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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30x10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and Alzheimer's disease (ad) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and ad at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived, gut microbial-host cometabolite, has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases. However, the relations remain unclear between diet, TMAO, and cardiometabolic health in general populations from different regions and ethnicities. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of circulating TMAO with dietary and cardiometabolic factors in a pooled analysis of 16 population-based studies from the United States, Europe, and Asia. METHODS: Included were 32,166 adults (16,269 white, 13,293 Asian, 1247 Hispanic/Latino, 1236 black, and 121 others) without cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic kidney disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Linear regression coefficients (ß) were computed for standardized TMAO with harmonized variables. Study-specific results were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. A false discovery rate <0.10 was considered significant. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders, circulating TMAO was associated with intakes of animal protein and saturated fat (ß = 0.124 and 0.058, respectively, for a 5% energy increase) and with shellfish, total fish, eggs, and red meat (ß = 0.370, 0.151, 0.081, and 0.056, respectively, for a 1 serving/d increase). Plant protein and nuts showed inverse associations (ß = -0.126 for a 5% energy increase from plant protein and -0.123 for a 1 serving/d increase of nuts). Although the animal protein-TMAO association was consistent across populations, fish and shellfish associations were stronger in Asians (ß = 0.285 and 0.578), and egg and red meat associations were more prominent in Americans (ß = 0.153 and 0.093). Besides, circulating TMAO was positively associated with creatinine (ß = 0.131 SD increase in log-TMAO), homocysteine (ß = 0.065), insulin (ß = 0.048), glycated hemoglobin (ß = 0.048), and glucose (ß = 0.023), whereas it was inversely associated with HDL cholesterol (ß = -0.047) and blood pressure (ß = -0.030). Each TMAO-biomarker association remained significant after further adjusting for creatinine and was robust in subgroup/sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In an international, consortium-based study, animal protein was consistently associated with increased circulating TMAO, whereas TMAO associations with fish, shellfish, eggs, and red meat varied among populations. The adverse associations of TMAO with certain cardiometabolic biomarkers, independent of renal function, warrant further investigation.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859359

RESUMO

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 Pjoint < 5 × 10-8), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (Pint < 5 × 10-8). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (Pint = 2 × 10-6). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (Pint < 10-3). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.

6.
Genetics ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in datasets comprised of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence datasets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently amongst the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 816, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547301

RESUMO

Serum liver enzyme concentrations are the most frequently-used laboratory markers of liver disease, a major cause of mortality. We conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of liver enzymes from UK BioBank and BioBank Japan. We identified 160 previously-unreported independent alanine aminotransferase, 190 aspartate aminotransferase, and 199 alkaline phosphatase genome-wide significant associations, with some affecting multiple different enzymes. Associated variants implicate genes that demonstrate diverse liver cell type expression and promote a range of metabolic and liver diseases. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology of liver and other metabolic diseases that are associated with serum liver enzyme concentrations.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Genoma Humano , Hepatopatias/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Células Matadoras Naturais/enzimologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/enzimologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/classificação , Hepatopatias/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Célula Única , Reino Unido
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6417, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339817

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical drugs targeting dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. To identify potential novel CVD drug targets without these adverse effects, we perform genome-wide analyses of participants in the HUNT Study in Norway (n = 69,479) to search for protein-altering variants with beneficial impact on quantitative blood traits related to cardiovascular disease, but without detrimental impact on liver function. We identify 76 (11 previously unreported) presumed causal protein-altering variants associated with one or more CVD- or liver-related blood traits. Nine of the variants are predicted to result in loss-of-function of the protein. This includes ZNF529:p.K405X, which is associated with decreased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P = 1.3 × 10-8) without being associated with liver enzymes or non-fasting blood glucose. Silencing of ZNF529 in human hepatoma cells results in upregulation of LDL receptor and increased LDL uptake in the cells. This suggests that inhibition of ZNF529 or its gene product should be prioritized as a novel candidate drug target for treating dyslipidemia and associated CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Inativação Gênica , Marcação de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fenômica , Receptores de LDL/genética , Reino Unido
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231259

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. DESIGN: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium. SETTING: Population-based Main Outcome: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation. RESULTS: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells which increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273 and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on EHR data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206559

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) development may be mediated by skeletal muscle (SkM) function, which is responsible for >80% of circulating glucose uptake. The goals of this study were to assess changes in global and location-level gene expression, remodeling proteins, fibrosis and vascularity of SkM with worsening glycemic control, through RNA sequencing, immunoblotting and immunostaining. We evaluated SkM samples from health-diverse African green monkeys (Cholorcebus aethiops sabaeus) to investigate these relationships. We assessed SkM remodeling at the molecular level by evaluating unbiased transcriptomics in age, sex, and weight and waist circumference-matched metabolically healthy, pre-diabetic (Pre-T2D) and T2D monkeys (n=13). Our analysis applied novel location-specific gene differences and shows that extracellular facing and cell membrane-associated genes and proteins are highly upregulated in metabolic disease. We verified transcript patterns using immunohistochemical staining and protein analyses of MMP16, TIMP2 and VEGF. Extracellular matrix (ECM) functions to support intercellular communications, including the coupling of capillaries to muscle cells, which was worsened with increasing blood glucose. Multiple regression modeling from age- and health-diverse monkeys (n=33) revealed that capillary density was negatively predicted only by fasting blood glucose. The loss of vascularity in SkM co-occurred with reduced expression of hypoxia-sensing genes, which is indicative of a disconnect between altered ECM and reduced endothelial cells, and known perfusion deficiencies present in IR and T2D. This report supports that rising blood glucose values incite ECM remodeling and reduce SkM capillarization, and that targeting ECM would be a rational approach to improve health with metabolic disease.

11.
Nature ; 586(7831): 763-768, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

12.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common genetic variant near MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T) has been previously associated with hepatic fat and advanced histology in NAFLD; however, these findings have not been consistently replicated in the literature. We aimed to establish whether rs641738C>T is a risk factor across the spectrum of NAFLD and to characterise its role in the regulation of related metabolic phenotypes through a meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the association between rs641738C>T genotype and liver fat, NAFLD histology, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids or insulin. These included directly genotyped studies and population-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a random effects meta-analysis using recessive, additive and dominant genetic models. RESULTS: Data from 1,066,175 participants (9,688 with liver biopsies) across 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. rs641738C>T was associated with higher liver fat on CT/MRI (+0.03 standard deviations [95% CI 0.02-0.05], pz = 4.8×10-5) and diagnosis of NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.3], pz = 0.003) in Caucasian adults. The variant was also positively associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45], pz = 0.021) in Caucasian adults using a recessive model of inheritance (CC + CT vs. TT). Meta-analysis of data from previous GWAS found the variant to be associated with higher ALT (pz = 0.002) and lower serum triglycerides (pz = 1.5×10-4). rs641738C>T was not associated with fasting insulin and no effect was observed in children with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 as a risk factor for the presence and severity of NAFLD in individuals of European descent. LAY SUMMARY: Fatty liver disease is a common condition where fat builds up in the liver, which can cause liver inflammation and scarring (including 'cirrhosis'). It is closely linked to obesity and diabetes, but some genes are also thought to be important. We did this study to see whether one specific change ('variant') in one gene ('MBOAT7') was linked to fatty liver disease. We took data from over 40 published studies and found that this variant near MBOAT7 is linked to more severe fatty liver disease. This means that drugs designed to work on MBOAT7 could be useful for treating fatty liver disease.

13.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 969-983, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839606

RESUMO

Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled the analysis of rare variants (RVs) associated with complex phenotypes. Commonly used RV association tests have limited scope to leverage variant functions. We propose STAAR (variant-set test for association using annotation information), a scalable and powerful RV association test method that effectively incorporates both variant categories and multiple complementary annotations using a dynamic weighting scheme. For the latter, we introduce 'annotation principal components', multidimensional summaries of in silico variant annotations. STAAR accounts for population structure and relatedness and is scalable for analyzing very large cohort and biobank whole-genome sequencing studies of continuous and dichotomous traits. We applied STAAR to identify RVs associated with four lipid traits in 12,316 discovery and 17,822 replication samples from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program. We discovered and replicated new RV associations, including disruptive missense RVs of NPC1L1 and an intergenic region near APOC1P1 associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Simulação por Computador , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
14.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(3): 278-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154449

RESUMO

Introduction: Much of the higher risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African American individuals relates to ancestry-specific variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1). Relative to kidneys from European American deceased-donors, kidneys from African American deceased-donors have shorter allograft survival and African American living-kidney donors more often develop ESKD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored APOL1 Long-term Kidney Transplantation Outcomes Network (APOLLO) is prospectively assessing kidney allograft survival from donors with recent African ancestry based on donor and recipient APOL1 genotypes. Methods: APOLLO will evaluate outcomes from 2614 deceased kidney donor-recipient pairs, as well as additional living-kidney donor-recipient pairs and unpaired deceased-donor kidneys. Results: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, American Society of Transplantation, American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, and nearly all U.S. kidney transplant programs, organ procurement organizations (OPOs), and histocompatibility laboratories are participating in this observational study. APOLLO employs a central institutional review board (cIRB) and maintains voluntary partnerships with OPOs and histocompatibility laboratories. A Community Advisory Council composed of African American individuals with a personal or family history of kidney disease has advised the NIH Project Office and Steering Committee since inception. UNOS is providing data for outcome analyses. Conclusion: This article describes unique aspects of the protocol, design, and performance of APOLLO. Results will guide use of APOL1 genotypic data to improve the assessment of quality in deceased-donor kidneys and could increase numbers of transplanted kidneys, reduce rates of discard, and improve the safety of living-kidney donation.

15.
Clin Transplant ; 34(6): e13827, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080893

RESUMO

Two renal-risk variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) in African American (AA) deceased donors (DD) are associated with shorter renal allograft survival after transplantation. To identify additional genes contributing to allograft survival, a genome-wide association study was performed in 532 AA DDs. Phenotypic data were obtained from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Association and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-APOL1 interaction tests were conducted using death-censored renal allograft survival accounting for relevant covariates. Replication and inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis were performed using data from 250 AA DD in the Genomics of Transplantation study. Accounting for APOL1, multiple SNPs near the Nudix Hydrolase 7 gene (NUDT7) showed strong independent effects (P = 1.6 × 10-8 -2.2 × 10-8 ). Several SNPs in the Translocation protein SEC63 homolog (SEC63; P = 2 × 10-9 -3.7 × 10-8 ) and plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) genes (P = 4.0 × 10-8 -7 × 10-8 ) modified the effect of APOL1 on allograft survival. SEC63 is expressed in human renal tubule cells and glomeruli, and PVT1 is associated with diabetic kidney disease. Overall, associations were detected for 41 SNPs (P = 2 × 10-9 -5 × 10-8 ) contributing independently or interacting with APOL1 to impact renal allograft survival after transplantation from AA DD. Given the small sample size of the discovery and replication sets, independent validations and functional genomic efforts are needed to validate these results.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714576

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To facilitate use of these SNPs in future genetic risk score (GRS)-based analyses, we aimed to classify the SNPs based on physiology. We also sought to validate GRS associations with insulin-related traits in deeply phenotyped Mexican Americans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 457 T2D SNPs from the literature were assigned physiologic function based on association studies and cluster analyses. All SNPs (All-GRS), beta-cell (BC-GRS), insulin resistance (IR-GRS), lipodystrophy (Lipo-GRS), and body mass index plus lipids (B + L-GRS) were evaluated for association with diabetes and indices of insulin secretion (from oral glucose tolerance test), insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance (from euglycemic clamp), and adiposity and lipid markers in 1587 Mexican Americans. RESULTS: Of the 457 SNPs, 52 were classified as BC, 30 as IR, 12 as Lipo, 12 as B + L, whereas physiologic function of 351 was undefined. All-GRS was strongly associated with T2D. Among nondiabetic Mexican Americans, BC-GRS was associated with reduced insulinogenic index, IR-GRS was associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, and Lipo-GRS was associated with reduced adiposity. B + L-GRS was associated with increased insulin clearance. The latter did not replicate in an independent cohort wherein insulin clearance was assessed by a different method. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting their utility, BC-GRS, IR-GRS, and Lipo-GRS, based on SNPs discovered largely in Europeans, exhibited expected associations in Mexican Americans. The novel association of B + L-GRS with insulin clearance suggests that impaired ability to reduce insulin clearance in compensation for IR may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D. Whether this applies to other ethnic groups remains to be determined.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5121, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719535

RESUMO

Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identify 49 previously unreported lipid loci, and 10 additional previously unreported lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identify new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9. The previously unreported lipid loci have a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explain 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride level. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 3(7): 894-907, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334442

RESUMO

The accumulation of excess fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) in the absence of heavy alcohol consumption causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has become a global epidemic. Identifying metabolic risk factors that interact with the genetic risk of NAFLD is important for reducing disease burden. We tested whether serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI interact with genetic variants in or near the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene, the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene, the neurocan/transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (NCAN/TM6SF2) gene, and the lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1) gene to exacerbate hepatic steatosis, estimated by liver attenuation. We performed association analyses in 10 population-based cohorts separately and then meta-analyzed results in up to 14,751 individuals (11,870 of European ancestry and 2,881 of African ancestry). We found that PNPLA3-rs738409 significantly interacted with insulin, insulin resistance, BMI, glucose, and TG to increase hepatic steatosis in nondiabetic individuals carrying the G allele. Additionally, GCKR-rs780094 significantly interacted with insulin, insulin resistance, and TG. Conditional analyses using the two largest European ancestry cohorts in the study showed that insulin levels accounted for most of the interaction of PNPLA3-rs738409 with BMI, glucose, and TG in nondiabetic individuals. Insulin, PNPLA3-rs738409, and their interaction accounted for at least 8% of the variance in hepatic steatosis in these two cohorts. Conclusion: Insulin resistance, either directly or through the resultant elevated insulin levels, more than other metabolic traits, appears to amplify the PNPLA3-rs738409-G genetic risk for hepatic steatosis. Improving insulin resistance in nondiabetic individuals carrying PNPLA3-rs738409-G may preferentially decrease hepatic steatosis.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(8): 1331-1337, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Populations of Mexican American ancestry are at an increased risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether loci in known and novel genes were associated with variation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (n = 3,644), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (n = 3,595), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (n = 1,577) levels by conducting the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of liver enzymes, which commonly measure liver function, in individuals of Mexican American ancestry. METHODS: Levels of AST, ALT, and GGT were determined by enzymatic colorimetric assays. A multi-cohort GWAS of individuals of Mexican American ancestry was performed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with liver outcomes by multivariable linear regression using an additive genetic model. Association analyses were conducted separately in each cohort, followed by a nonparametric meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the PNPLA3 gene, rs4823173 (P = 3.44 × 10-10 ), rs2896019 (P = 7.29 × 10-9 ), and rs2281135 (P = 8.73 × 10-9 ) were significantly associated with AST levels. Although not genome-wide significant, these same SNPs were the top hits for ALT (P = 7.12 × 10-8 , P = 1.98 × 10-7 , and P = 1.81 × 10-7 , respectively). The strong correlation (r2 = 1.0) for these SNPs indicated a single hit in the PNPLA3 gene. No genome-wide significant associations were found for GGT. CONCLUSIONS: PNPLA3, a locus previously identified with ALT, AST, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in European and Japanese GWAS, is also associated with liver enzymes in populations of Mexican American ancestry.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética
20.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 21, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a significant public health concern disproportionately affecting African Americans (AAs). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the leading cause of ESKD in the USA, and efforts to uncover genetic susceptibility to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) have had limited success. A prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AAs with T2D-ESKD was expanded with additional AA cases and controls and genotypes imputed to the higher density 1000 Genomes reference panel. The discovery analysis included 3432 T2D-ESKD cases and 6977 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls (N = 10,409), followed by a discrimination analysis in 2756 T2D non-nephropathy controls to exclude T2D-associated variants. RESULTS: Six independent variants located in or near RND3/RBM43, SLITRK3, ENPP7, GNG7, and APOL1 achieved genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with T2D-ESKD. Following extension analyses in 1910 non-diabetic ESKD cases and 908 non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls, a meta-analysis of 5342 AA all-cause ESKD cases and 6977 AA non-diabetic non-nephropathy controls revealed an additional novel all-cause ESKD locus at EFNB2 (rs77113398; P = 9.84 × 10-9; OR = 1.94). Exclusion of APOL1 renal-risk genotype carriers identified two additional genome-wide significant T2D-ESKD-associated loci at GRAMD3 and MGAT4C. A second variant at GNG7 (rs373971520; P = 2.17 × 10-8, OR = 1.46) remained associated with all-cause ESKD in the APOL1-negative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide further evidence for genetic factors associated with advanced kidney disease in AAs with T2D.

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