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1.
J Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red meat is a rich source of nutrients but is typically high in saturated fats. Carcinogenic chemicals can be formed during cooking and processing. Little is known about the relation of red meat consumption to mortality in African Americans (AAs), a group with excess mortality and high consumption of red meat relative to whites. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the association between red meat consumption and mortality in AA women. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) is a prospective cohort study of AA women across the USA who completed health questionnaires at enrollment in 1995 (median age 38 y, median BMI 27.9 kg/m2) and every 2 y thereafter. The analyses included 56,314 women who completed a validated FFQ and were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1995. Exposures were total red meat, processed red meat, and unprocessed red meat consumption. Outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models with control for age, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, medical history, and dietary factors were used to estimate HRs with 95% CIs. RESULTS: During 22 y of follow-up through to 2017, we identified 5054 deaths, which included 1354 cardiovascular deaths and 1801 cancer deaths. The HR for all-cause mortality was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.62) for the highest quintile of total red meat consumption relative to the lowest. Each 1 serving/d increase in red meat consumption was associated with a 7% (95% CI: 5%, 9%) increased risk of all-cause mortality. Red meat consumption was also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, but not with cancer mortality. Results were similar for the consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat. CONCLUSIONS: Red meat consumption is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among AA women.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. Previous studies with six-marker immunohistochemical classification of intrinsic subtypes included small numbers of black women. METHODS: Using centralized laboratory results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), proliferation marker Ki-67, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, we estimated case-only and case-control odds ratios (ORs) for established breast cancer risk factors among cases (n=2,354) and controls (n =2,932) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. ORs were estimated by ER status and intrinsic subtype using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Case-only analyses by ER status showed etiologic heterogeneity by age at menarche, parity (versus nulliparity), and age at first birth. In case-control analyses for intrinsic subtype, increased body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio were associated with increased risk of luminal A subtype, while older age at menarche and parity, regardless of breastfeeding, were associated with reduced risk. For basal-like cancers, parity without breastfeeding and increasing WHR were associated with increased risk, whereas breastfeeding and age ≥ 25 years at first birth were associated with reduced risk among parous women. Basal-like and ER-/HER2+ subtypes had earlier age-at-incidence distribution relative to luminal subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes show distinct etiologic profiles in the AMBER consortium, a study of over 5,000 black women with centrally assessed tumor biospecimens. IMPACT: Among black women, high WHR and parity without breastfeeding are emerging as important intervention points to reduce the incidence of basal-like breast cancer.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 96, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer; however, results of epidemiological studies have been mixed. Few studies have investigated these associations among African American women. METHODS: To assess the relation of aspirin use to risk of breast cancer in African American women, we conducted a prospective analysis within the Black Women's Health Study, an ongoing nationwide cohort study of 59,000 African American women. On baseline and follow-up questionnaires, women reported regular use of aspirin (defined as use at least 3 days per week) and years of use. During follow-up from 1995 through 2017, 1919 invasive breast cancers occurred, including 1112 ER+, 569 ER-, and 284 triple-negative (TN) tumors. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of aspirin use with risk of ER+, ER-, and TN breast cancer, adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Overall, the HR for current regular use of aspirin relative to non-use was 0.92 (95% CI 0.81, 1.04). For ER+, ER-, and TN breast cancer, corresponding HRs were 0.98 (0.84, 1.15), 0.81 (0.64, 1.04), and 0.70 (0.49, 0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings with regard to ER- and TN breast cancer are consistent with hypothesized inflammatory mechanisms of ER- and TN breast cancer, rather than hormone-dependent pathways. Aspirin may represent a potential opportunity for chemoprevention of ER- and TN breast cancer.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.

5.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(5): 704-713, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: African American women have a life expectancy 2.7 years shorter than that of white women and are less likely than white women to meet national physical activity guidelines. Physical activity has been found to reduce mortality, but evidence concerning African American women is limited. METHODS: In the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study of African American women begun in 1995, a total of 52,993 participants who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at enrollment were followed through 2017. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the associations of repeated measures of physical activity with mortality, adjusting for demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were last performed in September 2019. RESULTS: During the 22 years of follow-up, 4,719 deaths occurred. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with reduced all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. Hazard ratios for walking ≥5 hours per week relative to no walking were 0.69 (95% CI=0.62, 0.77), 0.71 (95% CI=0.57, 0.87), and 0.80 (95% CI=0.67, 0.96) for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality, respectively. The comparable hazard ratios for vigorous exercise for ≥5 hours per week vs none were 0.58 (95% CI=0.50, 0.67), 0.66 (95% CI=0.50, 0.87), and 0.52 (95% CI=0.39, 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Both walking for exercise and vigorous exercise were associated with reductions in mortality among African American women, including deaths from cardiovascular disease and deaths from cancer, both of which are disproportionately high in the African American population. These findings underline the importance of institutional and individual changes that will lead to increased physical activity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with time to menopause and breast cancer risk. We examined breast cancer associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AMH gene or its receptor genes, ACVR1 and AMHR2, among African American women. METHODS: In the AMBER consortium, we tested 65 candidate SNPs, and 1130 total variants, in or near AMH, ACVR1, and AMHR2 and breast cancer risk. Overall, 3649 cases and 4230 controls contributed to analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate of 5%), there were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Without correction for multiple testing, four candidate SNPs in ACVR1 and one near AMH were associated with breast cancer risk. In ACVR1, rs13395576[C] was associated with lower breast cancer risk overall (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.97) and for ER+ disease (OR 0.75; CI 0.62, 0.89) (p < 0.05). Rs1220110[A] and rs1220134[T] each had ORs of 0.89-0.90 for postmenopausal and ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.03). Conversely, rs1682130[T] was associated with higher risk of ER+ breast cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32). Near AMH, rs6510652[T] had ORs of 0.85-0.90 for breast cancer overall and after menopause (p ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present results, from a large study of African American women, provide limited support for an association between AMH-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and require replication in other studies.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1775-1783, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans have the highest incidence of pancreatic cancer of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. There is evidence that consumption of red or processed meat and foods containing saturated fats may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, but there is limited evidence in African Americans. METHODS: Utilizing the Black Women's Health Study (1995-2018), we prospectively investigated the associations of red and processed meat and saturated fats with incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 168). A food frequency questionnaire was completed by 52,706 participants in 1995 and 2001. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. We observed interactions with age (P interaction = 0.01). Thus, results were stratified at age 50 (<50, ≥50). RESULTS: Based on 148 cases among women aged ≥50 years, total red meat intake was associated with a 65% increased pancreatic cancer risk (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.65; 95% CI, 0.98-2.78; P trend = 0.05), primarily due to unprocessed red meat. There was also a nonsignificant association between total saturated fat and pancreatic cancer (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.85; 95% CI, 0.92-3.72; P trend = 0.08). Red meat and saturated fat intakes were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in younger women, and there was no association with processed meat in either age group. CONCLUSIONS: Red meat-specifically, unprocessed red meat-and saturated fat intakes were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in African-American women aged 50 and older, but not among younger women. IMPACT: The accumulating evidence-including now in African-American women-suggests that diet, a modifiable factor, plays a role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer, suggesting opportunities for prevention.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598212

RESUMO

Background: We estimated the association between night shift work and fecundability among African American women. Methods: Black Women's Health Study participants (n = 560) aged 30-45 years reported their history of night shift work in 2005. Time to pregnancy for all pregnancies resulting in a livebirth was reported in 2011. We estimated the fecundability ratio (FR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using proportional probabilities regression, accounting for multiple observations of individual women using generalized estimating equations. Results: We observed 4,417 months of pregnancy attempt time resulting in 390 births. After adjustment for covariates, women who reported ever working night shifts had 20% lower fecundability compared with those who never reported night shift work (FR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). The FR for women reporting night shift work with a frequency of ≥1 time per month and a duration of ≥2 years was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47-0.94) relative to women reporting no shift work. We observed a decrease in fecundability associated with ever working night shifts (FR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) among women aged ≥35 years, but not among younger women (FR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.78-2.28). Conclusion: A history of working night shifts was associated with reduced fecundability among older reproductive-aged African American women attempting pregnancy.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 512-518, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yogurt consumption and low-fat dairy consumption have been associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some studies. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation of yogurt and other dairy consumption to incidence of T2D in black women, a population group with a disproportionately high incidence of T2D. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 US black women since 1995 through biennial questionnaires which update health information. Each questionnaire inquired about doctor-diagnosed diabetes in the previous 2 y. FFQs completed by participants in 1995 and 2001 provided information on yogurt and other dietary intake. HRs with 95% CIs for yogurt (nonfrozen or frozen) and other dairy consumption in relation to incident T2D (n = 8061 cases) were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for risk factors for T2D. RESULTS: The HR for consumption of ≥1 serving of yogurt/d relative to <1 serving/mo was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.13, P trend = 0.65) after control for dietary and nondietary risk factors for T2D. The multivariable HR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.27; P trend = 0.74) for 2 or more servings/d of low-fat dairy other than yogurt relative to <1 serving/mo and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.25, P trend = 0.36) for 2 or more servings/d of regular dairy relative to <1 serving/mo. CONCLUSION: Results from this study do not support an inverse association of yogurt consumption or other dairy consumption with T2D risk in black women.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Glicemia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186637

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-219604

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371551

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1509-1511, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been hypothesized to increase breast cancer risk, but results from the few prior epidemiologic studies are conflicting, and no studies have examined the association in African American women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the prospective Black Women's Health Study to evaluate associations of history of GDM with breast cancer risk among 41,767 parous African American women, adjusting for potential confounders. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: There was no evidence of an association between history of GDM and risk of invasive breast cancer, overall or by estrogen receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study do not support the hypothesis that GDM is an important risk factor for breast cancer in African American women overall. IMPACT: On the basis of these data, breast cancer risk is not increased among African American women with a history of GDM compared with parous women without a history of GDM.

16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 291-302, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence for the association of anthropometrics with colorectal neoplasms is limited for African Americans. METHODS: We examined anthropometric measures with both colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the ongoing Black Women's Health Study. In a nested case-control analysis, 954 cases of colorectal adenoma were compared with 3,816 polyp-free controls, matched on age and follow-up time. For the CRC analyses, 413 incident CRC cases were identified over a 16-year follow-up (802,783 person-years). Adenoma cases and CRC were verified by medical record review. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses (for adenoma) and Cox proportional hazards analyses (for CRC) that included anthropometric exposures and selected confounders. RESULTS: Overall body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric factors were not associated with colorectal adenoma or cancer risk in Black women. However, increased risk of adenoma (but not CRC) was observed among especially related to adenomas in the proximal colon. Among women ≥ 50 years of age, risk of proximal adenoma increased 14% (95% CI 1.00, 1.31), 35% (95% CI 1.12, 1.63), and 25% (0.93, 1.68) with each standard deviation increase in BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. None of the anthropometric factors were associated with young onset CRC or adenoma risk. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity might be an initiator for colon adenomas but not a promoter for colorectal cancer among Black women.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adenoma/etnologia , Adenoma/etiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Int J Cancer ; 147(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

18.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 447-454, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975033

RESUMO

We assessed the associations of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, a potent estrogen, with sexual orientation and gender identity in 3306 women and 1848 men who participated in a study of prenatal DES exposure. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from logistic regression models adjusted for birth year, study cohort, and education. Among women, the OR for DES in relation to reporting sexual orientation identity as nonheterosexual was 0.61 (95% CI 0.40-0.92) primarily due to a strong inverse association with a lesbian identity (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Among men, the OR for DES in relation to reporting a nonheterosexual sexual orientation identity was 1.4 (95% CI 0.82-2.4), and ORs were similar for having a gay identity (1.4, 95% CI 0.72-2.85) and bisexual identity (1.4, 95% CI 0.57-3.5). Only five individuals reported a gender identity not conforming to that assigned at birth, preventing meaningful analysis. Women who were prenatally exposed to DES were less likely to have a lesbian or bisexual orientation, while DES-exposed men were somewhat more likely to report being gay or bisexual, but estimates were imprecise.


Assuntos
Dietilestilbestrol/efeitos adversos , Identidade de Gênero , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez
19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(11): 2987-2998, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469419

RESUMO

Women of African ancestry have lower incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) yet worse survival compared to women of European ancestry. We conducted a genome-wide association study in African ancestry women with 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC) and 1,235 controls. We identified four novel loci with suggestive evidence of association with EOC (p < 1 × 10-6 ), including rs4525119 (intronic to AKR1C3), rs7643459 (intronic to LOC101927394), rs4286604 (12 kb 3' of UGT2A2) and rs142091544 (5 kb 5' of WWC1). For HGSOC, we identified six loci with suggestive evidence of association including rs37792 (132 kb 5' of follistatin [FST]), rs57403204 (81 kb 3' of MAGEC1), rs79079890 (LOC105376360 intronic), rs66459581 (5 kb 5' of PRPSAP1), rs116046250 (GABRG3 intronic) and rs192876988 (32 kb 3' of GK2). Among the identified variants, two are near genes known to regulate hormones and diseases of the ovary (AKR1C3 and FST), and two are linked to cancer (AKR1C3 and MAGEC1). In follow-up studies of the 10 identified variants, the GK2 region SNP, rs192876988, showed an inverse association with EOC in European ancestry women (p = 0.002), increased risk of ER positive breast cancer in African ancestry women (p = 0.027) and decreased expression of GK2 in HGSOC tissue from African ancestry women (p = 0.004). A European ancestry-derived polygenic risk score showed positive associations with EOC and HGSOC in women of African ancestry suggesting shared genetic architecture. Our investigation presents evidence of variants for EOC shared among European and African ancestry women and identifies novel EOC risk loci in women of African ancestry.

20.
Breast ; 49: 108-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to U.S. white women, African American women are more likely to die from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Elucidation of risk factors for DCIS in African American women may provide opportunities for risk reduction. METHODS: We used data from three epidemiologic studies in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium to study risk factors for estrogen receptor (ER) positive DCIS (488 cases; 13,830 controls). Results were compared to associations observed for ER+ invasive breast cancer (n = 2,099). RESULTS: First degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS [odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 2.17]. Oral contraceptive use within the past 10 years (vs. never) was also associated with increased risk (OR: 1.43, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.97), as was late age at first birth (≥25 years vs. <20 years) (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.67). Risk was reduced in women with older age at menarche (≥15 years vs. <11 years) (OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.93) and higher body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood (≥25 vs. <20 kg/m2 at age 18 or 21) (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55, 1.01). There was a positive association of recent BMI with risk in postmenopausal women only. In general, associations of risk factors for ER+ DCIS were similar in magnitude and direction to those for invasive ER+ breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that most risk factors for invasive ER+ breast cancer are also associated with increased risk of ER+ DCIS among African American women.

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