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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the longitudinal relationships between subjective age (SA) and future functional status in later life, via depressive symptoms. Additionally, we assessed the role of subjective nearness to death (SNtD) as a potential moderator within these pathways. METHODS: Older adults (average age 81.14 at T1) were interviewed once a year for three consecutive years (N=224 at T1, N=178 at T2, and N=164 at T3), Participants reported their SA, SNtD, depressive symptoms, and functional status. Additionally, grip strength was employed as an objective measure of functional status. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed distinct pathways leading from T1 SA to T3 functional status through T2 depressive symptoms. Moreover, T1 SNtD was found to significantly moderate most of these indirect pathways, so that the mediation model of T1 SA-T2 depressive symptoms-T3 functional status was mostly significant among those who felt closer to death. DISCUSSION: The findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanism through which SA predicts long-term functioning sequelae by underscoring the indirect effect of depressive symptoms. They further indicate the importance of gauging the effects of SNtD on these longitudinal relationships. Present results may further contribute to establishing an integrative model for predicting long-term functional outcomes based on older adults' earlier subjective views of aging.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
Stress Health ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245220

RESUMO

This study examined how existential fears are related to COVID-19 vaccination anxiety and followed the Terror Management Theory (TMT) by examining the contribution of two existential concerns, subjective nearness-to-death (SNtD) and death anxiety, to COVID-19 vaccination anxiety during the first month of COVID-19 vaccinations. Data were collected during January 2021, when Israel was in lockdown, from a convenience sample of 381 Jewish Israelis (M = 55.39, SD = 17.17). Participants completed questionnaires examining demographics, SNtD, death anxiety and COVID-19 vaccination anxiety. A hierarchical regression analysis examined the connections between these variables and COVID-19 vaccination anxiety while controlling for demographics and for receiving COVID-19 vaccinations. In line with the hypotheses, SNtD and death anxiety were each positively associated with COVID-19 vaccination anxiety, and death anxiety levels moderated the positive connection between SNtD and COVID-19 vaccination anxiety, as this association was not significant for individuals with low death anxiety. The findings of this study provide preliminary evidence concerning the role of death anxiety in moderating the effect that SNtD has on COVID-19 vaccination anxiety. These findings are in line with the TMT and justify further investigation and may be utilized in future research in order to address COVID-19 vaccination anxiety more effectively.

5.
Psychol Health ; : 1-19, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand if attitudes to aging mediate the reciprocal effects of health anxiety and physical functioning among older adults with medical conditions. We examined: (1) if these effects are reciprocal; (2) if attitudes to aging (psychological loss, psychological growth, physical change) play a mediating role in these effects. DESIGN: A sample of 226 community-dwelling older adults (T1 age range = 65-94, mean age = 73.59, SD = 6.29) reporting at least one chronic medical condition completed two phone interviews across six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Background measures, health anxiety, physical functioning, and attitudes to aging at T1 and T2. RESULTS: T2 attitudes to aging served as a mediator controlling for T1 attitudes. There was a direct effect of worse physical functioning at T1 on increased health anxieties at T2. Negative (but not positive) attitudes to aging mediated that effect. The reversed temporal sequencing (T1 health anxiety leading to T2 physical functioning) was significant only when mediated by negative attitudes to aging. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that viewing aging as mostly a time of losses (but not as a time of gains) serves as an important mechanism through which health anxieties and physical functioning affect each other among older adults having chronic medical conditions.

6.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(6): 443-448, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037551

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated whether levels of receptive arts engagement (visiting museums/concerts/the theater/the cinema) during the year preceding the COVID-19 outbreak may have served as a psychological resource for older adults that mitigated the association between resilience levels and COVID-19 anxiety when the pandemic broke out. Data were collected after the enactment of the first emergency regulations (between March 15 and April 1, 2020) via the Qualtrics Survey Software link that was sent out through social media platforms. In total, 205 participants aged 65 to 92 (mean age, 72.32; SD, 5.63) reported general anxiety symptom levels (GAD-7) (Spitzer et al., 2006), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), frequency of receptive arts engagement in the previous year, health status, exposure to risk situations, and behavioral changes due to the pandemic. Our hypothesis that receptive arts would moderate the resilience-COVID-19 anxiety link was examined by a multiple hierarchical regression analysis and with the PROCESS computational tool. Findings show that resilience was associated with COVID-19 anxiety and that this association was moderated by levels of receptive arts engagement. The findings show that high levels of prior art engagement constituted a potent buffer against subsequent COVID-19 anxiety. Policy makers may benefit older adults by encouraging their engagement in arts activities, even during social distancing.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Museus , Música/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Anxiety Disord ; 81: 102401, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932631

RESUMO

The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma in relation to levels of secondary traumatization and event centrality across three generations in a cross-sectional survey. Participants included 92 Holocaust survivor-offspring-grandchild triads (Holocaust G1-G2-G3) and 67 comparison triads (Comparison G1-G2-G3). Holocaust G1 reported higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms relative to Comparison G1. Holocaust G2 and G3 reported significantly higher secondary traumatization relative to Comparison G2 and G3, respectively. Holocaust G3 also reported significantly higher scores in event centrality relative to Comparison G3. In survivor families, the indirect effect of PTSD symptoms in Holocaust G1 predicted Holocaust G2's secondary traumatization, which subsequently predicted Holocaust G3's secondary traumatization. Moreover, PTSD symptoms in Holocaust G1 predicted Holocaust G3's event centrality through secondary traumatization in both Holocaust G2 and G3 and event centrality in Holocaust G2. In the comparison groups, trauma transmission was not observed in three generations. Findings elucidate unique intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma in survivor families, which comprise both personal and societal constituents. Moreover, the findings show that event centrality is a distinctive mechanism in intergenerational transmission in survivor families.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão , Holocausto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobreviventes
8.
J Affect Disord ; 287: 352-353, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread COVID-19 vaccination program, issued by the Israel Government, provides a unique opportunity to examine psychiatric morbidity and vaccine attitudes among individuals who have already been vaccinated. Accordingly, the current study examined how vaccine hesitancy contributes to clinical levels of depression, anxiety, and peritraumatic stress among individuals who had received COVID-19 vaccinations. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained from 254 vaccinated individuals, and assessed vaccine hesitancy, depression, anxiety, and peritraumatic distress, as well as several demographic, health, and COVID-19-related factors. RESULTS: Logistic regressions demonstrated that above and beyond socio-demographic, health, and COVID-19-related factors, COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was the most prominent risk factor for anxiety, depression, and peritraumatic distress. Higher levels of vaccine hesitancy were found to double the risk for depression and peritraumatic stress (ORs > 2), and to triple the risk for anxiety (OR > 3). LIMITATIONS: A cross-sectional design; a preliminary study requiring further investigation CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the importance of vaccine hesitancy among vaccinated populations and provides knowledge regarding its associations with negative psychiatric outcomes. These findings may offer important information for healthcare practitioners and policy makers in their attempt to encourage individuals to receive COVID-19 vaccinations and emphasize the need to further understand the underlying mechanisms of psychiatric morbidity among vaccinated individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 315-327, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561353

RESUMO

Purpose The study examined age-related differences in the use of semantic context and in the effect of semantic competition in spoken sentence processing. We used offline (response latency) and online (eye gaze) measures, using the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. Method Thirty younger and 30 older adults heard sentences related to one of four images presented on a computer monitor. They were asked to touch the image corresponding to the final word of the sentence (target word). Three conditions were used: a nonpredictive sentence, a predictive sentence suggesting one of the four images on the screen (semantic context), and a predictive sentence suggesting two possible images (semantic competition). Results Online eye gaze data showed no age-related differences with nonpredictive sentences, but revealed slowed processing for older adults when context was presented. With the addition of semantic competition to context, older adults were slower to look at the target word after it had been heard. In contrast, offline latency analysis did not show age-related differences in the effects of context and competition. As expected, older adults were generally slower to touch the image than younger adults. Conclusions Traditional offline measures were not able to reveal the complex effect of aging on spoken semantic context processing. Online eye gaze measures suggest that older adults were slower than younger adults to predict an indicated object based on semantic context. Semantic competition affected online processing for older adults more than for younger adults, with no accompanying age-related differences in latency. This supports an early age-related inhibition deficit, interfering with processing, and not necessarily with response execution.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Semântica , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Idioma , Tempo de Reação
11.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(2): 142-148, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940522

RESUMO

Background: The primary aim of the current study was to establish the cutoffs scores for the Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO), a relatively new tool that examines the introspective worldview of those exposed to traumatic events. This tool was developed as a complementary scale to be used in conjunction with the observed-phenomenological measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) complex PTSD (CPTSD). The present study examines the predictive power of STO for distinguishing between PTSD and CPTSD in African countries. Method: A national representative (based on age and gender) sample of 2,554 participants was drawn from 3 African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, and Ghana) who completed the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) and the STO. We conducted a set of analyses examining that alignment of ITQ probable PTSD and CPTSD and different STO cutoff scores. Results: Results suggest that the STO single-factor structure was stable across countries, had a strong association with PTSD and CPTSD levels, and had predictive utility in differentiating between PTSD and CPTSD. Moreover, we found that there are different cutoffs for the STO in the different countries. Conclusion: There is a strong but distinctive association between the introspective and the observed-phenomenological approaches of PTSD and CPTSD. Our findings call for more integrative approaches for the assessment of PTSD and CPTSD and suggest that there are cultural differences in STO. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(5): 871-880, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some degree of mental distress is commonly present in old age, and it is often exacerbated in later life following changes in physical health. This work presents in 2 studies among samples that have been exposed to stressful experiences in the past, a prospective examination of how the association between physical health and mental distress is attenuated by 2 forms of views on aging, evaluations of age, and evaluations of one's future. METHOD: Study 1 (N = 226) was conducted in 2008 (Time 1) and 2014 (Time 2), among Israeli war veterans (mean age 64.90, SD = 5.04); Study 2 (N = 132) was conducted in 2014 (Time 1) and 2015 (Time 2) among older adults who were exposed to ongoing rocket fire in the south of Israel (mean age 66.44, SD = 9.77). Participants reported on their subjective age, subjective life expectancy (SLE [in Study 1]/distance to death [DtD; in Study 2]), health, and mental distress. RESULTS: Both studies showed that after controlling for exposure to trauma and for Time 1 mental distress, Time 1 subjective age, but not SLE/DtD, moderated the association between Time 1 physical health and Time 2 mental distress. DISCUSSION: Subjective age and SLE represent distinct features of views of aging. Subjective age may reflect perceptions of one's aging process, associated more directly with health-related outcomes over time. SLE reflects future, death-related perceptions, therefore perhaps less directly associated with such outcomes.

13.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore old persons' experiences of positive solitude (PS) and the gaps between their experience and professional caregivers' perceptions of older adults' experiences of PS. Moreover, we attempt to understand the basic mechanism that may explain these gaps. DESIGN: A qualitative method was used. PARTICIPANTS: Fourty-one older adults (aged 65-103 years) and 2 groups of professionals: 16 occupational therapists with a specialization in gerontology and 41 gerontology graduate students from other occupations. MEASUREMENT: Four open-ended questions about PS were asked. The older adults described their views on PS and experiences during solitude. The two caregiver groups, who are familiar with older adults, answered the questions twice, referring once to themselves and once to older adults in general. RESULTS: A. Gaps exist between old peoples' and caregivers' perceptions and experience of PS. B. The caregivers believe that older adults cannot easily enjoy PS. C. Caregivers believe that there are certain preconditions for older adults' experience of PS. D. Differences in attitude toward older adults between the caregiver groups were found. CONCLUSIONS: Although old people occasionally prefer PS, culture and age bias may prevent caregivers from accepting older adults' need for PS. Practical implications include the need to raise awareness of age bias among caregiving staff, in particular regarding their acceptance of older adults' PS experiences. This may improve the staff's willingness to enable older adults to experience PS without interruption.

14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187689

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between media use, experiences of media use as having a negative and/or positive impact on coping, peritraumatic distress, anxiety symptoms and resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenience sample of 902 Israeli adults (mean age = 46.21) completed measures of peritraumatic distress, anxiety symptoms and resilience, and reported on their media use experiences one month following the initial outbreak of the disease in Israel (April 2020). After controlling for COVID-19 related events and demographic covariates, experiencing media use as having a negative impact on coping was related to higher levels of peritraumatic distress and anxiety symptoms and lower levels of resilience. In contrast, experiencing media as having a positive impact was not related to peritraumatic distress, anxiety symptoms or resilience. The findings suggest that those reporting that media use had a negative impact on coping are at greater risk of experiencing higher levels of peritraumatic distress and anxiety symptoms as well as lower resilience. In addition, traditional media use was related to higher resiliency. Developing understanding of how media could be used to optimally support emergency responses is crucial in order to minimize psychopathology. Unified, clear, trustworthy and informative messaging has a special importance during a mass public health crisis. Further research will contribute to guidance of potential risk and resilience aspects of media use during emergencies.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002024

RESUMO

The literature indicates that theatre and drama-based interventions have the potential to improve older adults' well-being and health. The goal of the current study was to characterize the process of a creative group intervention in adult day centers (ADCs), which integrates playback theatre and life-review principles. Our objective was to provide an evidence-informed framework for drama therapy interventions, which would allow older adults to bring up and explore their life-stories in a dramatic creative process in their own community. A total of 27 participants ranging in age from 63 to 91, took part in one of three playback theatre groups. The playback theatre group intervention comprised 12 weekly sessions. All sessions were videotaped to capture the lived experience of the creative process and were analyzed in post-intervention interviews. In addition, focus group meetings were conducted with 13 ADC staff members to decipher further the effects of the participation as perceived by people outside the groups. Three types of potential transformation were identified in the qualitative analysis: the evolution of life stories, evolution of playfulness, and expansion of social engagement. The results indicate the potential of the integrative framework to serve as a creative intervention in ADC communities, as well as its potential to bring about a personal transformation and expand it to enable a person's social engagement in the community. The findings imply the potential benefits of using playback theatre groups to supplement the routine care provided in ADCs.


Assuntos
Centros-Dia de Assistência à Saúde para Adultos , Terapia pela Arte/métodos , Ludoterapia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 733464820967209, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095076

RESUMO

Ageism has been associated with negative perceptions of the future and the aging process. The current study argues that this connection is affected by the relevance older adults attribute to the cognitive category of age in their own self-appraisal, as well as by how they perceive this awareness in others. Accordingly, we examined the association between ageism and subjective accelerated aging (i.e., the rate the individual feels he or she is aging) and the moderating role of self-age awareness and other-age awareness on this connection. Data were collected from 267 participants (age range = 40-95; M = 64.32, SD = 14.09), using scales assessing ageism, self/other age awareness, and subjective accelerated aging. High ageism levels were associated with increased subjective accelerated aging. Moreover, this connection was moderated by both self- and other-age awareness. The study enhances the importance of personal appraisals of one's own and others' behaviors as age-related in this context.

17.
Death Stud ; : 1-6, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960745

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether subjective nearness-to-death moderated the association between health worries and death anxiety due to the COVID-19 outbreak among older adults in Israel. Using an online survey, 277 participants were recruited and completed self-reported questionnaires, which included background characteristics, exposure to COVID-19 risk experiences, self-rated health, subjective nearness-to-death, health worries regarding COVID-19, and death anxiety. Findings revealed that subjective nearness-to-death moderated the association between health worries and death anxiety. The importance and significance of subjective perceptions concerning the distance from death as far, which may serve as a resilient resource, is discussed.

19.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; : 91415020957379, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938200

RESUMO

This paper attempts to develop a better understanding of the positive solitude (PS) phenomenon and its meaning among age groups, as well as formulate a unanimous definition for PS. A qualitative study (N = 124) was conducted. Participants were gerontology professionals and laypeople. Interviews were conducted and content was analyzed in order to understand the essence of PS, themes, and subthemes. Two major categories were found: the essence and the components of the PS experience. Seven PS content categories and three meta-themes were raised: (1) PS is a matter of choice; (2) PS is satisfying and enjoyable; and (3) PS is meaningful. Differences in PS categories between younger and older adults were found. The meta-themes served as the foundation of a new definition. PS has different attributes in old age. A unified definition of PS may help distinguishing between PS and other forms of being alone. Recognizing and facilitating the PS experience among older adults might be beneficial and contribute to their quality of life.

20.
Psychiatry ; 83(4): 375-389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744896

RESUMO

Objective: Research indicates that people who experience more intense peritraumatic reactions are at higher risk of subsequently developing PTSD. The study used network analysis to: 1) explore the network structure of peritraumatic distress reactions; 2) identify clusters of peritraumatic distress reactions; and 3) assess whether central items in the peritraumatic network have stronger network associations with subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS). Method: A convenience sample of adults living in communities affected by large-scale community fires in Israel (November 2016) were recruited. Participants completed the 13-item peritraumatic distress inventory (PDI) within one month of the fires (n = 372), and the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) four months after the fires (n = 199). Network analyses and exploratory graph analysis were conducted. Results: The PDI items were positively connected to each other in a network structure, which divided into two clusters: emotional reactions; and physical/somatic reactions along with guilt and shame. Loss of emotional control was the most central peritraumatic distress symptom. Highly central peritraumatic distress symptoms were not strongly associated with subsequent PTS; rather, physical reactions were most associated with PTS levels four months after the fires. Conclusions: Future studies should investigate targeting peritraumatic physical reactions as an early secondary prevention strategy for PTSD.

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