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4.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906588

RESUMO

Pregnancy induces a number of immunological, hormonal, and metabolic changes that are necessary for the mother to adapt her body to this new physiological situation. The microbiome of the mother, the placenta and the fetus influence the fetus growth and undoubtedly plays a major role in the adequate development of the newborn infant. Hence, the microbiome modulates the inflammatory mechanisms related to physiological and pathological processes that are involved in the perinatal progress through different mechanisms. The present review summarizes the actual knowledge related to physiological changes in the microbiota occurring in the mother, the fetus, and the child, both during neonatal period and beyond. In addition, we approach some specific pathological situations during the perinatal periods, as well as the influence of the type of delivery and feeding.

5.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799756

RESUMO

AIM: To assess, at national level, the implementation of eight principles for infant- and family-centred developmental care (IFCDC) in neonatal units. A European expert group established eight 'Principles of care' in 2018 that define neurodevelopmental and family-centred care. METHODS: The implementation of each principle was assessed by a survey sent to level-III Spanish units. A principle was considered to be implemented if all answers to the principle-associated questions were positive. RESULTS: The response rate was 84.5% (65/77). No unit had implemented eight principles. Principle 1 (free parental access) was implemented in 21.5% of the centres; Principle 2 (psychological support) 40%; Principle 3 (pain management) 7.7%; Principle 4 (environmental influences) 29%; Principle 5 (postural support) 84.6%; Principle 6 (kangaroo-care) 67.7%; Principle 7 (breastfeeding) 23% and Principle 8 (sleep protection) in 46%. In units attending ≥50 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, four or more principles had been implemented in 31% vs 13% <50 VLBW neonates (odds ratio 3.0 CI 95% 0.9-10.1, P .07). CONCLUSION: The principle with the highest implementation was related to newborn body positioning. Pain management was the principle with lowest implementation. More principles for IFCDC tend to be implemented in units providing care for a higher number of VLBW infants.

6.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(84): 415-425, oct.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-5736

RESUMO

La actualización sobre las actividades de promoción de la actividad física en la infancia y adolescencia se aborda en dos partes. En la primera se analizan los beneficios en salud y los posibles riesgos de la actividad física. En la segunda se valora la evidencia sobre la eficacia de las intervenciones dirigidas a la promoción de la actividad física y disminución del sedentarismo en la edad pediátrica. El grupo PrevInfad sugiere hacer intervenciones dirigidas a la promoción de la actividad física o a la disminución del sedentarismo tanto en Atención Primaria como en el entorno escolar o comunitario


The update on actions to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence is addressed in two parts. In the first part, the benefits in health and the possible risks of physical activity are analysed. In the second part, the evidence about the efficacy of the interventions directed to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary lifestyles in the paediatric age is assessed. The PrevInfad group suggests making interventions aimed at the promotion of physical activity or at reducing sedentary lifestyles, both in primary care and in the school or community environment

8.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(83): 279-291, jul.-sept. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188648

RESUMO

La actualización sobre las actividades de promoción de la actividad física en la infancia y adolescencia se aborda en dos partes. En la primera se analizan los beneficios en salud y los posibles riesgos de la actividad física. En la segunda se valora la evidencia sobre la eficacia de las intervenciones dirigidas a la promoción de la actividad física y disminución del sedentarismo en la edad pediátrica. El grupo PrevInfad sugiere hacer intervenciones dirigidas a la promoción de la actividad física o a la disminución del sedentarismo tanto en Atención Primaria como en el entorno escolar o comunitario


The update on actions to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence is addressed in two parts. In the first part, the benefits in health and the possible risks of physical activity are analyzed. In the second part, the evidence about the efficacy of the interventions directed to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary lifestyles in the pediatric age is assessed. The PrevInfad group suggests making interventions aimed at the promotion of physical activity or at reducing sedentary lifestyles, both in Primary Care and in the school or community environment


Assuntos
Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Prevenção de Doenças
9.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 91(3): 142-150, sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186725

RESUMO

Introducción: Los trastornos del comportamiento y del aprendizaje se describen con frecuencia en < 1.500 g o < 32 semanas (RNMBP/MP). Se dispone de muy poca información en población española. Objetivo: Identificar los problemas psicosociales de los RNMBP/MP mediante la aplicación del test Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) a los 6 años y comparar los resultados con los de una población de referencia. Establecer los puntos de corte para el uso del SDQ como cribado del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) en RNMBP/MP. Participantes y métodos: Estudio prospectivo observacional en RNMBP/MP evaluados a los 6 años con SDQ. Se recogen variables perinatales, neurodesarrollo y diagnóstico de TDAH mediante DSM-5. Resultados: Se incluyeron 214 niños con el total de las valoraciones. Comparados con la población de referencia obtuvieron puntuaciones significativamente mayores en síntomas emocionales, relaciones con compañeros y en el total del test. La escala de hiperactividad y la puntuación total se identifican como buenos predictores del diagnóstico de TDAH, con un área bajo la curva ROC de 0,83 y 0,87, respectivamente. Las puntuaciones que consiguen una adecuada sensibilidad para el cribado de TDAH son ≥ 6 para la escala de hiperactividad y ≥ 13 para la puntuación total del test, y una puntuación combinada ≥ 5 en hiperactividad junto con un total ≥ 12. Conclusiones: Los RNMBP/MP presentan más frecuentemente problemas emocionales y de relación que sus compañeros nacidos a término. El test SDQ podría utilizarse como una prueba de cribado para el TDAH


Introduction: Behavioural disorders and learning disabilities are often recognised in < 1,500g or < 32 weeks very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. There is very limited data in the Spanish population. Objective: To determine the presence of psychosocial disorders in preterm infants at 6 years of age, as assessed by the strength and difficulties (SDQ) questionnaire, in comparison to a reference population. To set a cut-off value to use SDQ as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the preterm child. Participants and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on premature children assessed at 6 years of age using the SDQ. Perinatal variables, neurodevelopment, and diagnosis of ADHD, according to the DSM-5, were collected. Results: A total of 214 children who met all the requirements, were included. When compared with the reference population they had significantly higher scores in emotional symptoms, in peer relationships, and in the total score of the test. The hyperactivity scale and the total test score are good predictors of a diagnosis of ADHD, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) for hyperactivity, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80-0.93) for the total score. The scores for hyperactivity and the total test, from which the screening for ADHD could be considered positive would be ≥ 6 and ≥ 13 respectively, and a combination of hyperactivity ≥ 5 and total score ≥ 12. Conclusions: Preterm children are at higher risk of emotional and peer relationship problems than those born full term. The SDQ test could be used for ADHD screening


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the applicability of the insertion of small diameter catheters through the femoral vein in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: All femoral small diameter catheters (Silastic or femoral arterial catheter [FAC]) inserted in ELBW infants in a tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively reviewed. Success rate, dwelling time, and percutaneously inserted central venous catheter-related complications were recorded. RESULTS: Thirteen small diameter catheters were inserted in seven ELBW infants. Mean gestational age at birth was 25+3 weeks (standard deviation [SD] ± 2.12) and mean birth weight was 686 g (SD ± 204.9). Mean weight at the first time of insertion was 1,044 g (SD ± 376.3). In two occasions, a FAC was used instead of a Silastic. In most cases (11/13, 84.6%), the patient was intubated prior to the procedure. The mean dwelling time was 16.7 days (SD ± 9.8). Most of the inserted small diameter catheters were removed electively (8/12, 66.7%), except for one episode of clinical sepsis from coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and three cases of accidental line extravasation. No other complications were reported. The success rate was 92.3%. CONCLUSION: Femoral venous catheterization using small diameter catheters in ELBW infants may be promising when other routes have been exhausted. Our results support that it is a feasible technique that can be performed at the bedside with successful results when conducted by experienced personnel.

12.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(82): 191-201, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184599

RESUMO

La leche humana se reconoce como el alimento idóneo para todos los niños por sus probados beneficios en la salud de la madre y del niño. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda la lactancia materna exclusiva durante los primeros seis meses de la vida y, al menos hasta los dos años, complementada con otros alimentos. Esta recomendación se extiende a los recién nacidos enfermos y prematuros, salvo raras excepciones. Las pruebas sobre el efecto protector de la lactancia materna en la salud del niño y de la madre son muy robustas en relación con catorce enfermedades, nueve infantiles y cinco maternas. El apoyo a la lactancia materna desde Atención Primaria tiene un efecto favorable y consistente, con un riesgo de efectos adversos mínimo y que precisa una disponibilidad de recursos asumibles. En los centros de salud se sugiere implantar las prácticas recomendadas por la Academia Americana de Pediatría o los siete pasos de la Iniciativa de Humanización de la Asistencia al Nacimiento y Lactancia para prolongar la lactancia materna. Se sugiere formar a los médicos en lactancia materna, implicar a enfermeras consultoras en lactancia y favorecer el apoyo entre pares para prolongar la lactancia materna


Human milk is recognized as the ideal nourishment for all children due to its proven health benefits for mother and child. World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life and, at least until two years, complemented with other foods. This recommendation extends to sick and preterm newborns, with rare exceptions. Proofs on the protecting effect of breastfeeding for child and mother health are very robust relating to fourteen diseases: nine child diseases and five mother diseases. Support to breastfeeding in Primary Care has a favourable and consistent effect, with a minimum risk of adverse events and it requires affordable resources. It is suggested to implement in Primary Care Centers the recommended practices of the American Academy of Pediatrics or the 7 steps of Initiative Humanisation of Attendance to Birth and breastfeeding to prolong breastfeeding. It is suggested to train physicians in breastfeeding, involve breastfeeding consultant nurses and promote the peers' support to prolong breastfeeding


Assuntos
Humanos , Humanização da Assistência , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Parto Humanizado , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Prevenção de Doenças , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções
13.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; 38(4): 340-344, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942125

RESUMO

Background: Fetoscopic laser photocoagulation can directly injure fetal skin and may at birth resemble aplasia cutis congenita (ACC). Case report: A twin monochorionic pregnancy was complicated by twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome requiring in utero laser photocoagulation, resulting in the death of one twin. After birth, the viable baby presented skin lesions in both legs that were congruent with laser-induced burns. Conclusions: Laser-induced burns present as asymmetric superficial non-necrotic or ulcerated lesions, with a geographic outline, which turn into scars with no retraction or contractures and no changes in pain perception or motor limitations over time. ACC lesions are bilateral and symmetric, with a regular outline, an ulcerated or necrotic appearance, a higher degree of skin involvement affecting all skin layers and, over time, they turn into scars with retraction and contractures. These differential features may help clinicians in a challenging approach to the diagnosis of congenital skin defects.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Córion/patologia , Lasers/efeitos adversos , Fotocoagulação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças em Gêmeos , Displasia Ectodérmica/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Transfusão Feto-Fetal , Fetoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Necrose , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico
16.
Trials ; 20(1): 179, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early mother-child skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in the first 2 h postpartum is highly beneficial for both mother and child. However, cases have been reported of newborns who have experienced apparently life-threatening events (ALTEs) or sudden death during this procedure. The causes of these events are unknown. Newborn's prone position could influence the onset of these events but there is very little evidence to support any recommendation. We hypothesize that newborns' breathing obstruction episodes increase as mothers lie more horizontally. The main objective of this study is to compare the occurrence of desaturation and bradycardia episodes as a function of mother's bed incline. The study is designed as a randomized, controlled, assessor blind, multicenter, superiority trial with two parallel groups and 1:1 allocation ratio. METHODS: The study participants will be full-term healthy mother-newborn dyads from ten hospitals in Spain. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two study arms defined by mother's bed inclination (45° or 15°). The planned sample size is 5866. Centralized permuted blocks randomization and assessor blinding will be implemented. The newborns will be monitored remotely with pulse oximetry, from 10 min to 2 h after delivery. We established SO2 and heart rate (HR) limit alarms, as well as an action protocol in the event of alarm activation. The primary outcome is the number of healthy newborns who undergo episodes of SO2 ≤ 90%. Secondary outcomes are the mean SO2 level, the number of newborns who experience episodes of SO2 ≤ 85%, the time to SSC discontinuation due to abnormal SO2 or HR, and episodes of HR < 111 beats per minute (bpm) or > 180 bpm. Subgroups and pooled analysis will be performed to identify if breast-feeding and mother and child positions favor the occurrence of desaturation or bradycardia episodes. DISCUSSION: A simple intervention such as modifying mother's bed angle of inclination while in SSC with her child during the first 2 h postpartum could favor newborn's hemodynamic and respiratory stabilization and thus contribute to reducing the onset of ALTEs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02585492 . Registered on 22nd October 2015. PROTOCOL VERSION: 2 (30th June 2015).


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Leitos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(81): e15-e24, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184538

RESUMO

El proceso por el que aprendemos y desarrollamos el lenguaje de forma natural es a través de la audición. La hipoacusia en la primera infancia limitará los estímulos auditivos y afectará significativamente al desarrollo del lenguaje y el habla, además de restringir el vínculo con el mundo que nos rodea. En los lactantes y niños pequeños, la detección y el tratamiento precoces de la hipoacusia puede mejorar los resultados lingüísticos y escolares. En ausencia de cribado, la edad media a la que se confirma el diagnóstico de hipoacusia congénita en niños sin factores de riesgo está en torno a los 2-3 años. Los programas de cribado auditivo neonatal universal se han extendido ampliamente, a pesar de la falta de pruebas sólidas que avalen su eficacia y coste-efectividad. En el presente trabajo, que se ha dividido en dos partes, los autores exponen el tema de forma exhaustiva, con sus controversias y claroscuros, para finalmente pronunciarse sobre recomendaciones que el grupo PrevInfad ha consensuado para la consulta de los pediatras en Atención Primaria


The process of learning and developing our language in a natural way is through hearing. Infancy hearing loss will limit auditory stimuli and will significantly harm language and speech development and will narrow the bonds with the world around. In infants and small children, early hearing loss detection and treatment can improve language and school performance. In the absence of screening, medium age of congenital hearing loss diagnosis in children without risk factors is around 2-3 years. Universal new-born hearing screening has spread widely despite the lack of solid evidence supporting its effectivity and cost- efficiency. In this paper, which has been divided in two parts, the author thoroughly describes the topic, with its controversy and nuances, and finally declares on the recommendations that PrevInfad group have agreed for primary care pediatricians


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Perda Auditiva/congênito , Surdez/congênito , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fatores de Risco , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/prevenção & controle
18.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(3): 142-150, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Behavioural disorders and learning disabilities are often recognised in<1,500g or<32 weeks very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. There is very limited data in the Spanish population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of psychosocial disorders in preterm infants at 6 years of age, as assessed by the strength and difficulties (SDQ) questionnaire, in comparison to a reference population. To set a cut-off value to use SDQ as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the preterm child. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted on premature children assessed at 6 years of age using the SDQ. Perinatal variables, neurodevelopment, and diagnosis of ADHD, according to the DSM-5, were collected. RESULTS: A total of 214 children who met all the requirements, were included. When compared with the reference population they had significantly higher scores in emotional symptoms, in peer relationships, and in the total score of the test. The hyperactivity scale and the total test score are good predictors of a diagnosis of ADHD, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90) for hyperactivity, and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80-0.93) for the total score. The scores for hyperactivity and the total test, from which the screening for ADHD could be considered positive would be≥6 and≥13 respectively, and a combination of hyperactivity≥5 and total score≥12. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm children are at higher risk of emotional and peer relationship problems than those born full term. The SDQ test could be used for ADHD screening.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Acta Paediatr ; 108(6): 1042-1048, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447072

RESUMO

AIM: To describe variations in practice between follow-up programmes for very preterm children born at less than 32 weeks' gestation or with very low birth weight of less than 1,500 g. METHODS: A survey on follow-up practices was electronically distributed to level II and III units among hospitals of the Spanish National Health Service in 2016. The survey included 70 questions covering issues such as follow-up organisation and resources, routine assessments, relationships with other services and families, information management and training. RESULTS: The response rate was 91.5% (141/154). Among respondents, 70.9% (100/141) reported that they do provide follow-up and 42% do so up to six years of age. Routine neurological and ophthalmological follow-up is not performed in 60% and 37% of hospitals, respectively, and a second hearing assessment is not given in 62%. Just 38% of units have psychologist. In 41% of hospitals, training in follow-up skills is not included in Paediatric Residency training programme. CONCLUSION: Although Spain has a nationwide health system that provides universal health coverage, we found that follow-up care for children born very preterm/very low birth weight is not equitable. Nearly half of paediatric residents receive no training in follow-up for this high-risk population.

20.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 43(3): 419-425, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hypophosphatemia is common in premature infants ≤1250 g. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and severity of hypophosphatemia after sodium glycerophosphate supplementation from first day of life in parenteral nutrition and to address the safety of this practice. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of infants ≤1250 g birth weight born in a tertiary-care level neonatal intensive care unit and supplied with sodium glycerophosphate from the first day of life. Primary outcome was the presence of hypophosphatemia (<4 mg/dL) on the first week. Data were compared with our 2014 prospective subcohort of infants ≤1250 g receiving phosphate after 48 hours of life and morbidity with that of our 2016 retrospective cohort of ≤1250 g. RESULTS: Fifty-four neonates were included. The frequency of hypophosphatemia was 29.6%. Only 1 patient presented hypophosphatemia <2 mg/dL. Mild hypokalemia was found in 8 patients (50%). No cases of hypernatremia were observed. Patients with hypophosphatemia had significantly lower gestational age (27.4 vs 28.8 weeks, P = .032) and lower z-score birth weight (-1.68 vs -0.47; P = .001). When compared with the 2014 subcohort, we found a lower frequency of hypophosphatemia (29.6% vs 69.2%; P = .008) and a lower rate of samples with hypophosphatemia (20.4% vs 51.4%; P = .0002) and critical hypophosphatemia (0.68% vs 11.4%, P = .0005). No differences were found in morbidity or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sodium glycerophosphate supplementation in parenteral nutrition from the first day of life significantly decreased the frequency of hypophosphatemia. No adverse events were reported.

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