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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22378, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789747


Drain blockage is a crucial problem in the urban environment. It heavily affects the ecosystem and human health. Hence, routine drain inspection is essential for urban environment. Manual drain inspection is a tedious task and prone to accidents and water-borne diseases. This work presents a drain inspection framework using convolutional neural network (CNN) based object detection algorithm and in house developed reconfigurable teleoperated robot called 'Raptor'. The CNN based object detection model was trained using a transfer learning scheme with our custom drain-blocking objects data-set. The efficiency of the trained CNN algorithm and drain inspection robot Raptor was evaluated through various real-time drain inspection field trial. The experimental results indicate that our trained object detection algorithm has detect and classified the drain blocking objects with 91.42% accuracy for both offline and online test images and is able to process 18 frames per second (FPS). Further, the maneuverability of the robot was evaluated from various open and closed drain environment. The field trial results ensure that the robot maneuverability was stable, and its mapping and localization is also accurate in a complex drain environment.

Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770593


Human visual inspection of drains is laborious, time-consuming, and prone to accidents. This work presents an AI-enabled robot-assisted remote drain inspection and mapping framework using our in-house developed reconfigurable robot Raptor. The four-layer IoRT serves as a bridge between the users and the robots, through which seamless information sharing takes place. The Faster RCNN ResNet50, Faster RCNN ResNet101, and Faster RCNN Inception-ResNet-v2 deep learning frameworks were trained using a transfer learning scheme with six typical concrete defect classes and deployed in an IoRT framework remote defect detection task. The efficiency of the trained CNN algorithm and drain inspection robot Raptor was evaluated through various real-time drain inspection field trials using the SLAM technique. The experimental results indicate that robot's maneuverability was stable, and its mapping and localization were also accurate in different drain types. Finally, for effective drain maintenance, the SLAM-based defect map was generated by fusing defect detection results in the lidar-SLAM map.

Aves Predatórias , Robótica , Algoritmos , Animais , Humanos
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502633


Frequent inspections are essential for drains to maintain proper function to ensure public health and safety. Robots have been developed to aid the drain inspection process. However, existing robots designed for drain inspection require improvements in their design and autonomy. This paper proposes a novel design of a drain inspection robot named Raptor. The robot has been designed with a manually reconfigurable wheel axle mechanism, which allows the change of ground clearance height. Design aspects of the robot, such as mechanical design, control architecture and autonomy functions, are comprehensively described in the paper, and insights are included. Maintaining the robot's position in the middle of a drain when moving along the drain is essential for the inspection process. Thus, a fuzzy logic controller has been introduced to the robot to cater to this demand. Experiments have been conducted by deploying a prototype of the design to drain environments considering a set of diverse test scenarios. Experiment results show that the proposed controller effectively maintains the robot in the middle of a drain while moving along the drain. Therefore, the proposed robot design and the controller would be helpful in improving the productivity of robot-aided inspection of drains.

Aves Predatórias , Robótica , Animais , Lógica Fuzzy
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009802


Periodic inspection of false ceilings is mandatory to ensure building and human safety. Generally, false ceiling inspection includes identifying structural defects, degradation in Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, electrical wire damage, and pest infestation. Human-assisted false ceiling inspection is a laborious and risky task. This work presents a false ceiling deterioration detection and mapping framework using a deep-neural-network-based object detection algorithm and the teleoperated 'Falcon' robot. The object detection algorithm was trained with our custom false ceiling deterioration image dataset composed of four classes: structural defects (spalling, cracks, pitted surfaces, and water damage), degradation in HVAC systems (corrosion, molding, and pipe damage), electrical damage (frayed wires), and infestation (termites and rodents). The efficiency of the trained CNN algorithm and deterioration mapping was evaluated through various experiments and real-time field trials. The experimental results indicate that the deterioration detection and mapping results were accurate in a real false-ceiling environment and achieved an 89.53% detection accuracy.

Aprendizado Profundo , Robótica , Algoritmos , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Roedores