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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(39): 15471-15476, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500410

RESUMO

The single-molecule conductance of silanes is suppressed due to destructive quantum interference in conformations with cisoid dihedral angles along the molecular backbone. Yet, despite the structural similarity, σ-interference effects have not been observed in alkanes. Here we report that the methyl substituents used in silanes are a prerequisite for σ-interference in these systems. Through density functional theory calculations, we find that the destructive interference is not evident to the same extent in nonmethylated silanes. We find the same is true in alkanes as the transmission is significantly suppressed in permethylated cyclic and bicyclic alkanes. Using scanning tunneling microscope break-junction method we determine the single-molecule conductance of functionalized cyclohexane and bicyclo[2.2.2]octane that are found to be higher than that of equivalent permethylated silanes. Rather than the difference between carbon and silicon atoms in the molecular backbones, our calculations reveal that it is primarily the difference between hydrogen and methyl substituents that result in the different electron transport properties of nonmethylated alkanes and permethylated silanes. Chemical substituents play an important role in determining the single-molecule conductance of saturated molecules, and this must be considered when we improve and expand the chemical design of insulating organic molecules.

2.
Chemistry ; 25(46): 10840-10844, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276601

RESUMO

We report a new family of nickel phosphinidene molecular clusters synthesized from the reaction of bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel(0) ([Ni(cod)2 ]) with organocyclophosphine and trialkylphosphine. We found that [Ni(cod)2 ] cleaves the organocyclophosphine P-P bonds to generate phosphinidene groups, establishing the cyclic molecules as valuable precursors for making charge-neutral molecular clusters passivated by two-electron donor capping ligands. The formation of the cluster core structure is controlled by the bulkiness of the precursor and of the capping ligand. As a demonstration of this new cluster-forming reaction, we describe three clusters with different core nuclearity and degree of ligation: Ni12 (PMe)10 (PEt3 )8 , Ni8 (PMe)6 (PMe3 )8 , and Ni8 (PiPr)6 (PMe3 )6 . In addition, we show that the larger cluster, Ni12 (PMe)10 (PEt3 )8 , can be used as a low temperature single-source molecular precursor to the catalytically active nickel phosphide phase Ni2 P.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(32): 28774-28780, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314493

RESUMO

Safety is critical to developing next-generation batteries with high-energy density. Polyether-based electrolytes, such as poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are attractive alternatives to the current flammable liquid organic electrolyte, since they are much more thermally stable and compatible with high-capacity lithium anode. Unfortunately, they are not stable with 4 V Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2 (NMC) cathodes, hindering them from application in batteries with high-energy density. Here, we report that the compatibility between PEG electrolyte and NMC cathodes can be significantly improved by forming a 2 nm Al2O3 coating on the NMC surface. This nanoscale coating dramatically changes the composition of the cathode electrolyte interphase and thus stabilizes the PEG electrolyte with the NMC cathode. With Al2O3, the capacity remains at 84.7% after 80 cycles and 70.3% after 180 cycles. In contrast, the capacity fades to less than 50% after only 20 cycles in bare NMC electrodes. This study opens a new opportunity to develop safe electrolyte for lithium batteries with high-energy density.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(19): 17333-17340, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013429

RESUMO

Rechargeable metallic lithium batteries are considered as promising candidates for next-generation energy storage due to their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with electrolyte flammability and dendrite growth hinder their practical applications. Nonflammable liquid electrolytes have attracted significant attention recently, but they are mainly based on expensive ionic liquids, fluorinated solvents, or with highly concentrated salt. Here we design a novel trisalt electrolyte composed of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI)-lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB)-LiPF6 in EC/PC solvent, which is not flammable even in contact with fire. Moreover, it creates unique protection of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on lithium metal anode that allows 400 cycles of Li/Li(NiMnCo)1/3O2 cells with a capacity retention of 97.0% at 0.83 mA cm-2. This work illustrates that low-cost fluorine-free carbonate solvents can also realize nonflammable electrolyte with high performance, which opens new opportunities to promote safety and energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries simultaneously.

5.
Chem Sci ; 10(4): 1029-1034, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774898

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of a bilayer chiral nanographene incorporating a [7]helicene scaffold and two perylene-diimide (PDI) subunits. Twofold visible-light-induced oxidative cyclization of a phenanthrene framework selects for the desired PDI-helicene, despite the immense strain that distinguishes this helicene from two other accessible isomers. This strain arises from the extensive intramolecular overlap of the PDI subunits, which precludes racemization, even at elevated temperatures. Relative to a smaller homologue, this PDI-helicene exhibits amplified electronic circular dichroism. It also readily and reversibly accepts four electrons electrochemically. Modifications to the core phenanthrene subunit change the fluorescence and electrochemistry of the PDI-helicene without significantly impacting its electronic circular dichroism or UV-visible absorbance.

6.
Chem Sci ; 10(40): 9339-9344, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110297

RESUMO

Recent years have seen tremendous progress towards understanding the relation between the molecular structure and function of organic field effect transistors. The metrics for organic field effect transistors, which are characterized by mobility and the on/off ratio, are known to be enhanced when the intermolecular interaction is strong and the intramolecular reorganization energy is low. While these requirements are adequate when describing organic field effect transistors with simple and planar aromatic molecular components, they are insufficient for complex building blocks, which have the potential to localize a carrier on the molecule. Here, we show that intramolecular conductivity can play a role in controlling device characteristics of organic field effect transistors made with macrocycle building blocks. We use two isomeric macrocyclic semiconductors that consist of perylene diimides linked with bithiophenes and find that the trans-linked macrocycle has a higher mobility than the cis-based device. Through a combination of single molecule junction conductance measurements of the components of the macrocycles, control experiments with acyclic counterparts to the macrocycles, and analyses of each of the materials using spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and density functional theory, we attribute the difference in electron mobility of the OFETs created with the two isomers to the difference in intramolecular conductivity of the two macrocycles.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(46): 15601-15605, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418022

RESUMO

Structural phase transitions run in families of crystalline solids. Perovskites, for example, feature a remarkable number of structural transformations that produce a wealth of exotic behaviors, including ferroelectricity, magnetoresistance, metal-insulator transitions and superconductivity. In superatomic crystals and other such materials assembled from programmable building blocks, phase transitions offer pathways to new properties that are both tunable and switchable. Here we describe [Co6Te8(PEt3)6][C70]2, a novel superatomic crystal with two separate phase transitions that drastically transform the collective material properties. A coupled structural-electronic phase transition triggers the emergence of a new electronic band in the fullerene sublattice of the crystal, increasing its electrical conductivity by 2 orders of magnitude, while narrowing its optical gap and increasing its spin density. Independently, an order-disorder transition transforms [Co6Te8(PEt3)6][C70]2 from a phonon crystal to a phonon glass. These results introduce a family of materials in which functional phase transformations may be manipulated by varying the constituent building blocks.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(42): 13815-13820, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180280

RESUMO

Deconvoluting the atom-specific electron density within polynuclear systems remains a challenge. A multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction study on four clusters that share the same [Co6 Se8 ] core was performed. Two cluster types were designed, one having a symmetric ligand sphere and the other having an asymmetric ligand sphere. It was found that in the neutral, asymmetric, CO-bound cluster, the Co-CO site is more highly oxidized than the other five Co atoms; when an electron is removed, the hole is distributed among the Se atoms. In the neutral, symmetric cluster, the Co atoms divide by electron population into two sets of three, each set being meridional; upon removal of an electron, the hole is distributed among all the Co atoms. This ligand-dependent tuning of the electron/hole distribution relates directly to the performance of clusters in biological and synthetic systems.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(32): 10135-10139, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063344

RESUMO

We describe here the direct connection between the molecular conformation of a conjugated macrocycle and its macroscopic charge transport properties. We incorporate chiral, helical perylene diimide ribbons into the two separate macrocycles as the n-type, electron transporting material. As the macrocycles' films and electronic structures are analogous, the important finding is that the macrocycles' molecular structures and their associated dynamics determine device performance in organic field effect transistors. We show the more flexible macrocycle has a 4-fold increase in electron mobility in field effect transistor devices. Using a combination of spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we find that the origin of the difference in device performance is the ability of more flexible isomer to make intermolecular contacts relative to the more rigid counterpart.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8944-8949, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969027

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have recently emerged as thermally and chemically ultrastable alternatives to those formed from thiols. The rich chemistry and strong σ-donating ability of NHCs offer unique prospects for applications in nanoelectronics, sensing, and electrochemistry. Although stable in SAMs, free carbenes are notoriously reactive, making their electronic characterization challenging. Here we report the first investigation of electron transport across single NHC-bound molecules using the scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction (STM-BJ) technique. We develop a series of air-stable metal NHC complexes that can be electrochemically reduced in situ to form NHC-electrode contacts, enabling reliable single-molecule conductance measurements of NHCs under ambient conditions. Using this approach, we show that the conductance of an NHC depends on the identity of the single metal atom to which it is coordinated in the junction. Our observations are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which also firmly establish the contributions of the NHC linker to the junction transport characteristics. Our work demonstrates a powerful method to probe electron transfer across NHC-electrode interfaces; more generally, it opens the door to the exploitation of surface-bound NHCs in constructing novel, functionalized electrodes and/or nanoelectronic devices.

11.
Nature ; 558(7710): 415-419, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875407

RESUMO

The tunnelling of electrons through molecules (and through any nanoscale insulating and dielectric material 1 ) shows exponential attenuation with increasing length 2 , a length dependence that is reflected in the ability of the electrons to carry an electrical current. It was recently demonstrated3-5 that coherent tunnelling through a molecular junction can also be suppressed by destructive quantum interference 6 , a mechanism that is not length-dependent. For the carbon-based molecules studied previously, cancelling all transmission channels would involve the suppression of contributions to the current from both the π-orbital and σ-orbital systems. Previous reports of destructive interference have demonstrated a decrease in transmission only through the π-channel. Here we report a saturated silicon-based molecule with a functionalized bicyclo[2.2.2]octasilane moiety that exhibits destructive quantum interference in its σ-system. Although molecular silicon typically forms conducting wires 7 , we use a combination of conductance measurements and ab initio calculations to show that destructive σ-interference, achieved here by locking the silicon-silicon bonds into eclipsed conformations within a bicyclic molecular framework, can yield extremely insulating molecules less than a nanometre in length. Our molecules also exhibit an unusually high thermopower (0.97 millivolts per kelvin), which is a further experimental signature of the suppression of all tunnelling paths by destructive interference: calculations indicate that the central bicyclo[2.2.2]octasilane unit is rendered less conductive than the empty space it occupies. The molecular design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a quantum-interference-based approach to single-molecule insulators.

12.
Nano Lett ; 18(7): 4564-4569, 2018 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877705

RESUMO

Quantum confinement endows colloidal semiconducting nanoparticles with many fascinating and useful properties, yet a critical limitation has been the lack of atomic precision in their size and shape. We demonstrate the emergence of quantum confined behavior for the first time in atomically defined Co6Se8(PEt3)6 superatoms by dimerizing [Co6Se8] units through direct fusion. To accomplish this dimerization, we install a reactive carbene on the [Co6Se8] core to create a latent fusion site. Then we transform the reactive carbene intermediate into a material with an expanded core, [Co12Se16], that exhibits electronic and optical properties distinct from the parent monomer. The chemical transformation presented herein allows for precise synthetic control over the ligands and size of these clusters. We show by cyclic voltammetry, infrared spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations that the resulting fused [Co12Se16] material exhibits strong electronic coupling and electron delocalization. We observe a bandgap reduction upon expanding the cluster core, suggesting that we have isolated a new intermediate in route to extended solids. These results are further corroborated with electronic structure calculations of a monomer, fused dimer, trimer, and tetramer species. These reactions will allow for the synthesis of extended highly delocalized wires, sheets, and cages.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1957, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769520

RESUMO

Self-assembly of electroactive molecules is a promising route to new types of functional semiconductors. Here we report a capsule-shaped molecule that assembles itself into a cellular semiconducting material. The interior space of the capsule with a volume of ~415 Å3 is a nanoenvironment that can accommodate a guest. To self-assemble these capsules into electronic materials, we functionalize the thiophene rings with bromines, which encode self-assembly into two-dimensional layers held together through halogen bonding interactions. In the solid state and in films, these two-dimensional layers assemble into the three-dimensional crystalline structure. This hollow material is able to form the active layer in field effect transistor devices. We find that the current of these devices has strong response to the guest's interaction within the hollow spaces in the film. These devices are remarkable in their ability to distinguish, through their electrical response, between small differences in the guest.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(16): 5370-5374, 2018 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641190

RESUMO

A novel, electron-deficient cyclopentadienyl iridium(III) catalyst enables sequential cleavage of arene C(sp2)-H and methoxy C(sp3)-H bonds of anisoles, generating reactive metalacycles that insert difluoroalkynes to afford chromenes under mild reaction conditions. This transformation is an arylalkylation of an alkyne-a carbocarbation-via a nonchelate-assisted cleavage of two C-H bonds.


Assuntos
Alquinos/química , Anisóis/química , Benzopiranos/química , Carbono/química , Irídio/química , Alquilação , Catálise , Halogenação
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(10): 3523-3527, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485273

RESUMO

An enantioselective catalytic inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of salicylaldehyde acetal-derived oxocarbenium ions and vinyl ethers to generate 2,4-dioxychromanes is described. Chiral pentacarboxycyclopentadiene (PCCP) acids are found to be effective for a variety of substrates. Computational and X-ray crystallographic analyses support the unique hypothesis that an anion with point-chirality-induced helical chirality dictates the absolute sense of stereochemistry in this reaction.


Assuntos
Cromanos/química , Ciclopentanos/química , Elétrons , Metano/análogos & derivados , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Reação de Cicloadição , Íons/química , Metano/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
17.
Nat Chem ; 9(12): 1170-1174, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29168490

RESUMO

The controlled introduction of impurities into the crystal lattice of solid-state compounds is a cornerstone of materials science. Intercalation, the insertion of guest atoms, ions or molecules between the atomic layers of a host structure, can produce novel electronic, magnetic and optical properties in many materials. Here we describe an intercalation compound in which the host [Co6Te8(PnPr3)6][C60]3, formed from the binary assembly of atomically precise molecular clusters, is a superatomic analogue of traditional layered atomic compounds. We find that tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) can be inserted into the superstructure through a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation. Using electronic absorption spectroscopy, electrical transport measurements and electronic structure calculations, we demonstrate that the intercalation is driven by the exchange of charge between the host [Co6Te8(PnPr3)6][C60]3 and the intercalant TCNE. These results show that intercalation is a powerful approach to manipulate the material properties of superatomic crystals.

18.
ACS Cent Sci ; 3(9): 1050-1055, 2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28979947

RESUMO

We describe a new approach to synthesize two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets from the bottom-up. We functionalize redox-active superatoms with groups that can direct their assembly into multidimensional solids. We synthesized Co6Se8[PEt2(4-C6H4COOH)]6 and found that it forms a crystalline assembly. The solid-state structure is a three-dimensional (3D) network in which the carboxylic acids form intercluster hydrogen bonds. We modify the self-assembly by replacing the reversible hydrogen bonds that hold the superatoms together with zinc carboxylate bonds via the solvothermal reaction of Co6Se8[PEt2(4-C6H4COOH)]6 with Zn(NO3)2. We obtain two types of crystalline materials using this approach: one is a 3D solid and the other consists of stacked layers of 2D sheets. The dimensionality is controlled by subtle changes in reaction conditions. These 2D sheets can be chemically exfoliated, and the exfoliated, ultrathin 2D layers are soluble. After they are deposited on a substrate, they can be imaged. We cast them onto an electrode surface and show that they retain the redox activity of the superatom building blocks due to the porosity in the sheets.

19.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(11): 1050-1054, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805817

RESUMO

Fabricating nanoscopic devices capable of manipulating and processing single units of charge is an essential step towards creating functional devices where quantum effects dominate transport characteristics. The archetypal single-electron transistor comprises a small conducting or semiconducting island separated from two metallic reservoirs by insulating barriers. By enabling the transfer of a well-defined number of charge carriers between the island and the reservoirs, such a device may enable discrete single-electron operations. Here, we describe a single-molecule junction comprising a redox-active, atomically precise cobalt chalcogenide cluster wired between two nanoscopic electrodes. We observe current blockade at room temperature in thousands of single-cluster junctions. Below a threshold voltage, charge transfer across the junction is suppressed. The device is turned on when the temporary occupation of the core states by a transiting carrier is energetically enabled, resulting in a sequential tunnelling process and an increase in current by a factor of ∼600. We perform in situ and ex situ cyclic voltammetry as well as density functional theory calculations to unveil a two-step process mediated by an orbital localized on the core of the cluster in which charge carriers reside before tunnelling to the collector reservoir. As the bias window of the junction is opened wide enough to include one of the cluster frontier orbitals, the current blockade is lifted and charge carriers can tunnel sequentially across the junction.

20.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5734-5739, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806090

RESUMO

Thermal management plays a critical role in the design of solid state materials for energy conversion. Lead halide perovskites have emerged as promising candidates for photovoltaic, thermoelectric, and optoelectronic applications, but their thermal properties are still poorly understood. Here, we report on the thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, and sound speed of a series of lead halide perovskites MAPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), CsPbBr3, and FAPbBr3 (MA = methylammonium, FA = formamidinium). Using frequency domain thermoreflectance, we find that the room temperature thermal conductivities of single crystal lead halide perovskites range from 0.34 to 0.73 W/m·K and scale with sound speed. These results indicate that regardless of composition, thermal transport arises from acoustic phonons having similar mean free path distributions. A modified Callaway model with Born von Karmen-based acoustic phonon dispersion predicts that at least ∼70% of thermal conductivity results from phonons having mean free paths shorter than 100 nm, regardless of whether resonant scattering is invoked. Hence, nanostructures or crystal grains with dimensions smaller than 100 nm will appreciably reduce thermal transport. These results are important design considerations to optimize future lead halide perovskite-based photovoltaic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric devices.

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