < 0.001]. Those with favorable indication had a significantly higher prevalence of most cardiovascular risk factors and were more likely to use a NOAC (35% vs 25%, p = 0.045). Both groups had similar prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this anticoagulation-associated ICH cohort, baseline hemorrhagic risk exceeded ischemic risk in approximately 50%, highlighting the importance of careful consideration of risk/benefit ratio prior to anticoagulation decisions. The remaining 50% suffered an ICH despite excess baseline ischemic risk, stressing the need for biomarkers to allow more precise estimation of hemorrhagic complication risk.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occult paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is a common and potential treatable cause of cryptogenic stroke (CS). We sought to prospectively identify independent predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in patients with CS and sinus rhythm on baseline electrocardiogram (ECG), without prior AF history. We had hypothesized that cardiac arrhythmia detection during neurosonology examinations (Carotid Duplex (CDU) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD)) may be associated with higher likelihood of AF detection. METHODS: Consecutive CS patients were prospectively evaluated over a six-year period. Demographics, clinical and imaging characteristics of cerebral ischemia were documented. The presence of arrhythmia during spectral waveform analysis of CDU/TCD was recorded. Left atrial enlargement was documented during echocardiography using standard definitions. The outcome event of interest included PAF detection on outpatient 24-h Holter ECG recordings. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 373 patients with CS were evaluated (mean age 60 ± 11 years, 67% men, median NIHSS-score 4 points). The rate of PAF detection of any duration on Holter ECG recordings was 11% (95% CI 8%-14%). The following three variables were independently associated with the likelihood of AF detection on 24-h Holter-ECG recordings in both multivariate analyses adjusting for potential confounders: age (OR per 10-year increase: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.19-2.37; p = 0.003), moderate or severe left atrial enlargement (OR: 4.81; 95% CI: 1.77-13.03; p = 0.002) and arrhythmia detection during neurosonology evaluations (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.47-6.48; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings underline the potential utility of neurosonology in improving the detection rate of PAF in patients with CS.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e014425, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657277

RESUMO

Background Recent randomized controlled clinical trials have provided solid evidence that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) coupled with best medical therapy (BMT) improve functional outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion compared with BMT alone. However, they provided inconclusive evidence on the benefit of MT on mortality. Methods and Results We evaluated the association of MT+BMT compared with BMT with the risk of 3-month mortality using aggregate data from all available randomized controlled clinical trials. We also sought to identify potential predictors on the mortality risk and performed univariate meta-regression analyses. Our literature search identified 11 eligible randomized controlled clinical trials, including a total of 2460 patients. The pooled rates of 3-month mortality were 15% (95% CI:12%-19%) and 19% (95% CI:16%-23%), respectively, in the MT+BMT and BMT groups. In the overall analysis MT+BMT was associated with a significantly lower risk for 3-month mortality compared with BMT (risk ratio=0.83, 95% CI:0.69-0.99; P=0.04), without heterogeneity across included studies (I2=3%, P for Cochran Q=0.41). No evidence of publication bias was present in funnel plot inspection and Egger statistical test (P=0.762). In meta-regression analyses no moderating effect on the aforementioned association was detected with patient age (P=0.254), sex (P=0.702), admission systolic blood pressure (P=0.601), admission glucose (P=0.277), onset-to-groin puncture time (P=0.985), administration of intravenous alteplase before MT (P=0.804), MT under general anesthesia (P=0.735), and successful reperfusion following MT (P=0.663). Conclusions Our meta-analysis provides evidence that MT+BMT reduces the risk of 3-month mortality compared with BMT alone. This association appears not to be moderated by individual patient or procedural characteristics.

7.
J Stroke ; 21(3): 302-311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590474

RESUMO

Background and PURPOSE: Current guidelines do not provide firm directions on atrial fibrillation (AF) screening after ischemic stroke (IS). We sought to investigate the association of implantable cardiac monitoring (ICM) duration with the yield of AF detection in IS patients. METHODS: We included studies reporting AF detection rates by ICM in IS patients with negative initial AF screening. We excluded studies reporting prolonged cardiac monitoring with devices other than ICM, not providing AF detection rates or monitoring duration, and reporting overlapping data for the same population. The random-effects model was used for all pooled estimates and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: We included 28 studies (4,531 patients, mean age 65 years). In meta-regression analyses, the proportion of AF detection by ICM was independently associated with monitoring duration (coefficient=0.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.005 to 0.024) and mean patient age (coefficient=0.009; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.015). No associations were detected with other patient characteristics, including IS subtype (cryptogenic vs. embolic stroke of undetermined source) or time from IS onset to CM implantation. In subgroup analyses, significant differences (P<0.001) in the AF detection rates were found for ICM duration (<6 months: 5% [95% CI, 3% to 6%]; ≥6 and ≤12 months: 21% [95% CI, 16% to 25%]; >12 and ≤24 months: 26% [95% CI, 22% to 31%]; >24 months: 34% [95% CI, 29% to 39%]). CONCLUSION: s Extended duration of ICM monitoring and increased patient age are factors that substantially increase AF detection in IS patients with initial negative AF screening.

8.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(11): 1860-1868, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardioembolism is a postulated mechanism of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). We investigated endothelial glycocalyx, aortic elastic properties, oxidative stress, and their association with left atrial (LA) function in ESUS and healthy individuals. METHODS: In 90 ESUS patients (age 50.4 ± 13.2) and 90 controls with similar risk factors, we measured: (1) perfused boundary region (PBR) of the sublingual arterial microvessels (range 5-25 µm), a marker inversely related with glycocalyx thickness, (2) pulse wave velocity (PWV), central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), and augmentation index (AIx), (3) LA volume and strain using speckle-tracking imaging, and (4) malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PCs), as oxidative stress markers. RESULTS: Compared with controls, ESUS had higher PWV, PBR, MDA, and PC levels as well as higher LA volume and reduced reservoir LA strain (p < 0.05). PBR > 1.2 µm of microvessel ranging from 5 to 9 µm and PWV > 10.2 m/s were associated with ESUS on multivariable analysis (odds ratio: 2.374 and 5.429, p < 0.05, respectively) and increased the c-statistic of the initial model from 0.54 to 0.71. In ESUS, glycocalyx damage (increased PBR) was related with increased PWV (p < 0.01) which was linked with LA reservoir strain after controlling for age, sex, and risk factors (p = 0.03). Increased MDA and PC were related with glycocalyx damage, increased PWV (r = 0.67 and r = 0.52), AIx, cSBP, and aortic atheroma (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Arterial function and endothelial glycocalyx are severely impaired in ESUS and are linked to LA dysfunction suggesting their contribution to ESUS pathogenesis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL-http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03609437.

9.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 423-437, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382796

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia on hospital admission is a common phenomenon in acute ischemic stroke patients and represents an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome with or without acute recanalization therapies (systemic thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy). Effective restoration of normoglycemia is considered to be beneficial, but conclusive evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials and specific recommendations are lacking. In addition, aggressive glucose control can be complicated by hypoglycemia leading to early neurological deterioration. We conducted a systematic literature review with the aim of addressing several questions: timing of glucose control, target range, type of insulin delivery, duration and practicability of glucose-lowering protocols. Special issues regarding mechanical thrombectomy and glycemic variability can then be investigated in future trials which are also being considered.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica
10.
J Neuroimaging ; 29(6): 737-742, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that cardioembolism represents the underlying mechanism in the minority of embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS). In this population-based study, we sought to compare the clinical and imaging characteristics as well as outcomes in patients with ESUS and cardioembolic stroke (CE). METHODS: We included consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS) from the previously published population-based Evros-Stroke-Registry identified as ESUS or CE according to standardized criteria. Baseline characteristics, admission NIHSS scores, cerebral edema, hemorrhagic transformation, stroke recurrence, functional outcomes (determined by modified Rankin Scale [mRS] scores), and mortality rates were recorded during the 1-year follow-up period. RESULTS: We identified 21 ESUS (3.7% of IS) and 211 CE (37.1% of IS) cases. Patients with ESUS were younger (median age: 68 years [interquartile range [IQR]: 61-75] vs 80 years [IQR: 75-84]; P < .001), had lower median admission NIHSS scores (4 points [IQR: 2-8] vs 10 points [IQR: 5-17]; P < .001), and lower prevalence of cerebral edema on neuroimaging studies (0 vs. 33.3%, P = .002). Functional outcomes were more favorable in ESUS at 28 (median mRS score: 2 [IQR: 1-3] vs 4 [IQR: 4-5]; P < .001), 90 (median mRS score: 1 [IQR: 0-2] vs 4 [IQR: 3-5]; P < .001), and 365 days (median mRS score: 1 [IQR: 0-2] vs 4 [IQR: 2-4]; P < 0.001). At 1-year, the mortality rate was lower in ESUS (0% [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0-13.5%] vs 34.6% [95% CI: 28.2-41.0%]; P < .001); the 1-year recurrent rate was also lower numerically (0% [95% CI: 0-13.5%] vs 9.5% [95% CI: 5.5-13.4%]; P = .140) but this difference failed to reach statistical significance due to the small study population. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and neuroimaging profiles as well as clinical outcomes vary substantially between ESUS and CE indicating different underlying mechanisms.

12.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2168-2174, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234756

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Despite treatment with oral anticoagulants, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) may experience ischemic cerebrovascular events. The aims of this case-control study in patients with AF were to identify the pathogenesis of and the risk factors for cerebrovascular ischemic events occurring during non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) therapy for stroke prevention. Methods- Cases were consecutive patients with AF who had acute cerebrovascular ischemic events during NOAC treatment. Controls were consecutive patients with AF who did not have cerebrovascular events during NOACs treatment. Results- Overall, 713 cases (641 ischemic strokes and 72 transient ischemic attacks; median age, 80.0 years; interquartile range, 12; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission, 6.0; interquartile range, 10) and 700 controls (median age, 72.0 years; interquartile range, 8) were included in the study. Recurrent stroke was classified as cardioembolic in 455 cases (63.9%) according to the A-S-C-O-D (A, atherosclerosis; S, small vessel disease; C, cardiac pathology; O, other causes; D, dissection) classification. On multivariable analysis, off-label low dose of NOACs (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% CI, 1.95-5.85), atrial enlargement (OR, 6.64; 95% CI, 4.63-9.52), hyperlipidemia (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.83-3.16), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR, 1.72 for each point increase; 95% CI, 1.58-1.88) were associated with ischemic events. Among the CHA2DS2-VASc components, age was older and presence of diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and history of stroke or transient ischemic attack more common in patients who had acute cerebrovascular ischemic events. Paroxysmal AF was inversely associated with ischemic events (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.61). Conclusions- In patients with AF treated with NOACs who had a cerebrovascular event, mostly but not exclusively of cardioembolic pathogenesis, off-label low dose, atrial enlargement, hyperlipidemia, and high CHA2DS2-VASc score were associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events.

15.
Stroke ; 49(12): 3067-3070, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571421

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- There is clinical equipoise about the use of advanced imaging for selecting acute ischemic stroke patients eligible for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) during the first 6 hours from symptom onset. However, accumulating evidence indicates that advanced neuroimaging represents an invaluable and time-independent prognostic factor. Methods- We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized clinical trials to evaluate the impact of patient selection with advanced neuroimaging on the 3-month: (1) functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2), (2) favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale scores, 0-1), (3) all-cause mortality, and (4) functional improvement (assessed with ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale-scores). We compared patients with perfusion imaging documented penumbra to patients who did not have documented penumbra or perfusion imaging. Results- Among the 10 eligible randomized clinical trials (2227 total patients, mean age: 67 years), 5 studies reported the use of advanced imaging. Studies using advanced neuroimaging showed higher treatment effects of MT on 3-month functional independence (odds ratio [OR], 3.79; 95% CI, 2.71-5.28 versus OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.52-2.35; P for subgroup differences <0.001), favorable functional outcome (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.94-5.14 versus OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.30-2.34; P for subgroup differences=0.04), and functional improvement (common OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.95-3.63 versus common OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.32-1.95; P for subgroup differences=0.007) compared with studies using conventional neuroimaging. The pooled rate of successful reperfusion after MT was higher in studies with advanced neuroimaging ( P for subgroup differences=0.003). No difference in the mortality and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates was found between the 2 groups. No evidence of heterogeneity was documented in all reported analyses. Conclusions- The present indirect comparisons indicate that acute ischemic stroke patient selection for MT using advanced neuroimaging appears to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. The use of advanced neuroimaging for both the selection and prediction of prognosis for MT candidates should not depend on the elapsed time from symptom onset.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Seleção de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombectomia/métodos , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Neuroimagem , Razão de Chances , Imagem de Perfusão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Neurologist ; 23(6): 188-190, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) is emerging as a tool of notable utility in the diagnosis of intracranial vessel pathology. Its role in monitoring vessel wall disease response to treatment, however, is less well-established. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 45-year-old man with left middle and anterior cerebral artery infarcts and an National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 2. Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed multifocal intracranial vessel pathology without extracranial vessel involvement. Comprehensive investigation with echocardiography and 24 hours Holter electrocardiography was unrevealing and the coagulation and routine autoimmune panel results were within normal limits. Cerebrospinal fluid showed mildly elevated protein and a diagnosis of probable primary central nervous system (PCNS) angiitis was made. The diagnosis was corroborated by intracranial HR-VWI, which showed homogenous, concentric enhancement of the left supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) wall. The patient received high-dose IV methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging with HR-VWI at 3 and 9 months showed reduction and final resolution of vessel wall enhancement without recurrent infarcts. He has since remained clinically stable with an NIHSS score of 0 on low-dose oral glucocorticoids. CONCLUSIONS: Our report illustrates the utility of HR-VWI in diagnosing a case of PCNS angiitis through the demonstration of a vasculitic pattern of mural enhancement. Furthermore, it has provided evidence of disease response to treatment, assisting us in modifying treatment accordingly. Tracking disease activity and response to treatment in cases of central nervous system vasculitis can be another important use of HR-VWI in clinical practice besides assisting in establishing the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Neurology ; 91(1): e8-e18, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines report no benefit for patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure compared to medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (IS) or TIA. Two recent randomized controlled clinical trials have challenged these recommendations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to estimate the safety and efficacy of closure compared to medical treatment, and to compare available devices. We conducted pairwise meta-analyses for closure vs medical therapy, irrespective of the device used, and for each device vs medical therapy. RESULTS: Our literature search highlighted 6 studies. PFO occlusion was associated with reduced risk of recurrent IS (risk ratio [RR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20-0.91) and IS/TIA (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88) but with increased risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) (RR 4.59, 95% CI 2.01-10.45) compared to medical treatment. In indirect analyses, both Amplatzer (AMP) and GORE devices were found to be associated with a lower risk of new-onset AF compared to STARFlex (SFX) (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.65 and RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.95). Moreover, AMP was found to be associated with a lower risk of recurrent IS/TIA events compared to the SFX device (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.91). In the clustered ranking plot on the risk of IS against new-onset AF, GORE was comparable to AMP; however, on the risk of IS/TIA against new-onset AF, AMP appeared to be superior to the GORE device. In both ranking plots, SFX was highlighted as the worst option. CONCLUSION: PFO closure is associated with reduced risk of recurrent IS or IS/TIA and with increased risk of new-onset AF.


Assuntos
Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Forame Oval Patente/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Humanos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal
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