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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726233

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in retinol dehydrogenase 5 (RDH5) attenuate supply of 11-cis-retinal to photoreceptors leading to a range of clinical phenotypes including night blindness due to markedly slowed rod dark adaptation and in some patients, macular atrophy. Current animal models (such as Rdh5-/- mice) fail to recapitulate the functional or degenerative phenotype. Addressing this need for a relevant animal model we present a new domestic cat model with a loss-of-function missense mutation in RDH5 (c.542G > T; p.Gly181Val). As with patients, affected cats have a marked delay in recovery of dark adaptation. Additionally, the cats develop a degeneration of the area centralis (equivalent to the human macula). This recapitulates the development of macular atrophy that is reported in a subset of patients with RDH5 mutations and is shown in this paper in 7 patients with biallelic RDH5 mutations. There is notable variability in the age at onset of the area centralis changes in the cat, with most developing changes as juveniles but some not showing changes over the first few years of age. There is similar variability in development of macular atrophy in patients and while age is a risk factor, it is hypothesized that genetic modifying loci influence disease severity, and we suspect the same is true in the cat model. This novel cat model provides opportunities to improve molecular understanding of macular atrophy and test therapeutic interventions for RDH5-associated retinopathies.

2.
Trends Neurosci ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753606

RESUMO

MicroRNAs are short, evolutionarily conserved noncoding RNAs that are critical for the control of normal cellular physiology. In the retina, photoreceptors are highly specialized neurons that transduce light into electrical signals. Photoreceptors, however, are unable to process visual stimuli without the support of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE performs numerous functions to aid the retina, including the generation of visual chromophore and metabolic support. Recent work has underscored how microRNAs enable vision through their contributions to RPE functions. This review focuses on the biogenesis and control of microRNAs in rodents and humans, the roles microRNAs play in RPE function and degeneration, and how microRNAs could serve as potential therapeutics and biomarkers for visual diseases.

3.
J Biol Chem ; : 101401, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774799

RESUMO

The elongated cilia of the outer segment of rod and cone photoreceptor cells can contain concentrations of visual pigments of up to 5 mM. The rod visual pigments, G protein-coupled receptors called rhodopsins, have a propensity to self-aggregate, a property conserved among many GPCRs. However, the effect of rhodopsin oligomerization on G protein signaling in native cells is less clear. Here we address this gap in knowledge by studying rod phototransduction. As the rod outer segment is known to adjust its size proportionally to overexpression or reduction of rhodopsin expression, genetic perturbation of rhodopsin cannot be used to resolve this question. Therefore, we turned to high-throughput screening of a diverse library of 50,000 small molecules and used a novel assay for the detection of rhodopsin dimerization. This screen identified nine small molecules that either disrupted or enhanced rhodopsin dimer contacts in vitro. In a subsequent cell-free binding study, we found that all nine compounds decreased intrinsic fluorescence without affecting the overall UV-visible spectrum of rhodopsin, supporting their actions as allosteric modulators. Furthermore, ex-vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed that a disruptive, hit compound #7, significantly slowed down the light response kinetics of intact rods, whereas compound #1, an enhancing hit candidate, did not substantially affect the photoresponse kinetics, but did cause a significant reduction in light sensitivity. This study provides a monitoring tool for future investigation of the rhodopsin signaling cascade, and reports the discovery of new allosteric modulators of rhodopsin dimerization that can also alter rod photoreceptor physiology.

4.
Structure ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678158

RESUMO

Visual arrestin (Arr1) terminates rhodopsin signaling by blocking its interaction with transducin. To do this, Arr1 translocates from the inner to the outer segment of photoreceptors upon light stimulation. Mounting evidence indicates that inositol phosphates (InsPs) affect Arr1 activity, but the Arr1-InsP molecular interaction remains poorly defined. We report the structure of bovine Arr1 in a ligand-free state featuring a near-complete model of the previously unresolved C-tail, which plays a crucial role in regulating Arr1 activity. InsPs bind to the N-domain basic patch thus displacing the C-tail, suggesting that they prime Arr1 for interaction with rhodopsin and help direct Arr1 translocation. These structures exhibit intact polar cores, suggesting that C-tail removal by InsP binding is insufficient to activate Arr1. These results show how Arr1 activity can be controlled by endogenous InsPs in molecular detail.

5.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(38): 8358-8372, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546761

RESUMO

The compound 9-cis-retinyl acetate (9-cis-RAc) is a precursor to 9-cis-retinal, which has potential application in the treatment of some hereditary diseases of the retina. An attractive synthetic route to 9-cis-RAc is based on the photoisomerization reaction of the readily available all-trans-RAc. In the present study, we examine the mechanism of the photoisomerization reaction with the use of state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations for two polyenic model compounds: tEtEt-octatetraene and tEtEtEc-2,6-dimethyl-1,3,5,7,9-decapentaene. The occurrence of photoisomerization is attributed to a chain-kinking mechanism, whereby a series of S1/S0 conical intersections associated with kinking deformations at different positions along the polyenic chain mediate internal conversion to the S0 state, and subsequent isomerization around one of the double bonds. Two other possible photoisomerization mechanisms are taken into account, but they are rejected as incompatible with simulation results and/or the available spectroscopic data.

6.
Mol Pharmacol ; 100(5): 470-479, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393108

RESUMO

We compared monotherapies and combinations of therapies that regulate G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with respect to their abilities to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Metoprolol (MTP; 0.04-1.0 mg/kg b.wt./day), bromocriptine (BRM; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg b.wt./day), doxazosin (DOX; 0.01-1.0 mg/kg b.wt./day), or tamsulosin (TAM; 0.05-0.25 mg/kg b.wt./day) were injected individually daily for 2 months in dose-response studies to assess their effects on the diabetes-induced increases in retinal superoxide and leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against vascular endothelial cells, both of which abnormalities have been implicated in the development of DR. Each of the individual drugs inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in retinal superoxide at the higher concentrations tested, but the inhibition was lost at lower doses. To determine whether combination therapies had superior effects over individual drugs, we intentionally selected for each drug a low dose that had little or no effect on the diabetes-induced retinal superoxide for use separately or in combinations in 8-month studies of retinal function, vascular permeability, and capillary degeneration in diabetes. At the low doses used, combinations of the drugs generally were more effective than individual drugs, but the low-dose MTP alone totally inhibited diabetes-induced reduction in a vision task, BRM or DOX alone totally inhibited the vascular permeability defect, and DOX alone totally inhibited diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Although low-dose MTP, BRM, DOX, or TAM individually had beneficial effects on some endpoints, combination of the therapies better inhibited the spectrum of DR lesions evaluated. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The pathogenesis of early stages of diabetic retinopathy remains incompletely understood, but multiple different cell types are believed to be involved in the pathogenic process. We have compared the effects of monotherapies to those of combinations of drugs that regulate GPCR signaling pathways with respect to their relative abilities to inhibit the development of early diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vasos Retinianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/patologia
7.
J Cell Biol ; 220(8)2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132745

RESUMO

Photoreceptors rely on distinct membrane compartments to support their specialized function. Unlike protein localization, identification of critical differences in membrane content has not yet been expanded to lipids, due to the difficulty of isolating domain-specific samples. We have overcome this by using SMA to coimmunopurify membrane proteins and their native lipids from two regions of photoreceptor ROS disks. Each sample's copurified lipids were subjected to untargeted lipidomic and fatty acid analysis. Extensive differences between center (rhodopsin) and rim (ABCA4 and PRPH2/ROM1) samples included a lower PC to PE ratio and increased LC- and VLC-PUFAs in the center relative to the rim region, which was enriched in shorter, saturated FAs. The comparatively few differences between the two rim samples likely reflect specific protein-lipid interactions. High-resolution profiling of the ROS disk lipid composition gives new insights into how intricate membrane structure and protein activity are balanced within the ROS, and provides a model for future studies of other complex cellular structures.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Olho/imunologia , Lipidômica , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanotecnologia , Periferinas/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/ultraestrutura , Rodopsina/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
8.
J Med Chem ; 64(12): 8287-8302, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081480

RESUMO

Recycling of all-trans-retinal to 11-cis-retinal through the visual cycle is a fundamental metabolic pathway in the eye. A potent retinoid isomerase (RPE65) inhibitor, (R)-emixustat, has been developed and tested in several clinical trials; however, it has not received regulatory approval for use in any specific retinopathy. Rapid clearance of this drug presents challenges to maintaining concentrations in eyes within a therapeutic window. To address this pharmacokinetic inadequacy, we rationally designed and synthesized a series of emixustat derivatives with strategically placed fluorine and deuterium atoms to slow down the key metabolic transformations known for emixustat. Crystal structures and quantum chemical analysis of RPE65 in complex with the most potent emixustat derivatives revealed the structural and electronic bases for how fluoro substituents can be favorably accommodated within the active site pocket of RPE65. We found a close (∼3.0 Å) F-π interaction that is predicted to contribute ∼2.4 kcal/mol to the overall binding energy.


Assuntos
Olho/metabolismo , Éteres Fenílicos/farmacocinética , Propanolaminas/farmacocinética , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Deutério/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Flúor/química , Halogenação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Éteres Fenílicos/síntese química , Éteres Fenílicos/metabolismo , Propanolaminas/síntese química , Propanolaminas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , cis-trans-Isomerases/metabolismo
9.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 378(1): 31-41, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931547

RESUMO

CB-5083 is an inhibitor of p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP), for which phase I trials for cancer were terminated because of adverse effects on vision, such as photophobia and dyschromatopsia. Lower dose CB-5083 could combat inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia or multisystem proteinopathy caused by gain-of-function mutations in VCP. We hypothesized that the visual impairment in the cancer trial was due to CB-5083's inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE)-6, which mediates signal transduction in photoreceptors. To test our hypothesis, we used in vivo and ex vivo electroretinography (ERG) in mice and a PDE6 activity assay of bovine rod outer segment (ROS) extracts. Additionally, histology and optical coherence tomography were used to assess CB-5083's long-term ocular toxicity. A single administration of CB-5083 led to robust ERG signal deterioration, specifically in photoresponse kinetics. Similar recordings with known PDE inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and zaprinast showed that only vardenafil had as strong an effect on the ERG signal in vivo as did CB-5083. In the biochemical assay, CB-5083 inhibited PDE6 activity with a potency higher than sildenafil but lower than that of vardenafil. Ex vivo ERG revealed a PDE6 inhibition constant of 80 nM for CB-5083, which is 7-fold smaller than that for sildenafil. Finally, we showed that the inhibitory effect of CB-5083 on visual function is reversible, and its chronic administration does not cause permanent retinal anomalies in aged VCP-disease model mice. Our results warrant re-evaluation of CB-5083 as a clinical therapeutic agent. We recommend preclinical ERG recordings as a routine drug safety screen. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This report supports the use of a valosin-containing protein (VCP) inhibitor drug, CB-5083, for the treatment of neuromuscular VCP disease despite CB-5083's initial clinical failure for cancer treatment due to side effects on vision. The data show that CB-5083 displays a dose-dependent but reversible inhibitory action on phosphodiesterase-6, an essential enzyme in retinal photoreceptor function, but no long-term consequences on retinal function or structure.

10.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 69: 99-107, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945959

RESUMO

Rod photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE6) is the key catalytic enzyme of visual phototransduction. PDE6 is the only member of the phosphodiesterase family that consists of a heterodimeric catalytic core composed of PDE6α and PDE6ß subunits and two inhibitory PDE6γ subunits. Both PDE6α and PDE6ß contain two regulatory GAF domains and one catalytic domain. GAF domains and the tightly bound PDE6γ subunits allosterically regulate the activity of the catalytic domain in association with the GTP-bound transducin alpha subunit (Gtα-GTP). Recent cryo-electron microscopy structures of the PDE6αγßγ and PDE6αγßγ-(Gtα-GTP)2 complexes have provided valuable knowledge shedding additional light on the allosteric activation of PDE6 by Gtα-GTP. Here we discuss recent developments in our understanding of the mechanism of PDE6 activation.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6 , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases , Domínio Catalítico , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo
11.
Biomed Opt Express ; 12(1): 462-479, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659083

RESUMO

Two-photon vision is a phenomenon associated with the perception of short pulses of near-infrared radiation (900-1200 nm) as a visible light. It is caused by the nonlinear process of two-photon absorption by visual pigments. Here we present results showing the influence of pulse duration and repetition rate of short pulsed lasers on the visual threshold. We compared two-photon sensitivity maps of the retina obtained for subjects with normal vision using a cost-effective fiber laser (λc = 1028.4 nm, τp = 12.2 ps, Frep = 19.17 MHz) and a solid-state laser (λc = 1043.3 nm, τp = 0.253 ps, Frep = 62.65 MHz). We have shown that in accordance with the description of two-photon absorption, the average optical power required for two-photon vision for a fiber laser is 4 times greater than that for a solid-state laser. Mean sensitivity measured for the first one is 5.9 ± 2.8 dB lower than for the second but still 17 dB away from the safety limit, confirming that picosecond light sources can be successfully applied in microperimetry. This development would dramatically reduce the cost and complexity of future clinical devices.

12.
JCI Insight ; 6(9)2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784255

RESUMO

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) provides vital metabolic support for retinal photoreceptor cells and is an important player in numerous retinal diseases. Gene manipulation in mice using the Cre-LoxP system is an invaluable tool for studying the genetic basis of these retinal diseases. However, existing RPE-targeted Cre mouse lines have critical limitations that restrict their reliability for studies of disease pathogenesis and treatment, including mosaic Cre expression, inducer-independent activity, off-target Cre expression, and intrinsic toxicity. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a knockin mouse line in which a P2A-CreERT2 coding sequence is fused with the native RPE-specific 65 kDa protein (Rpe65) gene for cotranslational expression of CreERT2. Cre+/- mice were able to recombine a stringent Cre reporter allele with more than 99% efficiency and absolute RPE specificity upon tamoxifen induction at both postnatal days (PD) 21 and 50. Tamoxifen-independent Cre activity was negligible at PD64. Moreover, tamoxifen-treated Cre+/- mice displayed no signs of structural or functional retinal pathology up to 4 months of age. Despite weak RPE65 expression from the knockin allele, visual cycle function was normal in Cre+/- mice. These data indicate that Rpe65CreERT2 mice are well suited for studies of gene function and pathophysiology in the RPE.

13.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(3): 572-583, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677964

RESUMO

Safe and effective molecular therapeutics for prophylactic treatment of retinal degenerative diseases are greatly needed. Disruptions in the clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) by the visual (retinoid) cycle of the retina can lead to the accumulation of atRAL and its condensation products known to initiate progressive retinal dystrophy. Retinylamine (Ret-NH2) and its analogues are known to be effective in lowering the concentration of atRAL within the eye and thus preventing retinal degeneration in mouse models of human retinopathies. Here, we chemically modified Ret-NH2 with amino acids and peptides to improve the stability and ocular bioavailability of the resulting derivatives and to minimize their side effects. Fourteen Ret-NH2 derivatives were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo. These derivatives exhibited structure-dependent therapeutic efficacy in preventing light-induced retinal degeneration in Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- double-knockout mice, with the compounds containing glycine and/or L-valine generally exhibiting greater protective effects than Ret-NH2 or other tested amino acid derivatives of Ret-NH2. Ret-NH2-L-valylglycine amide (RVG) exhibited good stability in storage; and effective uptake and prolonged retention in mouse eyes. RVG readily formed a Schiff base with atRAL and did not inhibit RPE65 enzymatic activity. Administered by oral gavage, this retinoid also provided effective protection against light-induced retinal degeneration in Abca4-/-Rdh8-/- mice. Notably, the treatment with RVG had minimal effects on the regeneration of 11-cis-retinal and recovery of retinal function. RVG holds promise as a lead therapy for effective and safe treatment of human retinal degenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Degeneração Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Animais , Diterpenos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia
14.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(2): 169-178, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077938

RESUMO

Cytosine base editors and adenine base editors (ABEs) can correct point mutations predictably and independent of Cas9-induced double-stranded DNA breaks (which causes substantial indel formation) and homology-directed repair (which typically leads to low editing efficiency). Here, we show, in adult mice, that a subretinal injection of a lentivirus expressing an ABE and a single-guide RNA targeting a de novo nonsense mutation in the Rpe65 gene corrects the pathogenic mutation with up to 29% efficiency and with minimal formation of indel and off-target mutations, despite the absence of the canonical NGG sequence as a protospacer-adjacent motif. The ABE-treated mice displayed restored RPE65 expression and retinoid isomerase activity, and near-normal levels of retinal and visual functions. Our findings motivate the further testing of ABEs for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases and for the correction of pathological mutations with non-canonical protospacer-adjacent motifs.


Assuntos
Adenina/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Lentivirus/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100040, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493732

RESUMO

Driven by the energy of a photon, the visual pigments in rod and cone photoreceptor cells isomerize 11-cis-retinal to the all-trans configuration. This photochemical reaction initiates the signal transduction pathway that eventually leads to the transmission of a visual signal to the brain and leaves the opsins insensitive to further light stimulation. For the eye to restore light sensitivity, opsins require recharging with 11-cis-retinal. This trans-cis back conversion is achieved through a series of enzymatic reactions composing the retinoid (visual) cycle. Although it is evident that the classical retinoid cycle is critical for vision, the existence of an adjunct pathway for 11-cis-retinal regeneration has been debated for many years. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-retinal G protein-coupled receptor (RGR) has been identified previously as a mammalian retinaldehyde photoisomerase homologous to retinochrome found in invertebrates. Using pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical approaches, researchers have now established the physiological relevance of the RGR in 11-cis-retinal regeneration. The photoisomerase activity of RGR in the RPE and Müller glia explains how the eye can remain responsive in daylight. In this review, we will focus on retinoid metabolism in the eye and visual chromophore regeneration mediated by RGR.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187985

RESUMO

All that we view of the world begins with an ultrafast cis to trans photoisomerization of the retinylidene chromophore associated with the visual pigments of rod and cone photoreceptors. The continual responsiveness of these photoreceptors is then sustained by regeneration processes that convert the trans-retinoid back to an 11-cis configuration. Recent biochemical and electrophysiological analyses of the retinal G-protein-coupled receptor (RGR) suggest that it could sustain the responsiveness of photoreceptor cells, particularly cones, even under bright light conditions. Thus, two mechanisms have evolved to accomplish the reisomerization: one involving the well-studied retinoid isomerase (RPE65) and a second photoisomerase reaction mediated by the RGR. Impairments to the pathways that transform all-trans-retinal back to 11-cis-retinal are associated with mild to severe forms of retinal dystrophy. Moreover, with age there also is a decline in the rate of chromophore regeneration. Both pharmacological and genetic approaches are being used to bypass visual cycle defects and consequently mitigate blinding diseases. Rapid progress in the use of genome editing also is paving the way for the treatment of disparate retinal diseases. In this review, we provide an update on visual cycle biochemistry and then discuss visual-cycle-related diseases and emerging therapeutics for these disorders. There is hope that these advances will be helpful in treating more complex diseases of the eye, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


Assuntos
Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Pigmentos da Retina/biossíntese , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Visão Ocular , Animais , Humanos , Isomerismo , cis-trans-Isomerases/metabolismo
17.
J Control Release ; 330: 329-340, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358976

RESUMO

It is still a challenge to develop gene replacement therapy for retinal disorders caused by mutations in large genes, such as Stargardt disease (STGD). STGD is caused by mutations in ABCA4 gene. Previously, we have developed an effective non-viral gene therapy using self-assembled nanoparticles of a multifunctional pH-sensitive amino lipid ECO and a therapeutic ABCA4 plasmid containing rhodopsin promoter (pRHO-ABCA4). In this study, we modified the ABCA4 plasmid with simian virus 40 enhancer (SV40, pRHO-ABCA4-SV40) for enhanced gene expression. We also prepared and assessed the formulations of ECO/pDNA nanoparticles using sucrose or sorbitol as a stablilizer to develop consistent and stable formulations. Results demonstrated that ECO formed stable nanoparticles with pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 in the presence of sucrose, but not with sorbitol. The transfection efficiency in vitro increased significantly after introduction of SV40 enhancer for plasmid pCMV-ABCA4-SV40 with a CMV promoter. Sucrose didn't affect the transfection efficiency, while sorbitol resulted in a fluctuation of the in vitro transfection efficiency. Subretinal gene therapy in Abca4-/- mice using ECO/pRHO-ABCA4 and ECO/pRHO-ABCA4-SV40 nanoparticles induced 36% and 29% reduction in A2E accumulation respectively. Therefore, the ECO/pABCA4 based nanoparticles are promising for non-viral gene therapy for Stargardt disease and can be expended for applications in a variety of visual dystrophies with mutated large genes.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Vírus 40 dos Símios , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Terapia Genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Doença de Stargardt
18.
J Gen Physiol ; 153(1)2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216847

RESUMO

Cone photoreceptors mediate daytime vision in vertebrates. The rapid and efficient regeneration of their visual pigments following photoactivation is critical for the cones to remain photoresponsive in bright and rapidly changing light conditions. Cone pigment regeneration depends on the recycling of visual chromophore, which takes place via the canonical visual cycle in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the Müller cell-driven intraretinal visual cycle. The molecular mechanisms that enable the neural retina to regenerate visual chromophore for cones have not been fully elucidated. However, one known component of the two visual cycles is the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), which is expressed both in the RPE and in Müller cells. To understand the significance of CRALBP in cone pigment regeneration, we examined the function of cones in mice heterozygous for Rlbp1, the gene encoding CRALBP. We found that CRALBP expression was reduced by ∼50% in both the RPE and retina of Rlbp1+/- mice. Electroretinography (ERG) showed that the dark adaptation of rods and cones is unaltered in Rlbp1+/- mice, indicating a normal RPE visual cycle. However, pharmacologic blockade of the RPE visual cycle revealed suppressed cone dark adaptation in Rlbp1+/- mice in comparison with controls. We conclude that the expression level of CRALPB specifically in the Müller cells modulates the efficiency of the retina visual cycle. Finally, blocking the RPE visual cycle also suppressed further cone dark adaptation in Rlbp1-/- mice, revealing a shunt in the classical RPE visual cycle that bypasses CRALBP and allows partial but unexpectedly rapid cone dark adaptation.


Assuntos
Retina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones , Animais , Adaptação à Escuridão , Camundongos , Pigmentos da Retina , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes
19.
Retina ; 41(6): 1302-1308, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human photoreceptors are sensitive to infrared light (IR). This sensitivity can be used as a novel indicator of retinal function. Diabetic retinopathy patients were assessed using in vivo two-photon excitation and compared their scotopic IR threshold with that of healthy patients. METHODS: Sixty-two participants, 28 healthy and 34 with diabetic retinopathy, underwent a comprehensive eye examination, where visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed. Infrared thresholds were measured in the fovea and parafovea following 30-minute dark adaptation. A two-photon excitation device was used with integrated pulsed laser light (1,045 nm) for sensitivity testing and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for fundus imaging. RESULTS: The mean Snellen visual acuity of diabetic patients (6/7.7) was worse than that of the healthy patients (6/5.5), which was significantly different (P < 0.001). Disease patients had decreased contrast sensitivity, especially at 6 and 18 cycles/degree. The mean retinal sensitivity to IR light in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (11.6 ± 2.0 dB) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than that in normal eyes (15.5 ± 1.3 dB). CONCLUSION: Compared with healthy control subjects, the IR light sensitivity of diabetic patients was significantly impaired. Two-photon measurements can be used in the assessment of retinal disease, but further studies are needed to validate IR light stimulation in various stages of diabetic retinopathy.

20.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(11): 1119, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122854

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

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