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1.
J Nutr ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies in women of European descent showed an inverse association of dietary vitamin A (retinol and carotenoids) intake with breast cancer risks, mainly in premenopausal women. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether higher compared with lower levels of dietary vitamin A are associated with reduced breast cancer risks among Black women by estrogen receptor (ER) and menopausal statuses. METHODS: In this pooled analysis, data were from 3564 breast cancer cases and 11,843 controls (mean ages = 56.4 and 56.3 years, respectively) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. Dietary intake was assessed by FFQs. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for study-specific quintiles of total vitamin A equivalents and individual carotenoids, and a pooled OR was estimated by a random-effect model. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association of total vitamin A equivalents with ER-positive breast cancer (quintiles 5 compared with 1: pooled OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.67-1.00; P-trend = 0.045). The association was seen among premenopausal women (pooled OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.43-0.83; P-trend = 0.004), but not among postmenopausal women (pooled OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.28; P-trend = 0.78). Additionally, there were inverse associations of dietary ß-carotene (quintiles 5 compared with 1: pooled OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.95; P-trend = 0.08) and lutein (pooled OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.45-0.87; P-trend = 0.020) with ER-positive breast cancer among premenopausal women. There was no evidence for an association of total vitamin A equivalents or individual carotenoids with ER-negative breast cancer, regardless of menopausal status. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on dietary vitamin A and breast cancer risks in Black women are consistent with observations in women of European descent and advance the literature showing an inverse association for ER-positive disease.

2.
Hum Genet ; 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487234

RESUMO

Single germline nucleotide pathogenic variants have been identified in 12 breast cancer predisposition genes, but structural deletions in these genes remain poorly characterized. We conducted in-depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) in genomic DNA samples obtained from 1340 invasive breast cancer cases and 675 controls of African ancestry. We identified 25 deletions in the intragenic regions of ten established breast cancer predisposition genes based on a consensus call from six state-of-the-art SV callers. Overall, no significant case-control difference was found in the frequency of these deletions. However, 1.0% of cases and 0.3% of controls carried any of the eight putative protein-truncating rare deletions located in BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, TP53, NF1, RAD51D, RAD51C and CHEK2, resulting in an odds ratio (OR) of 3.29 (95% CI 0.74-30.16). We also identified a low-frequency deletion in NF1 associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.14-3.42). In addition, we detected 56 deletions, including six putative protein-truncating deletions, in suspected breast predisposition genes. This is the first large study to systematically search for structural deletions in breast cancer predisposition genes. Many of the deletions, particularly those resulting in protein truncations, are likely to be pathogenic. Results from this study, if confirmed in future large-scale studies, could have significant implications for genetic testing for this common cancer.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with breast cancer risk in some studies, particularly in young women, but results of cohort studies are conflicting. METHODS: We pooled data from 257 290 young (age <55 years) women from five cohorts. We used multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between GDM history and risk of breast cancer, overall and by oestrogen receptor (ER) status, before age 55 years, adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Five percent of women reported a history of GDM and 6842 women reported an incident breast-cancer diagnosis (median follow-up = 16 years; maximum = 24 years). Compared with parous women without GDM, women with a history of GDM were not at increased risk of young-onset breast cancer overall (HR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.03) or by ER status (HR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.16 for ER-positive; HR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.47 for ER-negative). Compared with nulliparous women, parous women with a history of GDM had a lower risk of breast cancer overall (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91) and of ER-positive (HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02) but not ER-negative (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.54) invasive breast cancer. These results were consistent with the HRs comparing parous women without GDM to nulliparous women. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this analysis do not support the hypothesis that GDM is a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Our findings suggest that the well-established protective effect of parity on risk of ER-positive breast cancer persists even for pregnancies complicated by GDM.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure on cancer incidence among middle-aged men has not been well-characterized. We investigated whether exposure to DES before birth impacts overall cancer risk, and risk of site-specific cancers. METHODS: Men (mean age in 2016 = 62.0 years) who were or were not prenatally DES exposed were identified between 1953 and 1994 and followed for cancer primarily via questionnaire approximately every 5 years between 1994 and 2016. The overall and site-specific cancer rates of the two groups were compared using Poisson regression and proportional hazards modeling with adjustment for age. RESULTS: DES exposure was not associated with either overall cancer [hazard ratio (HR), 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-1.15] or total prostate cancer rates (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.68-1.33), but was inversely associated with urinary tract cancer incidence (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: There was no increase in either overall or prostate cancer rates among men prenatally DES exposed relative to those unexposed. An unexpected risk reduction was observed for urinary system cancers among the exposed relative to those unexposed. These findings suggest that prenatal DES exposure is unlikely to be an important contributor to cancer development in middle-aged men. IMPACT: The results of this study could lend reassurance to middle-aged men who were prenatally DES exposed that their exposure does not adversely influence their overall cancer risk.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited evidence suggests that higher levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) protect against SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) infection. Black women commonly experience 25(OH)D insufficiency and are overrepresented among COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to COVID-19 infection among participants in the Black Women's Health Study. METHODS: Since 1995, the Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 U.S. Black women through biennial mailed or online questionnaires. Over 13,000 study participants provided a blood sample in 2013-2017. 25(OH)D assays were performed in a certified national laboratory shortly after collection of the samples. In 2020, participants who had completed the online version of the 2019 biennial health questionnaire were invited to complete a supplemental online questionnaire assessing their experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including whether they had been tested for COVID-19 infection and the result of the test. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of 25(OH)D level with COVID-19 positivity, adjusting for age, number of people living in the household, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 5,081 eligible participants whose blood sample had been assayed for 25(OH)D, 1,974 reported having had a COVID-19 test in 2020. Relative to women with 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/l) or more, multivariable-adjusted ORs for COVID-19 infection in women with levels of 20-29 ng/mL (50-72.5 nmol/l) and <20 ng/mL (<50 nmol/l) were, respectively, 1.48 (95% CI 0.95-2.30) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.72) (p trend 0.02). CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that U.S. Black women with lower levels of 25(OH)D are at increased risk of infection with COVID-19. Further work is needed to confirm these findings and determine the optimal level of 25(OH)D for a beneficial effect.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Vitamina D/sangue
6.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2100531, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. This study aimed to establish the frequency of PVs and remaining risks of breast cancer for each gene in women over age 65 years. METHODS: A total of 26,707 women over age 65 years from population-based studies (51.5% with breast cancer and 48.5% unaffected) were tested for PVs in germline predisposition gene. Frequencies of PVs and associations between PVs in each gene and breast cancer were assessed, and remaining lifetime breast cancer risks were estimated for non-Hispanic White women with PVs. RESULTS: The frequency of PVs in predisposition genes was 3.18% for women with breast cancer and 1.48% for unaffected women over age 65 years. PVs in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were found in 3.42% of women diagnosed with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, 1.0% with ER-positive, and 3.01% with triple-negative breast cancer. Frequencies of PVs were lower among women with no first-degree relatives with breast cancer. PVs in CHEK2, PALB2, BRCA2, and BRCA1 were associated with increased risks (odds ratio = 2.9-4.0) of breast cancer. Remaining lifetime risks of breast cancer were ≥ 15% for those with PVs in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that all women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer or ER-negative breast cancer should receive genetic testing and that women over age 65 years with BRCA1 and BRCA2 PVs and perhaps with PALB2 and CHEK2 PVs should be considered for magnetic resonance imaging screening.

7.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2564-2573, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population. METHODS: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, and NF1. PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC. RESULTS: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of ATM and CHEK2 carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk. CONCLUSION: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of CHEK2 and nearly half of ATM carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 450-461, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies examining the relations between dairy product and calcium intakes and breast cancer have been inconclusive, especially for tumor subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between intakes of specific dairy products and calcium and risk of breast cancer overall and for subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) status. METHOD: We pooled the individual-level data of over 1 million women who were followed for a maximum of 8-20 years across studies. Associations were evaluated for dairy product and calcium intakes and risk of incident invasive breast cancer overall (n = 37,861 cases) and by subtypes defined by ER status. Study-specific multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and then combined using random-effects models. RESULTS: Overall, no clear association was observed between the consumption of specific dairy foods, dietary (from foods only) calcium, and total (from foods and supplements) calcium, and risk of overall breast cancer. Although each dairy product showed a null or very weak inverse association with risk of overall breast cancer (P, test for trend >0.05 for all), differences by ER status were suggested for yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese with associations observed for ER-negative tumors only (pooled HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.98 comparing ≥60 g/d with <1 g/d of yogurt and 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 comparing ≥25 g/d with <1 g/d of cottage/ricotta cheese). Dietary calcium intake was only weakly associated with breast cancer risk (pooled HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97, 0.99 per 350 mg/d). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that adult dairy or calcium consumption is unlikely to associate with a higher risk of breast cancer and that higher yogurt and cottage/ricotta cheese intakes were inversely associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, a less hormonally dependent subtype with poor prognosis. Future studies on fermented dairy products, earlier life exposures, ER-negative breast cancer, and different racial/ethnic populations may further elucidate the relation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Laticínios , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(7): 924-930, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013957

RESUMO

Hair relaxers and leave-in conditioners and oils, commonly used by Black/African American women, may contain estrogens or estrogen-disrupting compounds. Thus, their use may contribute to breast cancer risk. Results of the few previous studies on this topic are inconsistent. We assessed the relation of hair relaxer and leave-in conditioner use to breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study, a nationwide prospective study of Black women. Among 50 543 women followed from 1997 to 2017, 2311 incident breast cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression for breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. For heavy use (≥15 years of use for ≥7 times/year) of hair relaxers relative to never/light use (<4 years, no more than 1-2 times/year), the multivariable HR for breast cancer overall was 1.13 (95%CI: 0.96-1.33). Duration, frequency, age at first use and number of scalp burns were not associated with overall breast cancer risk. For heavy use of hair relaxers containing lye, the corresponding HR for ER+ breast cancer was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.80); there was no association for non-lye products. There was no association of conditioner use and breast cancer. Results of this study were largely null, but there was some evidence that heavy use of lye-containing hair relaxers may be associated with increased risk of ER+ breast cancer. Consistent results from several studies are needed before it can be concluded that use of certain hair relaxers impacts breast cancer development.

10.
Sleep Med ; 83: 260-270, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of early life abuse with sleep disruption risk in adulthood among U.S. Black women. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. In 2005, 29,998 women completed a self-administered questionnaire on early-life experiences of abuse (child and teen) and exposure to danger at any life stage. Participants reported on their sleep quality (snoring and diagnosed sleep apnea) in 2001, whether their "sleep was restless" in 2005, and their average sleep duration in 2009. We used log-binomial regression models to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of child/teen abuse and danger at any life stage with snoring, diagnosis of sleep apnea, restless sleep, and short sleep duration. RESULTS: Nearly 50% of participants reported one or more measure of sleep disruption in adulthood. Higher severity of physical abuse was associated with increased risk of sleep disruption and higher severity of sexual abuse was associated with increased risk for most sleep disruptions. The RR comparing child/teen physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was highest for diagnosed sleep apnea (2.03, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.41). Feeling in danger at any life stage (child, teen, adult, past year) was generally associated with greater increases in risk of sleep disruption among women with a history of early life abuse than among women without such a history. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that abuse as a child and/or teen is related to disrupted sleep in adulthood.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Saúde da Mulher
11.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(7): 1045-1050, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042955

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in cancer susceptibility genes in US Black women compared with non-Hispanic White women with breast cancer is poorly described. Objective: To determine whether US Black and non-Hispanic White women with breast cancer have a different prevalence of PVs in 12 cancer susceptibility genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Participants were Black and non-Hispanic White women diagnosed with breast cancer, unselected for family history or age at diagnosis. Data were collected from June 1993 to June 2020; data analysis was performed between September 2020 and February 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of germline PVs in 12 established breast cancer susceptibility genes. Results: Among 3946 Black women (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 56.5 [12.02] y) and 25 287 non-Hispanic White women (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 62.7 [11.14] y) with breast cancer, there was no statistically significant difference by race in the combined prevalence of PVs in the 12 breast cancer susceptibility genes evaluated (5.65% in Black vs 5.06% in non-Hispanic White women; P = .12). The prevalence of PVs in CHEK2 was higher in non-Hispanic White than Black patients (1.29% vs 0.38%; P < .001), whereas Black patients had a higher prevalence of PVs in BRCA2 (1.80% vs 1.24%; P = .005) and PALB2 (1.01% vs 0.40%; P < .001). For estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, the prevalence of PVs was not different except for PALB2, which was higher in Black women. In women diagnosed before age 50 years, there was no difference in overall prevalence of PVs in Black vs non-Hispanic White women (8.83% vs 10.04%; P = .25), and among individual genes, only CHEK2 PV prevalence differed by race. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, the standardized prevalence ratio of PVs in non-Hispanic White relative to Black women was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.14), and there was no longer a statistically significant difference in BRCA2 PV prevalence. Conclusions and Relevance: This large population-based case-control study revealed no clinically meaningful differences in the prevalence of PVs in 12 breast cancer susceptibility genes between Black and non-Hispanic White women with breast cancer. The findings suggest that there is not sufficient evidence to make policy changes related to genetic testing based on race alone. Instead, all efforts should be made to ensure equal access to and uptake of genetic testing to minimize disparities in care and outcomes.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2748-2758, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544892

RESUMO

Breast cancer survivors have a high risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer (CBC), but there are few studies of CBC risk in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined whether the incidence and risk factors for CBC differed by race/ethnicity in the United States. Women with a first invasive Stage I-IIB breast cancer diagnosis at ages 20-74 years between 2000 and 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18 registries were followed through 2016 for a diagnosis of invasive CBC ≥1 year after the first breast cancer diagnosis. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models to test the association between race/ethnicity and CBC, adjusting for age, hormone receptor status, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and stage at first diagnosis, and evaluated the impact of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status, and insurance status on the association. After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 9247 women (2.0%) were diagnosed with CBC. Relative to non-Hispanic (NH) White women, CBC risk was increased in NH Black women (hazard ratio = 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.54) and Hispanic women (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20), with the largest differences among women diagnosed at younger ages. Adjustment for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, socioeconomic status and health insurance did not explain the associations. Therefore, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women have an increased risk of CBC that is not explained by clinical or socioeconomic factors collected in SEER. Large studies of diverse breast cancer survivors with detailed data on treatment delivery and adherence are needed to inform interventions to reduce this disparity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Mastectomia Profilática , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Res ; 194: 110651, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution contains numerous carcinogens and endocrine disruptors which may be relevant for breast cancer. Previous research has predominantly been conducted in White women; however, Black women may have higher air pollution exposure due to geographic and residential factors. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between air pollution and breast cancer risk in a large prospective population of Black women. METHODS: We estimated annual average ambient levels of particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) at the 1995 residence of 41,317 participants in the Black Women's Health Study who resided in 56 metropolitan areas across the United States. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. We evaluated whether the association varied by menopausal status, estrogen receptor (ER) status of the tumor and geographic region of residence. RESULTS: With follow-up through 2015 (mean = 18.3 years), 2146 incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed. Higher exposure to NO2 or O3 was not associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. For PM2.5, although we observed no association overall, there was evidence of modification by geographic region for both ER- (p for heterogeneity = 0.01) and premenopausal breast cancer (p for heterogeneity = 0.01). Among women living in the Midwest, an IQR increase in PM2.5 (2.87 µg/m3), was associated with a higher risk of ER- (HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.07-2.19) and premenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71). In contrast, among women living in the South, PM2.5 was inversely associated with both ER- (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.97) and premenopausal breast cancer risk (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91). DISCUSSION: Overall, we observed no association between air pollution and increased breast cancer risk among Black women, except perhaps among women living in the Midwestern US.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias da Mama , Afro-Americanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 185(2): 469-478, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are positively associated with time to menopause and breast cancer risk. We examined breast cancer associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AMH gene or its receptor genes, ACVR1 and AMHR2, among African American women. METHODS: In the AMBER consortium, we tested 65 candidate SNPs, and 1130 total variants, in or near AMH, ACVR1, and AMHR2 and breast cancer risk. Overall, 3649 cases and 4230 controls contributed to analyses. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons (false-discovery rate of 5%), there were no statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk. Without correction for multiple testing, four candidate SNPs in ACVR1 and one near AMH were associated with breast cancer risk. In ACVR1, rs13395576[C] was associated with lower breast cancer risk overall (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.97) and for ER+ disease (OR 0.75; CI 0.62, 0.89) (p < 0.05). Rs1220110[A] and rs1220134[T] each had ORs of 0.89-0.90 for postmenopausal and ER+ breast cancer (p ≤ 0.03). Conversely, rs1682130[T] was associated with higher risk of ER+ breast cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.04, 1.32). Near AMH, rs6510652[T] had ORs of 0.85-0.90 for breast cancer overall and after menopause (p ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present results, from a large study of African American women, provide limited support for an association between AMH-related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and require replication in other studies.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Neoplasias da Mama , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Br J Cancer ; 124(2): 315-332, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia
17.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(1): 137-144, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598212

RESUMO

Background: We estimated the association between night shift work and fecundability among African American women. Methods: Black Women's Health Study participants (n = 560) aged 30-45 years reported their history of night shift work in 2005. Time to pregnancy for all pregnancies resulting in a livebirth was reported in 2011. We estimated the fecundability ratio (FR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using proportional probabilities regression, accounting for multiple observations of individual women using generalized estimating equations. Results: We observed 4,417 months of pregnancy attempt time resulting in 390 births. After adjustment for covariates, women who reported ever working night shifts had 20% lower fecundability compared with those who never reported night shift work (FR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). The FR for women reporting night shift work with a frequency of ≥1 time per month and a duration of ≥2 years was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.47-0.94) relative to women reporting no shift work. We observed a decrease in fecundability associated with ever working night shifts (FR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) among women aged ≥35 years, but not among younger women (FR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.78-2.28). Conclusion: A history of working night shifts was associated with reduced fecundability among older reproductive-aged African American women attempting pregnancy.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilidade , Fertilização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo para Engravidar
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(1): 71-79, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity among breast cancer subtypes. Previous studies with six-marker IHC classification of intrinsic subtypes included small numbers of black women. METHODS: Using centralized laboratory results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, proliferation marker, Ki-67, EGFR, and cytokeratin (CK)5/6, we estimated case-only and case-control ORs for established breast cancer risk factors among cases (n = 2,354) and controls (n = 2,932) in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. ORs were estimated by ER status and intrinsic subtype using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Case-only analyses by ER status showed etiologic heterogeneity by age at menarche, parity (vs. nulliparity), and age at first birth. In case-control analyses for intrinsic subtype, increased body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were associated with increased risk of luminal A subtype, whereas older age at menarche and parity, regardless of breastfeeding, were associated with reduced risk. For basal-like cancers, parity without breastfeeding and increasing WHR were associated with increased risk, whereas breastfeeding and age ≥25 years at first birth were associated with reduced risk among parous women. Basal-like and ER-/HER2+ subtypes had earlier age-at-incidence distribution relative to luminal subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer subtypes showed distinct etiologic profiles in the AMBER consortium, a study of more than 5,000 black women with centrally assessed tumor biospecimens. IMPACT: Among black women, high WHR and parity without breastfeeding are emerging as important intervention points to reduce the incidence of basal-like breast cancer.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 148(9): 2068-2078, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

20.
J Nutr ; 150(12): 3249-3258, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red meat is a rich source of nutrients but is typically high in saturated fats. Carcinogenic chemicals can be formed during cooking and processing. Little is known about the relation of red meat consumption to mortality in African Americans (AAs), a group with excess mortality and high consumption of red meat relative to whites. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the association between red meat consumption and mortality in AA women. METHODS: The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) is a prospective cohort study of AA women across the USA who completed health questionnaires at enrollment in 1995 (median age 38 y, median BMI 27.9 kg/m2) and every 2 y thereafter. The analyses included 56,314 women who completed a validated FFQ and were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1995. Exposures were total red meat, processed red meat, and unprocessed red meat consumption. Outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models with control for age, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, medical history, and dietary factors were used to estimate HRs with 95% CIs. RESULTS: During 22 y of follow-up through to 2017, we identified 5054 deaths, which included 1354 cardiovascular deaths and 1801 cancer deaths. The HR for all-cause mortality was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.62) for the highest quintile of total red meat consumption relative to the lowest. Each 1 serving/d increase in red meat consumption was associated with a 7% (95% CI: 5%, 9%) increased risk of all-cause mortality. Red meat consumption was also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, but not with cancer mortality. Results were similar for the consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat. CONCLUSIONS: Red meat consumption is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among AA women.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Dieta , Mortalidade , Carne Vermelha , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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