Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 12 de 12
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(3): 147-153, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250786

RESUMO

Using newly available polygenic scores for educational attainment and cognitive ability, this paper investigates the possible presence and causes of a negative association between IQ and fertility in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study sample, an issue that Retherford and Sewell first addressed 30 years ago. The effect of the polygenic score on the sample's reproductive characteristics was indirect: a latent cognitive ability measure, comprised of both educational attainment and IQ, wholly mediated the relationship. Age at first birth mediated the negative effect of cognitive ability on sample fertility, which had a direct (positive) effect on the number of grandchildren. Significantly greater impacts of cognitive ability on the sample's fertility characteristics were found among the female subsample. This indicates that, in this sample, having a genetic disposition toward higher cognitive ability does not directly reduce number of offspring; instead, higher cognitive ability is a risk factor for prolonging reproductive debut, which, especially for women, reduces the fertility window and, thus, the number of children and grandchildren that can be produced. By estimating the effect of the sample's reproductive characteristics on the strength of polygenic selection, it was found that the genetic variance component of IQ should be declining at a rate between -.208 (95% CI [-.020, -.383]) and -.424 (95% CI [-.041, -.766]) points per decade, depending on whether GCTA-GREML or classical behavior genetic estimates of IQ heritability are used to correct for 'missing' heritability.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
4.
Neurobiol Dis ; 124: 479-488, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590179

RESUMO

Genetic and molecular studies have implicated the Bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Accordingly, mice heterozygous for a targeted deletion of Brd1 (Brd1+/- mice) show behavioral phenotypes with broad translational relevance to psychiatric disorders. BRD1 encodes a scaffold protein that affects the expression of many genes through modulation of histone acetylation. BRD1 target genes have been identified in cell lines; however the impact of reduced Brd1 levels on the brain proteome is largely unknown. In this study, we applied label-based quantitative mass spectrometry to profile the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum proteome and synaptosomal proteome of female Brd1+/- mice. We successfully quantified between 1537 and 2196 proteins and show widespread changes in protein abundancies and compartmentalization. By integrative analysis of human genetic data, we find that the differentially abundant proteins in frontal cortex and hippocampus are enriched for schizophrenia risk further linking the actions of BRD1 to psychiatric disorders. Affected proteins were further enriched for proteins involved in processes known to influence neuronal and dendritic spine morphology e.g. regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics and mitochondrial function. Directly prompted in these findings, we investigated dendritic spine morphology of pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex and found them significantly altered, including reduced size of small dendritic spines and decreased number of the mature mushroom type. Collectively, our study describes known as well as new mechanisms related to BRD1 dysfunction and its role in psychiatric disorders, and provides evidence for the molecular and cellular dysfunctions underlying altered neurosignalling and cognition in Brd1+/- mice.

5.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560766

RESUMO

Using the continuous parameter estimation model (CPEM), a large genotyped adult sample of the population of Wisconsin, USA (the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study) is examined for evidence of the Scarr-Rowe effect, a gene × environment (G×E) interaction that reduces the heritability of IQ among those with low socioeconomic status (SES). This method allows the differential expressivity of polygenic scores predictive of both educational attainment and IQ (EA3) on the phenotype of IQ to be directly operationalized throughout the full range of these variables. Utilizing a parental SES factor-weighted composite as a measure of childhood SES, evidence for the Scarr-Rowe effect was found, that is, the genetic expressivity of EA3 on IQ increased with increasing parental SES (ß = 0.08, p = 4.71×10-10, df = 6,255). The effect was found for both the male and female samples separately, ß(males) = 0.08, p = 5.27×10-5, df = 3,018; ß(females) = 0.08, p = 1.93×10-6, df = 3,236. The effects were furthermore robust to removing outlying values of parental SES and to log-transforming the SES variable. The results are similar to those produced using a more conventional two-way interaction model, with IQ predicting the EA3 × log of parental SES interaction after the main effects; however, CPEM allows for greater model degrees of freedom, thus is better powered to detect the effect when it is small in magnitude (CPEM ß = 0.05, p = 6.69×10-5 vs. two-way interaction ß = 0.02, pone-tailed = .045, in both models log parental SES is used).

6.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.

7.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(1): 62-76, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The schizophrenia-associated BRD1 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator whose comprehensive chromatin interactome is enriched with schizophrenia risk genes. However, the biology underlying the disease association of BRD1 remains speculative. METHODS: This study assessed the transcriptional drive of a schizophrenia-associated BRD1 risk variant in vitro. Accordingly, to examine the effects of reduced Brd1 expression, we generated a genetically modified Brd1+/- mouse and subjected it to behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular, and integrative genomic analyses with focus on schizophrenia-relevant parameters. RESULTS: Brd1+/- mice displayed cerebral histone H3K14 hypoacetylation and a broad range of behavioral changes with translational relevance to schizophrenia. These behaviors were accompanied by striatal dopamine/serotonin abnormalities and cortical excitation-inhibition imbalances involving loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive interneurons. RNA-sequencing analyses of cortical and striatal micropunches from Brd1+/- and wild-type mice revealed differential expression of genes enriched for schizophrenia risk, including several schizophrenia genome-wide association study risk genes (e.g., calcium channel subunits [Cacna1c and Cacnb2], cholinergic muscarinic receptor 4 [Chrm4)], dopamine receptor D2 [Drd2], and transcription factor 4 [Tcf4]). Integrative analyses further found differentially expressed genes to cluster in functional networks and canonical pathways associated with mental illness and molecular signaling processes (e.g., glutamatergic, monoaminergic, calcium, cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP], dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa [DARPP-32], and cAMP responsive element binding protein signaling [CREB]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study bridges the gap between genetic association and pathogenic effects and yields novel insights into the unfolding molecular changes in the brain of a new schizophrenia model that incorporates genetic risk at three levels: allelic, chromatin interactomic, and brain transcriptomic.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Acetilação , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Camundongos , Serotonina/metabolismo
8.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 15(4): 349-61, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27269897

RESUMO

In many areas of science it is custom to perform many, potentially millions, of tests simultaneously. To gain statistical power it is common to group tests based on a priori criteria such as predefined regions or by sliding windows. However, it is not straightforward to choose grouping criteria and the results might depend on the chosen criteria. Methods that summarize, or aggregate, test statistics or p-values, without relying on a priori criteria, are therefore desirable. We present a simple method to aggregate a sequence of stochastic variables, such as test statistics or p-values, into fewer variables without assuming a priori defined groups. We provide different ways to evaluate the significance of the aggregated variables based on theoretical considerations and resampling techniques, and show that under certain assumptions the FWER is controlled in the strong sense. Validity of the method was demonstrated using simulations and real data analyses. Our method may be a useful supplement to standard procedures relying on evaluation of test statistics individually. Moreover, by being agnostic and not relying on predefined selected regions, it might be a practical alternative to conventionally used methods of aggregation of p-values over regions. The method is implemented in Python and freely available online (through GitHub, see the Supplementary information).


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Software , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 53, 2016 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27142060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene has been implicated with transcriptional regulation, brain development, and susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To advance the understanding of BRD1 and its role in mental disorders, we characterized the protein and chromatin interactions of the BRD1 isoforms, BRD1-S and BRD1-L. METHODS: Stable human cell lines expressing epitope tagged BRD1-S and BRD1-L were generated and used as discovery systems for identifying protein and chromatin interactions. Protein-protein interactions were identified using co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry and chromatin interactions were identified using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing. Gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes were identified after upregulating and downregulating BRD1 expression using microarrays. The presented functional molecular data were integrated with human genomic and transcriptomic data using available GWAS, exome-sequencing datasets as well as spatiotemporal transcriptomic datasets from the human brain. RESULTS: We present several novel protein interactions of BRD1, including isoform-specific interactions as well as proteins previously implicated with mental disorders. By BRD1-S and BRD1-L chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing we identified binding to promoter regions of 1540 and 823 genes, respectively, and showed correlation between BRD1-S and BRD1-L binding and regulation of gene expression. The identified BRD1 interaction network was found to be predominantly co-expressed with BRD1 mRNA in the human brain and enriched for pathways involved in gene expression and brain function. By interrogation of large datasets from genome-wide association studies, we further demonstrate that the BRD1 interaction network is enriched for schizophrenia risk. CONCLUSION: Our results show that BRD1 interacts with chromatin remodeling proteins, e.g. PBRM1, as well as histone modifiers, e.g. MYST2 and SUV420H1. We find that BRD1 primarily binds in close proximity to transcription start sites and regulates expression of numerous genes, many of which are involved with brain development and susceptibility to mental disorders. Our findings indicate that BRD1 acts as a regulatory hub in a comprehensive schizophrenia risk network which plays a role in many brain regions throughout life, implicating e.g. striatum, hippocampus, and amygdala at mid-fetal stages.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética
10.
Bipolar Disord ; 17(2): 205-11, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25053281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities facilitate identification of novel candidate genes for psychiatric disorders. Genome-wide significant evidence supports the linkage between chromosome 17q25.3 and bipolar disorder (BD). Co-segregation of translocation t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) with psychiatric disorders has been reported. We aimed to narrow down these chromosomal breakpoint regions and to investigate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms within these regions and BD as well as schizophrenia (SZ) in large genome-wide association study samples. METHODS: We cross-linked Danish psychiatric and cytogenetic case registers to identify an individual with both t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) and BD. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was employed to map the chromosomal breakpoint regions of this proband. We accessed the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD (n = 16,731) and SZ (n = 21,856) data. Genetic associations between these disorders and single nucleotide polymorphisms within these breakpoint regions were analysed by BioQ, FORGE, and RegulomeDB programmes. RESULTS: Four protein-coding genes [coding for (endonuclease V (ENDOV), neuronal pentraxin I (NPTX1), ring finger protein 213 (RNF213), and regulatory-associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (RPTOR)] were found to be located within the 17q25.3 breakpoint region. NPTX1 was significantly associated with BD (p = 0.004), while ENDOV was significantly associated with SZ (p = 0.0075) after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: Prior linkage evidence and our findings suggest NPTX1 as a novel candidate gene for BD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Desoxirribonuclease (Dímero de Pirimidina)/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Família , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR , Translocação Genética/genética
11.
Glia ; 61(11): 1922-37, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24009167

RESUMO

Subcellular RNA localization plays an important role in development, cell differentiation, and cell migration. For a comprehensive description of the population of protrusion localized mRNAs in astrocytes we separated protrusions from cell bodies in a Boyden chamber and performed high-throughput direct RNA sequencing. The mRNAs with localization in astrocyte protrusions encode proteins belonging to a variety of functional groups indicating involvement of RNA localization for a palette of cellular functions. The mRNA encoding the intermediate filament protein Nestin was among the identified mRNAs. By RT-qPCR and RNA FISH analysis we confirmed Nestin mRNA localization in cell protrusions and also protrusion localization of Nestin protein. Nestin mRNA localization was dependent of Fragile X mental retardation syndrome proteins Fmrp and Fxr1, and the Nestin 3'-UTR was sufficient to mediate protrusion mRNA localization. The mRNAs for two other intermediate filament proteins in astrocytes, Gfap and Vimentin, have moderate and no protrusion localization, respectively, showing that individual intermediate filament components have different localization mechanisms. The correlated localization of Nestin mRNA with Nestin protein in cell protrusions indicates the presence of a regulatory mechanism at the mRNA localization level for the Nestin intermediate filament protein with potential importance for astrocyte functions during brain development and maintenance.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Genoma/genética , Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Nestina/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nestina/agonistas , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
12.
Brain Struct Funct ; 214(1): 37-47, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19763615

RESUMO

We have recently shown that the gene BRD1 is associated with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder and that the BRD1 protein (BRD1) which is expressed in neurons may occur in a short and a long variant. The aim of the study was to generate polyclonal antibodies against new BRD1 epitopes enabling discrimination between the long and short BRD1 variants, and elucidate the BRD1 distribution in several human tissues, including the CNS. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were raised against three different BRD1 epitopes. One (67) was specific for the long BRD1 variant, whereas the two others (63/64 and 65/66) like the original monoclonal mouse antibody (K22) were predicted to stain both variants. Immunohistochemical staining procedures were subsequently performed on paraffin-embedded human cerebral cortex and microarray slides containing 30 different human tissues. Western blotting confirmed the predicted specificity of the developed antibodies. K22, 63/64 and 65/66 displayed a similar neuronal staining pattern characterized by a distinct but weak nuclear staining, while the surrounding cytoplasm and proximal dendrites were more intensely stained. Interestingly, staining with 67 generated in contrast primarily an intense nuclear staining. The new antibodies resulted, furthermore, in a prominent neuroglial reaction characterized by staining of cell bodies, nuclei and glial processes. The tissue microarray analysis revealed that BRD1 was widely distributed in human tissues. The particular expression profile, e.g., the degree of nuclear and/or cytoplasmatic staining, seemed, however, to be highly tissue dependent. These results suggest a general role of BRD1 in the cell and stress that the two BRD1 variants may play different roles in the etiology of psychiatric disease.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Animais , Western Blotting , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Dendritos/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Acetiltransferases , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA