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2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(11): e13714, 2021 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661368

RESUMO

Risk stratification of COVID-19 patients is essential for pandemic management. Changes in the cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, can precede the host immune response to infection, potentially making such a biomarker an earlier triage tool. Here, we evaluate whether hFwe-Lose gene expression can outperform conventional methods in predicting outcomes (e.g., death and hospitalization) in COVID-19 patients. We performed a post-mortem examination of infected lung tissue in deceased COVID-19 patients to determine hFwe-Lose's biological role in acute lung injury. We then performed an observational study (n = 283) to evaluate whether hFwe-Lose expression (in nasopharyngeal samples) could accurately predict hospitalization or death in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients with acute lung injury, hFwe-Lose is highly expressed in the lower respiratory tract and is co-localized to areas of cell death. In patients presenting in the early phase of COVID-19 illness, hFwe-Lose expression accurately predicts subsequent hospitalization or death with positive predictive values of 87.8-100% and a negative predictive value of 64.1-93.2%. hFwe-Lose outperforms conventional inflammatory biomarkers and patient age and comorbidities, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.93-0.97 in predicting hospitalization/death. Specifically, this is significantly higher than the prognostic value of combining biomarkers (serum ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio), patient age and comorbidities (AUROC of 0.67-0.92). The cell fitness marker, hFwe-Lose, accurately predicts outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This finding demonstrates how tissue fitness pathways dictate the response to infection and disease and their utility in managing the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Biomarcadores , Flores , Humanos , Pandemias , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 738294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568243

RESUMO

Although numerous evidences reported a negative correlation between motor coordination (MC) and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents, the interrelationship between age, gender, and weight status is still debatable. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between MC and weight status according to age and gender across childhood and early adolescence in a large sample of Italian elementary and middle school students. A number of 1961 Italian school students (1,026 boys, 935 girls) was stratified in three consecutive age groups (6-7, 8-10, and 11-13 years) and four weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to Cole's body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for children. MC performance was assessed measuring motor quotient (MQ) with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). Results showed significantly lower MQ levels in children in overweight (OW) and with obesity (OB) in both sexes for all age groups than peers in normal weight (NW), except in 6-7-year-old boys. Girls in OW and with OB had similar MQ levels across all age groups, while younger boys in OW and with OB showed higher MQ levels than older ones (p < 0.05). The 6-7-year-old boys showed better MQ levels than girls peers in NW, OW, and with OB, while 8-10-year-old boys in underweight (UW), NW, and OW; and 11-13-year-old boys only in NW (p < 0.05). No interaction effect was found between age, gender, and weight status on MQ levels. These outcomes showed the negative impact of higher weight status on MC performance according to age and gender, pointing out the importance of planning targeted motor programs that consider these variables to improve MC performance.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444427

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak forced Italian students to reduce their daily activities, inducing a seden-tary attitude that was worsened by distanced learning. This study aimed to survey the physical activity levels that were maintained before and during the social restrictions following the pan-demic, their correlation to musculoskeletal pain, as well as analyzing the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on pain and fatigue that affects daily life activities. A total of 2044 students completed the online questionnaire, of which the results of 1654 participants were eligible. Before the pandemic, the levels of physical activity were distributed as: 19.9% no activity, 30.1% light ac-tivity, 21.5% moderate activity, and 28.5% high activity. After one year of the pandemic, 30.6% of the participants were inactive, 48.1%, 10.9%, and 10.5% stated as maintaining, respectively, light, moderate and high levels of physical activity. Furthermore, 43.5% reported neck pain and 33.5% stated to experience low back pain. Physical activity levels lower than 150 min/week may have predisposed students to suffer from neck pain (1.95 OR at 95% CI, 1.44-2.64) and low back pain (1.79 OR at 95% CI, 1.29-2.49). A positive correlation between physical activity levels, Verbal Descriptive Scale (VDS), and pain frequency have been observed for neck and low back pain (p-value < 0.05). Finally, low physical activity levels were associated with musculoskeletal pain onset and pain worsening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dor Musculoesquelética , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes , Universidades
5.
World J Orthop ; 12(7): 467-484, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354935

RESUMO

Technological development of motion and posture analyses is rapidly progressing, especially in rehabilitation settings and sport biomechanics. Consequently, clear discrimination among different measurement systems is required to diversify their use as needed. This review aims to resume the currently used motion and posture analysis systems, clarify and suggest the appropriate approaches suitable for specific cases or contexts. The currently gold standard systems of motion analysis, widely used in clinical settings, present several limitations related to marker placement or long procedure time. Fully automated and markerless systems are overcoming these drawbacks for conducting biomechanical studies, especially outside laboratories. Similarly, new posture analysis techniques are emerging, often driven by the need for fast and non-invasive methods to obtain high-precision results. These new technologies have also become effective for children or adolescents with non-specific back pain and postural insufficiencies. The evolutions of these methods aim to standardize measurements and provide manageable tools in clinical practice for the early diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathologies and to monitor daily improvements of each patient. Herein, these devices and their uses are described, providing researchers, clinicians, orthopedics, physical therapists, and sports coaches an effective guide to use new technologies in their practice as instruments of diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

6.
EMBO J ; 40(17): e107271, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368984

RESUMO

Tumors are complex cellular and acellular environments within which cancer clones are under continuous selection pressures. Cancer cells are in a permanent mode of interaction and competition with each other as well as with the immediate microenvironment. In the course of these competitive interactions, cells share information regarding their general state of fitness, with less-fit cells being typically eliminated via apoptosis at the hands of those cells with greater cellular fitness. Competitive interactions involving exchange of cell fitness information have implications for tumor growth, metastasis, and therapy outcomes. Recent research has highlighted sophisticated pathways such as Flower, Hippo, Myc, and p53 signaling, which are employed by cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment cells to achieve their evolutionary goals by means of cell competition mechanisms. In this review, we discuss these recent findings and explain their importance and role in evolution, growth, and treatment of cancer. We further consider potential physiological conditions, such as hypoxia and chemotherapy, that can function as selective pressures under which cell competition mechanisms may evolve differently or synergistically to confer oncogenic advantages to cancer.

7.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 64: 101085, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304104

RESUMO

Here, we describe under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the morphology of Colpocephalum pectinatum (Phthiraptera, Menoponidae), an ectoparasite found in burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia. We devote particular attention to the morphology of the main structures of the head (antennae and mouth-parts) and legs (tarsi and femoral ctenidia). Moreover, we describe the main peripheral sensory organs, located in the labial palpi and the distal end of antennae. We also detected that the structure of antennae and antennal sensilla arrangement are very similar to that described for other Colpocephalum and Menoponid species, and we discuss the function of each type of sensilla. We suggest that SEM studies combined with other microscopy and physiological techniques could be useful for elucidate the function of each structure, lice behaviour, as well as their taxonomy.

8.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 43, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) juice may affect plasma redox balance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters following a maximal effort test, in young physically active women. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled and crossover study comprising eight women (23.25 ± 2.95 years, 54.13 ± 9.05 kg, 157.75 ± 0.66 cm and BMI of 21.69 ± 0.66 kg/m2) was carried out. A juice containing OFI diluted in water and a Placebo solution were supplied (170 ml; OFI = 50 ml of OFI juice + 120 ml of water; Placebo = 170 ml beverage without Vitamin C and indicaxanthin). Participants consumed the OFI juice or Placebo beverage every day for 3 days, before performing a maximal cycle ergometer test, and for 2 consecutive days after the test. Plasma hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (PAT), Skin Carotenoid Score (SCS) and HRV variables (LF, HF, LF/HF and rMSSD) were recorded at different time points. RESULTS: The OFI group showed significantly lower levels of hydroperoxides compared to the Placebo group in pre-test, post-test and 48-h post-test. PAT values of the OFI group significantly increased compared to those of the Placebo group in pre-test and 48-h post-test. SCS did not differ between groups. LF was significantly lower in the OFI group 24-h after the end of the test, whereas rMSSD was significantly higher in the OFI group 48-h post-test. CONCLUSION: OFI supplementation decreased the oxidative stress induced by intense exercise and improved autonomic balance in physically active women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frequência Cardíaca , Opuntia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Sports Act Living ; 3: 688280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169276

RESUMO

Background: Groin pain is a frequent condition among athletes. One of the causes of groin pain is tendinopathy, a frequently diagnosed medical condition, which can also occur in the adductor muscles. Despite the high prevalence of this medical condition among athletes, it is infrequent to observe tendinopathic groin pain in steeplechase runners. The aim of this case study is to describe the case of an international-level 3,000-m steeplechase runner with groin pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with adductor insertional tendinopathy. Case Presentation: We present the case of an Italian 3,000-m steeplechase and long distance runner, Ala Zoghlami (180 cm, 57 kg), with groin pain, diagnosed as insertional adductor tendinopathy. The runner, after manifesting the painful symptomatology, underwent medical screening (ultrasound and MRI). The radiological investigations highlighted adductor tendinopathy. After refraining from training, the runner underwent medical and physical therapy which, in the first phase, did not improve the painful symptomatology. Further evaluation, after 6 months from the initial training cessation, highlighted a case of malocclusion. Such was treated from a dentistry perspective with the creation of a personalized dental bite. Results: A multidisciplinary approach which included medical and physical therapy, osteopathy, and dentistry, in adjunct with refraining from training, was able to reduce the symptomatology and allowed a correct return to run (after 9 months from the first painful manifestation) of the steeplechase runner. To date, Ala Zoghlami has fully recovered and was able to win the 3,000-m steeplechase race during the 2021 national Italian competition.

11.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 34, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is widely adopted to evaluate manual dexterity, it presents normative data but the test is influenced by different factors. The influence of time spent on smartphones has not been considered before, for this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate if smartphone use influences the time to complete the GPT. A total of 38 (21 women; 17 men) young adults 20.7 (1.5) years participated in the study. The time spent on the smartphones during the last seven days was recorded through the device itself and the GPT performance was measured. A correlation analysis between the time spent on the smartphone and GPT was performed while the t-test was adopted to evaluate gender differences. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between men and women in the time to complete the GPT (p = 0.20) and in the time spent on the smartphone (p = 0.87). The GPT and the time spent using the smartphone were not correlated (r = 0.044, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The time spent on the smartphone by young adults does not influence the time to complete the GPT, indicating that smartphone use does not influence measures of manual dexterity.

12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 640609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994980

RESUMO

Purpose: This study is aimed to preliminary investigate whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) could affect explosive power considering genetic background in sport subjects. Methods: Seventeen healthy sports volunteers with at least 3 years of sports activities participated in the experiment. After 2 weeks of familiarization performed without any stimulation, each participant received either 50 Hz-tACS or sham-tACS. Before and after stimulation, subjects performed the following tests: (1) the squat jump with the hands on the hips (SJ); (2) countermovement jump with the hands on the hips (CMJ); (3) countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ-AS); (4) 15-s Bosco's test; (5) seated backward overhead medicine ball throw (SBOMBT); (6) seated chest pass throw (SCPT) with a 3-kg rubber medicine ball; and (7) hand-grip test. Additionally, saliva samples were collected from each participant. Genotyping analysis was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: No significant differences were found in sport performance of subjects after 50 Hz-tACS. Additionally, we did not find any influence of genetic background on tACS-related effect on physical performance. These results suggest that tACS at gamma frequency is not able to induce an after-effect modulating sport performance. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed in order to understand the potential role of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS) in motor performances. Conclusions: Gamma-tACS applied before the physical performance fails to improve explosive power in sport subjects.

13.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(11): 2941-2952, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799751

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between mothers and their children's lifestyle is still unclear, especially in disadvantaged areas. Consequently, the study aims to identify a path explaining the extent to which maternal eating habits and physical activity (PA) level predict food-related aspects, PA practice and Quotient of Gross Motor Development (QGMD) in preschoolers from disadvantaged urban areas. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 79 dyads of mothers and children were recruited from kindergartens. Information related to family socio-demographic aspects, mothers' and children's dietary intake frequencies and PA/sedentariness, mothers' weight and height, mothers' perception on children's food intake, and children's food literacy (FL) was collected with a questionnaire and the Food Literacy Assessment Tool (preschool-FLAT), while gross-motor skills were measured with the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD); weight and height of children were directly collected. Results: Associations were found between mothers' and children's food habits; mothers' and children's fruit/vegetables consumption, and intake of the other items; mothers' education or PA level and children's FL; mothers' PA or sedentariness and children's QGMD; mothers' BMI and food habits and children's BMI; education and food habits. Conclusions: These findings can be useful to plan effective interventions targeted both to preschoolers and their mothers of disadvantaged urban areas for promoting healthy lifestyles, which have become increasingly difficult to achieve during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810034

RESUMO

High-level young athletes need to face a wide spectrum of stressors on their journey to élite categories. The aims of the present study are (i) to evaluate session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) at different training impulse (TRIMP) categories and the correlations between these two variables and, (ii) evaluate the correlations between sRPE, fluid loss, and carbohydrate consumption during exercise. Data on Edward's TRIMP, sRPE, body mass loss pre- and post- exercise (∆), and carbohydrate consumption (CHO/h) during exercise have been acquired from eight male junior cyclists during a competitive season. One-way ANOVA and correlation analysis with linear regression have been performed on acquired data. sRPE resulted in a significant difference in the three TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). sRPE resulted in being very largely positively associated with TRIMP values (p < 0.001; R = 0.71). ∆ as well as CHO/h was largely negatively related with sRPE in all TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). The results confirmed the role of fluid balance and carbohydrate consumption on the perception of fatigue and fatigue accumulation dynamics independently from the training load. Young athletes' training load monitoring and nutritional-hydration support represent important aspects in athlete's exercise-induced fatigue management.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Esforço Físico , Carboidratos , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
16.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1292-1294, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768829

RESUMO

Interesting case of an infant presented with multiple natal teeth, later he has a confirm diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia.

17.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672837

RESUMO

To abate the spread of the COVID-19 virus, different restriction measures were imperative, limiting the possibility to be engaged in physical activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on physical activity (PA) levels expressed as energy expenditure (MET-min/week) and sedentary behaviour in Kosovo. The possible association between PA levels and other factors was analyzed. 1633 participants (age range: 13 to 63 years; mean: 24.70 ± 9.33 years; body height: 172 ± 10.57 cm; body mass: 69.10 ± 13.80 kg; BMI: 23.09 ± 3.63 kg/m2) participated in the study, categorized by age, gender, BMI, and living area. An online survey, including an adapted version of the IPAQ-SF, was administered once during lockdown to assess PA levels and sedentary behaviour both before and during COVID-19 lockdown. The Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis rank of sum tests were used for statistical analysis. COVID-19 restrictions had a negative impact on the types of and overall PA levels MET-min/week (p < 0.001). Sedentary behaviour significantly increased during COVID-19 restrictions (p < 0.001). Higher decreases in MET-min/week during lockdown were observed among males, young and young adults, overweight, and urban-living participants. Finally, COVID-19 restrictions decreased the PA levels and MET-min/week, and increased sedentary behaviour also in a relatively young cohort. Such differences were dependent on several factors.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25289, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Physical activity plays a key role in the prevention of falls and stimulates postural control. The aim of this study was to compare a general physical activity program for the elderly with a Pilates program to evaluate the effects on balance and on reducing the risk of falling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six subjects were enrolled in this study, but only 41 were included in the study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Pilates group (P-G) and a group following a nonspecific program of physical activity (Pa-G). Each subject underwent the hand grip test, Berg balance scale test, and posturographic analysis. RESULTS: Spearman correlation coefficient showed correlations between the following parameters: BBS versus hand grip test (r = 0.68); BBS versus ellipse surface area (r = -0.75). There were significant differences between groups after the exercise program: both groups showed an improvement in performance but the P-G recorded significantly better results than the Pa-G. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that physical activity improves both balance and strength. However, our data show that Pilates has a greater effect on these physical abilities than a general physical activity program.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(6): 481-493, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440445

RESUMO

The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated. Outcomes regarded heart rate(HR), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV of which baPWV for brachial-ankle and cfPWV for carotid-femoral waveforms), heart rate variability and endothelial vascular function. Subsequently, the effects of each outcome were quantitatively synthetized using meta-analytic synthesis with random-effect models. A total of 16 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. Groups were also stratified according to cross-sectional or longitudinal stretching interventions. Quality assessment through the NHLBI tools observed a "fair-to-good" quality of the studies. The meta-analytic synthesis showed a significant effect of d=0.38 concerning HR, d=2.04 regarding baPWV and d=0.46 for cfPWV. Stretching significantly reduces arterial stiffness and HR. The qualitative description of the studies was also supported by the meta-analytic synthesis. No adverse effects were reported, after stretching, in patients affected by cardiovascular disease on blood pressure. There is a lack of studies regarding vascular adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral/métodos , Análise de Dados , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 107, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420201

RESUMO

In some vertebrate species, family units are typically formed when sexually mature individuals delay dispersal and independent breeding to remain as subordinates in a breeding group. This behaviour has been intensively studied in gregarious species but has also been described in non-social species where ecological and evolutionary drivers are less known. Here, we explore factors that favour delayed dispersal and family living and potential benefits associated with this strategy in a non-social, monogamous species (the burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) occupying urban and rural habitats. Our results show that family units arise when first-year individuals, mainly males, delay their dispersal to stay in their natal nests with their parents. This delayed dispersal, while still uncommon, was more prevalent in urban (7%) than in rural (3%) habitats, and in areas with high conspecific density and productivity. Birds delaying dispersal contributed to the genetic pool of the offspring in 25% of the families analysed, but did not increase the productivity of the nests where they remained. However, their presence was related to an improvement in the body condition of chicks, which was ultimately linked to a slightly positive effect in offspring future survival probabilities. Finally, delayed dispersers were recruited as breeders in high-quality urban territories and closer to their natal nests than individuals dispersing during their first year of life. Thus, our results suggest that delaying dispersal may be mainly related to opportunities to inheriting a good quality territory, especially for males. Our study contributes to understanding the role played by habitat quality in promoting delayed dispersal and family living, not only in social but also non-social species, highlighting its impact in the ecology and evolution of animal populations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Migração Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação , Dinâmica Populacional
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