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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma that can be divided into two classes: virus-positive (VP) MCC, associated with oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV); and virus-negative (VN) MCC, associated with photodamage. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We classified 346 MCC tumors from 300 patients for MCPyV using a combination of IHC, ISH, and qPCR assays. In a subset of tumors, we profiled mutation status and expression of cancer-relevant genes. MCPyV and molecular profiling results were correlated with disease-specific outcomes. Potential prognostic biomarkers were further validated by IHC. RESULTS: A total of 177 tumors were classified as VP-MCC, 151 tumors were VN-MCC, and 17 tumors were indeterminate. MCPyV positivity in primary tumors was associated with longer disease-specific and recurrence-free survival in univariate analysis, and in multivariate analysis incorporating age, sex, immune status, and stage at presentation. Prioritized oncogene or tumor suppressor mutations were frequent in VN-MCC but rare in VP-MCC. TP53 mutation developed with recurrence in one VP-MCC case. Importantly, for the first time we find that VP-MCC and VN-MCC display distinct sets of prognostic molecular biomarkers. For VP-MCC, shorter survival was associated with decreased expression of immune markers including granzyme and IDO1. For VN-MCC, shorter survival correlated with high expression of several genes including UBE2C. CONCLUSIONS: MCPyV status is an independent prognostic factor for MCC. Features of the tumor genome, transcriptome, and microenvironment may modify prognosis in a manner specific to viral status. MCPyV status has clinicopathologic significance and allows for identification of additional prognostic subgroups.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based Main Outcome: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells which increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273 and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on EHR data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.

3.
Histopathology ; 77(6): 890-899, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639612

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the molecular underpinnings of the rare aggressive prostate cancer variants adenosquamous carcinoma, pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma, and sarcomatoid carcinoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrieved 19 tumours with one or more variant(s), and performed ERG immunohistochemistry, a next-generation sequencing assay targeting recurrent gene fusions, and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) for ERG and BRAF. Divergent differentiation included: sarcomatoid carcinoma (n = 10), adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 7), and pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma (n = 7). Five patients had more than one variant. Four had variants only in metastases. ERG rearrangement was detected in nine (47%, seven via sequencing, showing TMPRSS2-ERG fusions and one GRHL2-ERG fusion, and two via FISH, showing rearrangement via deletion). ERG was immunohistochemically positive in the adenocarcinoma in eight of nine (89%) patients, but was immunohistochemically positive in the variant in only five of nine patients (56%, typically decreased). One patient had a false-positive ERG immunohistochemical result in the sarcomatoid component despite a negative FISH result. Two (11%) harboured BRAF fusions (FAM131A-BRAF and SND1-BRAF). CONCLUSIONS: ERG fusions are present in these rare prostate cancer variants with a frequency close to that in conventional prostate cancer (9/19, 47%). ERG immunohistochemistry usually detects rearrangement in the adenocarcinoma, but is less sensitive for the variant histology, with weak to negative staining. Adenosquamous and sarcomatoid variants can, particularly, occur together. Molecular assessment may be an additional tool in selected cases to confirm the prostatic origin of unusual tumours. The presence of two BRAF rearrangements suggests that this gene fusion may be enriched in this setting, as RAF kinase fusions have been previously reported in 1-2% of prostate cancers.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(18): 4933-4946, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advances in prostate cancer lag behind other tumor types partly due to the paucity of models reflecting key milestones in prostate cancer progression. Therefore, we develop clinically relevant prostate cancer models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Since 1996, we have generated clinically annotated patient-derived xenografts (PDXs; the MDA PCa PDX series) linked to specific phenotypes reflecting all aspects of clinical prostate cancer. RESULTS: We studied two cell line-derived xenografts and the first 80 PDXs derived from 47 human prostate cancer donors. Of these, 47 PDXs derived from 22 donors are working models and can be expanded either as cell lines (MDA PCa 2a and 2b) or PDXs. The histopathologic, genomic, and molecular characteristics (androgen receptor, ERG, and PTEN loss) maintain fidelity with the human tumor and correlate with published findings. PDX growth response to mouse castration and targeted therapy illustrate their clinical utility. Comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing show significant differences in oncogenic pathways in pairs of PDXs derived from different areas of the same tumor. We also identified a recurrent focal deletion in an area that includes the speckle-type POZ protein-like (SPOPL) gene in PDXs derived from seven human donors of 28 studied (25%). SPOPL is a SPOP paralog, and SPOP mutations define a molecular subclass of prostate cancer. SPOPL deletions are found in 7% of The Cancer Genome Atlas prostate cancers, which suggests that our cohort is a reliable platform for targeted drug development. CONCLUSIONS: The MDA PCa PDX series is a dynamic resource that captures the molecular landscape of prostate cancers progressing under novel treatments and enables optimization of prostate cancer-specific, marker-driven therapy.

5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1701-1709, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence and prognostication of ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 protein expressions in prostate cancer cohort of Middle Eastern descent in comparison to published data from Western population. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 was performed in a cohort of localized PCA (n = 340). The data were correlated to pathological and clinical outcomes and compared to Western populations. RESULTS: ERG expression and PTEN loss were noted in 123/288 (42.7%) and 91/297 (30.6%) of patients, respectively. SPINK1 expression was assessed in a subset of cases, noted in 6/150 (4%) of patients. Only ERG expression was associated with grade groups, being more common in the lower grade groups (1-3 vs 4-5; p = 0.04). In contrast to the Western population, PTEN loss foci were more likely to be ERG negative, observed in 81% of tumor foci and patients with PTEN neg/ERG pos were more likely to exhibit biochemical recurrence (OR 2.831; 95% CI 1.10-726, p = 0.03). This association remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR 2.68; 95% CI 0.98-7.33, p = 0.05), after adjusting for GG, path stage and surgical margin. CONCLUSION: This study documents significant differences in key molecular events in PCA in Middle Eastern population compared to Western populations that could explain differences in PCA incidence, progression and prognostication. ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 genomic alteration occur less frequently and the enrichment of ERG for PTEN loss is not observed. Additionally, patients with combined PTEN loss/ERG positive are at highest risk for BCR vs North American Caucasian population where PTEN loss alone seems to be associated with the worst clinical outcome. The data presented here further support differences in clonal evolution between Middle Eastern and Western population in relation to PCA and add further insight to understanding PCA molecular pathways.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Grupos Étnicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/genética
6.
Mod Pathol ; 33(9): 1791-1801, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238875

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is frequently multifocal. Although there may be morphological variation, the genetic underpinnings of each tumor are not clearly understood. To assess the inter and intra tumor molecular heterogeneity in prostate biopsy samples, we developed a combined immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization method for the simultaneous evaluation of ERG, SPINK1, ETV1, and ETV4. Screening of 601 biopsy cores from 120 consecutive patients revealed multiple alterations in a mutually exclusive manner in 37% of patients, suggesting multifocal tumors with considerable genetic differences. Furthermore, the incidence of molecular heterogeneity was higher in African Americans patients compared with Caucasian American patients. About 47% of the biopsy cores with discontinuous tumor foci showed clonal differences with distinct molecular aberrations. ERG positivity occurred in low-grade cancer, whereas ETV4 expression was observed mostly in high-grade cancer. Further studies revealed correlation between the incidence of molecular markers and clinical and pathologic findings, suggesting potential implications for diagnostic pathology practice, such as defining dominant tumor nodules and discriminating juxtaposed but molecularly different tumors of different grade patterns.

7.
Oncogene ; 39(20): 4077-4091, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231273

RESUMO

Muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas (MIBCs) are aggressive genitourinary malignancies. Metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is generally incurable by current chemotherapy and leads to early mortality. Recent studies have identified molecular subtypes of MIBCs with different sensitivities to frontline therapy, suggesting tumor heterogeneity. We have performed multi-omic profiling of the kinome in bladder cancer patients with the goal of identify therapeutic targets. Our analyses revealed amplification, overexpression, and elevated kinase activity of P21 (RAC1) activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in a subset of Bladder cancer (BLCA). Using bladder cancer cells, we confirmed the role of PAK4 in BLCA cell proliferation and invasion. Furthermore, we observed that a PAK4 inhibitor was effective in curtailing growth of BLCA cells. Transcriptomic analyses identified elevated expression of another kinase, protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), upon treatment with a PAK4 inhibitor and RNA interference of PAK4. Treatment with a combination of kinase inhibitors (vandetanib and dasatinib) showed enhanced sensitivity compared with either drug alone. Thus, PAK4 may be therapeutically actionable for a subset of MIBC patients with amplified and/or overexpressed PAK4 in their tumors. Our results also indicate that combined inhibition of PAK4 and PTK6 may overcome resistance to PAK4. These observations warrant clinical investigations with selected BLCA patients.


Assuntos
Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Quinases Ativadas por p21/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Quinases Ativadas por p21/genética
8.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 28(6): 678-682, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192385

RESUMO

Cranial fasciitis is an uncommon benign fibroblastic tumor, generally histologically identical to nodular fasciitis. It develops almost exclusively in children. Cranial fasciitis manifests clinically as a painless rapidly growing solitary nodule in the head and neck area, frequently eroding the underlying bone. Thus, this entity is often confused with aggressive lesions such as sarcomas, both clinically and radiologically. Histopathologic examination is essential to differentiate between cranial fasciitis and fibrohistiocytic or even sarcomatous lesions observed in children. In this article, we present a case of cranial fasciitis with intracranial extension in a 2-year-old boy. Although USP6 rearrangement has recently been recognized as a recurring alteration in nodular fasciitis, we present a novel COL1A1-CAMTA1 fusion in this lesion.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 384, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959826

RESUMO

Emergence of an aggressive androgen receptor (AR)-independent neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is well-known. Nevertheless, the majority of advanced-stage prostate cancer patients, including those with SPINK1-positive subtype, are treated with AR-antagonists. Here, we show AR and its corepressor, REST, function as transcriptional-repressors of SPINK1, and AR-antagonists alleviate this repression leading to SPINK1 upregulation. Increased SOX2 expression during NE-transdifferentiation transactivates SPINK1, a critical-player for maintenance of NE-phenotype. SPINK1 elicits epithelial-mesenchymal-transition, stemness and cellular-plasticity. Conversely, pharmacological Casein Kinase-1 inhibition stabilizes REST, which in cooperation with AR causes SPINK1 transcriptional-repression and impedes SPINK1-mediated oncogenesis. Elevated levels of SPINK1 and NEPC markers are observed in the tumors of AR-antagonists treated mice, and in a subset of NEPC patients, implicating a plausible role of SPINK1 in treatment-related NEPC. Collectively, our findings provide an explanation for the paradoxical clinical-outcomes after ADT, possibly due to SPINK1 upregulation, and offers a strategy for adjuvant therapies.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Caseína Quinase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase I/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947893

RESUMO

(1) Background: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters are emerging as clinically significant harbingers of metastases in solid organ cancers. Prior to engaging these CTC clusters in animal models of metastases, it is imperative for technology to identify them with high sensitivity. These clusters often present heterogeneous surface markers and current methods for isolation of clusters may fall short. (2) Methods: We applied an inertial microfluidic Labyrinth device for high-throughput, biomarker-independent, size-based isolation of CTCs/CTC clusters from patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (3) Results: Using Labyrinth, CTCs (PanCK+/DAPI+/CD45-) were isolated from patients (n = 25). Heterogeneous CTC populations, including CTCs expressing epithelial (EpCAM), mesenchymal (Vimentin) or both markers were detected. CTCs were isolated from 100% of patients (417 ± 1023 CTCs/mL). EpCAM- CTCs were significantly greater than EpCAM+ CTCs. Cell clusters of ≥2 CTCs were observed in 96% of patients-of which, 75% were EpCAM-. CTCs revealed identical genetic aberrations as the primary tumor for RET, ROS1, and ALK genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. (4) Conclusions: The Labyrinth device recovered heterogeneous CTCs in 100% and CTC clusters in 96% of patients with metastatic NSCLC. The majority of recovered CTCs/clusters were EpCAM-, suggesting that these would have been missed using traditional antibody-based capture methods.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 33(6): 1092-1103, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857679

RESUMO

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a locally aggressive sweat gland carcinoma characterized by its infiltrative growth and histopathologic overlap with benign adnexal tumors, often posing challenges to both diagnosis and management. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of microcystic adnexal carcinoma may allow for more accurate diagnosis and identify potential targetable oncogenic drivers. We characterized 18 microcystic adnexal carcinomas by targeted, multiplexed PCR-based DNA next-generation sequencing of the coding sequence of over 400 cancer-relevant genes. The majority of cases had relatively few (<8) prioritized somatic mutations, and lacked an ultraviolet (UV) signature. The most recurrent mutation was TP53 inactivation in four (22%) tumors. Frame-preserving insertions affecting the kinase domain of JAK1 were detected in three (17%) cases, and were nonoverlapping with TP53 mutations. Seven (39%) cases demonstrated copy number gain of at least one oncogene. By immunohistochemistry, p53 expression was significantly higher in microcystic adnexal carcinomas with TP53 mutations compared with those without such mutations and syringomas. Similarly, phospho-STAT3 expression was significantly higher in microcystic adnexal carcinomas harboring JAK1 kinase insertions compared with those with wild-type JAK1 and syringomas. In conclusion, microcystic adnexal carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, with inactivated p53 or activated JAK/STAT signaling in a subset. Unlike most other nonmelanoma skin cancers involving sun-exposed areas, most microcystic adnexal carcinomas lack evidence of UV damage, and hence likely originate from a relatively photo-protected progenitor population in the dermis. These findings have implications for the biology, diagnosis, and treatment of microcystic adnexal carcinomas, including potential for therapeutic targeting of p53 or the JAK/STAT pathway in advanced tumors.

12.
Prostate ; 80(1): 38-50, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression profiles of erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS)-related gene fusions and serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 1 (SPINK1) in early onset prostate cancer have not been thoroughly explored. METHODS: We retrieved 151 radical prostatectomy specimens from young men with prostate cancer (<55 years) and characterized the expression of ETS-related gene (ERG), SPINK1, ETS Variant 1 (ETV1), and ETV4 by dual immunohistochemistry and dual RNA in situ hybridization. Age, race, family history, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, biochemical recurrence, and pathological variables using whole-mount radical prostatectomy tissue were collected. RESULTS: A total of 313 tumor nodules from 151 men including 68 (45%) Caucasians and 61 (40%) African Americans were included in the analysis. Positive family history of prostate cancer was seen in 65 (43%) patients. Preoperative prostate-specific antigen ranged from 0.3 to 52.7 ng/mL (mean = 7.04). The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 123.7 months (mean = 30.3). Biochemical recurrence was encountered in 8 of 151 (5%). ERG overexpression was observed in 85 of 151 (56%) cases, followed by SPINK1 in 61 of 151 (40%), ETV1 in 9 of 149 (6%), and ETV4 in 4 of 141 (3%). There were 25 of 151 (17%) cases showing both ERG and SPINK1 overexpression within different regions of either the same tumor focus or different foci. Higher frequency of ERG overexpression was seen in younger patients (≤45 years old; 76% vs 49%, P = .002), Caucasian men (71% vs 41% P = .0007), organ-confined tumors (64% vs 33%, P = .0008), and tumors of Gleason Grade groups 1 and 2 (62% vs 26%, P = .009). SPINK1 overexpression was more in African American men (68% vs 26%, P = .00008), in tumors with high tumor volume (>20%) and with anterior located tumors. ETV1 and ETV4 demonstrated rare overexpression in these tumors, particularly in the higher-grade tumors. CONCLUSION: This study expands the knowledge of the clonal evolution of multifocal cancer in young patients and support differences in relation to racial background and genetics of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/genética , Adulto , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/sangue , Regulador Transcricional ERG/biossíntese , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/biossíntese
13.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 28(3): 336-340, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672072

RESUMO

Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) and spindle cell lipoma are lipomatous tumors with distinct clinical, molecular, and prognostic features. Although histological and immunophenotypic features can overlap between ALT/WDL and spindle cell lipoma, the oncogenesis and clinical behavior are markedly different. In borderline cases, molecular analysis for MDM2 or CDK4 amplification can aid in distinguishing ALT/WDL from spindle cell lipoma. Although dedifferentiated liposarcoma has been reported to harbor both MDM2 amplification and loss of the RB1 region, we are not aware of a reported RB1 loss in well-differentiated ALT/WDL. In this article, we present a 69-year-old woman with a lipomatous tumor in the gluteal region that histologically, immunohistochemically, and molecularly mimicked spindle cell lipoma (with positive immunohistochemical staining for CD34 and loss of the RB1 gene region), yet harbored amplification of MDM2 and CDK4 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, supporting classification as ALT/WDL. This case strengthens the argument that in atypical clinical contexts, molecular studies for MDM2/CDK4 should be considered in tumors resembling spindle cell lipoma.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Lipoma/diagnóstico , Lipossarcoma/diagnóstico , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Lipoma/genética , Lipoma/patologia , Lipossarcoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
14.
J Cutan Pathol ; 47(1): 70-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437301

RESUMO

Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) represents a group of rare, heavily pigmented melanocytic tumors encompassing lesions previously designated as "animal-type melanomas" and "epithelioid blue nevi." Despite the association of multiple such tumors in the setting of Carney complex, most cases of PEM occur spontaneously as solitary neoplasms in otherwise healthy patients. PEM may arise in both children and adults, and has a known propensity to spread to the regional lymph nodes. Despite this latter finding, recurrence at the biopsy site or spread beyond the lymph node basin is exceptionally uncommon. Although the molecular basis for PEM continues to be characterized, findings to date suggest that this category of melanocytic neoplasia has genetic alterations distinct from those seen in common nevi, dysplastic nevi, Spitz nevi, and melanoma. Herein, we present an in-depth clinical, histopathologic, and molecular analysis of a case of PEM occurring on the scalp of a young African American girl found to have a novel NTRK3-SCAPER gene fusion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Nevo Azul , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/metabolismo , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/genética , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Nevo Azul/genética , Nevo Azul/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 9(4)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835700

RESUMO

(1) Background:One of the most common cancers that affect North American men and men worldwide is prostate cancer. The Gleason score is a pathological grading system to examine the potential aggressiveness of the disease in the prostate tissue. Advancements in computing and next-generation sequencing technology now allow us to study the genomic profiles of patients in association with their different Gleason scores more accurately and effectively. (2) Methods: In this study, we used a novel machine learning method to analyse gene expression of prostate tumours with different Gleason scores, and identify potential genetic biomarkers for each Gleason group. We obtained a publicly-available RNA-Seq dataset of a cohort of 104 prostate cancer patients from the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository, and categorised patients based on their Gleason scores to create a hierarchy of disease progression. A hierarchical model with standard classifiers in different Gleason groups, also known as nodes, was developed to identify and predict nodes based on their mRNA or gene expression. In each node, patient samples were analysed via class imbalance and hybrid feature selection techniques to build the prediction model. The outcome from analysis of each node was a set of genes that could differentiate each Gleason group from the remaining groups. To validate the proposed method, the set of identified genes were used to classify a second dataset of 499 prostate cancer patients collected from cBioportal. (3) Results: The overall accuracy of applying this novel method to the first dataset was 93.3%; the method was further validated to have 87% accuracy using the second dataset. This method also identified genes that were not previously reported as potential biomarkers for specific Gleason groups. In particular, PIAS3 was identified as a potential biomarker for Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, and UBE2V2 for Gleason score 6. (4) Insight: Previous reports show that the genes predicted by this newly proposed method strongly correlate with prostate cancer development and progression. Furthermore, pathway analysis shows that both PIAS3 and UBE2V2 share similar protein interaction pathways, the JAK/STAT signaling process.

16.
Cancer Cell Int ; 19: 224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496918

RESUMO

Background: Cap-dependent mRNA translation is essential for the translation of key oncogenic proteins at optimal levels and is highly regulated by the rate limiting, initiation step in protein synthesis. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 1 (EIF4G1) serves as a scaffold for assembly of cap-dependent translation components in EIF4F complex formation. In the current study, we analyzed the role and expression of EIF4G1 in Pan human cancer panels through various approaches. Methods: Immunohistochemistry analysis of EIF4G1 protein was done on high-density multi-organ Human Cancer tissue microarray (TMA) derived from the patient samples from different cancers. We used multiple clinical cohorts to analyze the EIF4G1 mRNA expression across human cancers. TCGA data analysis of EIF4G1 was done through Ualcan and c-bioportal web servers. Western blots for EIF4G1 protein was done for different cell lines in representing the multiple cancer types. Dependency score was calculated through Cancer Dependency Map. Clonogenic, tumorosphere assay and cell invasion assay were done with EIF4G complex inhibitor. Association of EIF4G1 mRNA and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was done on available TCGA datasets. Results: We observed an increase in EIF4G1 protein levels in tissue sections from different cancers as compared to their respective normal tissue. Our analysis of the TCGA data revealed that EIF4G1 mRNA expression is significantly increased in tumor tissues compared to respective control tissues across human cancers and variable expression was observed among different datasets. We discovered that alteration frequency in EIF4G1 is prevalent in human cancers e.g. prostate cancer (~ 25%), ovarian cancer (~ 15%), Head and Neck cancer (~ 13%) and cervical cancer (~ 12.5%). EIF4G1 mRNA and protein levels were high across cancer cell lines from multiple organs. Our analysis of DepMap datasets utilizing depletion assays revealed that EIF4G1 is critical for cancer cell survival. Treatment with EIF4G complex inhibitor impaired clonogenic, tumorosphere formation potential and inhibited cell invasion. Moreover, higher EIF4G1 mRNA level was associated with a lower median survival of patients in multiple tumor types. Conclusions: These studies show that EIF4G1 is amplified/over-expressed in multiple cancers and plays an essential role in cancer cell survival, as such EIF4G1 could serve as a novel potential target for therapeutic intervention across many cancers.

17.
Cancer Discov ; 9(11): 1538-1555, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466944

RESUMO

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a fatal disease, primarily resulting from the transcriptional addiction driven by androgen receptor (AR). First-line CRPC treatments typically target AR signaling, but are rapidly bypassed, resulting in only a modest survival benefit with antiandrogens. Therapeutic approaches that more effectively block the AR-transcriptional axis are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the association between the transcriptional coactivator MED1 and AR as a vulnerability in AR-driven CRPC. MED1 undergoes CDK7-dependent phosphorylation at T1457 and physically engages AR at superenhancer sites, and is essential for AR-mediated transcription. In addition, a CDK7-specific inhibitor, THZ1, blunts AR-dependent neoplastic growth by blocking AR/MED1 corecruitment genome-wide, as well as reverses the hyperphosphorylated MED1-associated enzalutamide-resistant phenotype. In vivo, THZ1 induces tumor regression of AR-amplified human CRPC in a xenograft mouse model. Together, we demonstrate that CDK7 inhibition selectively targets MED1-mediated, AR-dependent oncogenic transcriptional amplification, thus representing a potential new approach for the treatment of CRPC. SIGNIFICANCE: Potent inhibition of AR signaling is critical to treat CRPC. This study uncovers a driver role for CDK7 in regulating AR-mediated transcription through phosphorylation of MED1, thus revealing a therapeutically targetable potential vulnerability in AR-addicted CRPC.See related commentary by Russo et al., p. 1490.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1469.


Assuntos
Subunidade 1 do Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Fenilenodiaminas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células PC-3 , Fenilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Neoplasia ; 21(10): 989-1002, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446281

RESUMO

We present the functional characterization of a pseudogene associated recurrent gene fusion in prostate cancer. The fusion gene KLK4-KLKP1 is formed by the fusion of the protein coding gene KLK4 with the noncoding pseudogene KLKP1. Screening of a cohort of 659 patients (380 Caucasian American; 250 African American, and 29 patients from other races) revealed that the KLK4-KLKP1 is expressed in about 32% of prostate cancer patients. Correlative analysis with other ETS gene fusions and SPINK1 revealed a concomitant expression pattern of KLK4-KLKP1 with ERG and a mutually exclusive expression pattern with SPINK1, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Development of an antibody specific to KLK4-KLKP1 fusion protein confirmed the expression of the full-length KLK4-KLKP1 protein in prostate tissues. The in vitro and in vivo functional assays to study the oncogenic properties of KLK4-KLKP1 confirmed its role in cell proliferation, cell invasion, intravasation, and tumor formation. Presence of strong ERG and AR binding sites located at the fusion junction in KLK4-KLKP1 suggests that the fusion gene is regulated by ERG and AR. Correlative analysis of clinical data showed an association of KLK4-KLKP1 with lower preoperative PSA values and in young men (<50 years) with prostate cancer. Screening of patient urine samples showed that KLK4-KLKP1 can be detected noninvasively in urine. Taken together, we present KLK4-KLKP1 as a class of pseudogene associated fusion transcript in cancer with potential applications as a biomarker for routine screening of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Fusão Gênica , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Pseudogenes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Embrião de Galinha , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Calicreínas/química , Calicreínas/genética , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/química , Calicreínas Teciduais/química , Calicreínas Teciduais/genética
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(7): 1751-1759, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3) has been implicated in Prostate Cancer (PCa) progression. However, its prognostic value and association with other biomarkers have not been fully explored. We assessed the combined value of TFF3 and PTEN in two cohorts: one is managed surgically for localized PCa and the second is managed non-surgically by androgen deprivation therapy for advanced disease. DESIGN: 228 radical prostatectomies (RP) and 318 transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) samples were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TFF3 and by IHC and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for PTEN. Results of biomarkers expression were correlated with various pathological and clinical outcome parameters including biochemical recurrence (BCR) in the RP cohort and cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) in the TURP cohort. RESULTS: TFF3 expression was detected in 131/226 (57.9%) RP samples and 148/318 (46.5%) of TURP cases. In general, TFF3 positivity was less frequently observed with advanced Gleason Groups. TFF3 expression was also assessed in relation to PTEN expression. Only 15-16% of TFF3-expressed cases were present in association with complete loss of PTEN expression in the TURP and localized cohorts, respectively. Loss of TFF3 expression was not related to BCR after RP, but was prognostic in the non-surgical cohort and associated with decrease OS and PCSM (HR 2.31, CI: 1.67-3.18, p < 0.0001) and (HR 3.99, CI: 2.43-6.56; p < 0.0001), respectively. Adjusting for Gleason score, combined loss of TFF3/PTEN was most associated with OS (HR 2.33, CI: 1.49-3.62; p < 0.0001) and PCSM (HR = 3.44, CI: 1.75-6.78, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study documents for the first time significant association for combined status of TFF3 expression and PTEN loss in OS and PCSM in patients not managed by surgical intervention. Prospective assessment of PTEN and TFF3 may provide further insight into molecularly subtyping PCa and aid in stratifying patients at risk for lethal disease.


Assuntos
PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Fator Trefoil-3/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/deficiência , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fator Trefoil-3/deficiência
20.
Histopathology ; 74(7): 1081-1087, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720899

RESUMO

AIMS: Comedonecrosis in prostate cancer has always been Gleason pattern 5. However, we aimed to evaluate how intraductal carcinoma (not graded) with comedonecrosis should be considered. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 52 radical prostatectomy patients, 40 were informative and evaluated with immunohistochemistry for basal cells. Clinical outcome was assessed for biochemical recurrence, metastatic disease and the need for adjuvant therapy. Comedonecrosis was predominantly located in intraductal carcinoma (24, 60%). However, nine (23%) had comedonecrosis within invasive cancer and seven (18%) within both invasive and intraductal carcinoma. Extraprostatic extension rarely showed comedonecrosis (5, 13%), but rather perineural invasion within cribriform glands. Tumours were largely high-stage (15, 38% pT3a and 19, 48% pT3b), with 15 (37%) having positive lymph nodes and four distant metastases. Most cases (25, 63%) had other patterns of Gleason pattern 5 (single cells, solid), although 10 were reclassified as containing no invasive pattern 5. Of these, most were pT3 (eight of 10), but none had positive lymph nodes. Lymph node metastases were more common in patients with invasive cancer containing comedonecrosis (P = 0.02), and the need for androgen deprivation was near significance (P = 0.07), but biochemical recurrence was not significantly different (P = 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer with comedonecrosis is often intraductal; however, these tumours are largely high-stage, showing a higher rate of positive lymph nodes with invasive comedonecrosis. Immunohistochemistry may be considered when comedonecrosis may significantly change the tumour grade. However, it is not clear at present that excluding intraductal carcinoma from the grade is superior to including it in grading when it is associated with high-grade invasive cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Necrose/patologia , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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