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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(18): e021312, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is associated with deterioration in renal function-an important risk factor for poor outcomes. Whether ADHF results in permanent kidney damage/dysfunction is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated for the first time the renal responses to the development of, and recovery from, ADHF using an ovine model. ADHF development induced pronounced hemodynamic changes, neurohormonal activation, and decline in renal function, including decreased urine, sodium and urea excretion, and creatinine clearance. Following ADHF recovery (25 days), creatinine clearance reductions persisted. Kidney biopsies taken during ADHF and following recovery showed widespread mesangial cell prominence, early mild acute tubular injury, and medullary/interstitial fibrosis. Renal transcriptomes identified altered expression of 270 genes following ADHF development and 631 genes following recovery. A total of 47 genes remained altered post-recovery. Pathway analysis suggested gene expression changes, driven by a network of inflammatory cytokines centered on IL-1ß (interleukin 1ß), lead to repression of reno-protective eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling during ADHF development, and following recovery, activation of glomerulosclerosis and reno-protective pathways and repression of proinflammatory/fibrotic pathways. A total of 31 dysregulated genes encoding proteins detectable in urine, serum, and plasma identified potential candidate markers for kidney repair (including CNGA3 [cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit alpha 3] and OIT3 [oncoprotein induced transcript 3]) or long-term renal impairment in ADHF (including ACTG2 [actin gamma 2, smooth muscle] and ANGPTL4 [angiopoietin like 4]). CONCLUSIONS In an ovine model, we provide the first direct evidence that an episode of ADHF leads to an immediate decline in kidney function that failed to fully resolve after ≈4 weeks and is associated with persistent functional/structural kidney injury. We identified molecular pathways underlying kidney injury and repair in ADHF and highlighted 31 novel candidate biomarkers for acute kidney injury in this setting.

2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364906

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affects people with chronic diseases such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in people with CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed through February 2021. SETTING & STUDY POPULATIONS: People with CKD with or without COVID-19. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Cohort and case-control studies. DATA EXTRACTION: Incidences of COVID-19, death, respiratory failure, dyspnea, recovery, intensive care admission, hospital admission, need for supplemental oxygen, hospital discharge, sepsis, short-term dialysis, acute kidney injury, and fatigue. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Random-effects meta-analysis and evidence certainty adjudicated using an adapted version of GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). RESULTS: 348 studies (382,407 participants with COVID-19 and CKD; 1,139,979 total participants with CKD) were included. Based on low-certainty evidence, the incidence of COVID-19 was higher in people with CKD treated with dialysis (105 per 10,000 person-weeks; 95% CI, 91-120; 95% prediction interval [PrI], 25-235; 59 studies; 468,233 participants) than in those with CKD not requiring kidney replacement therapy (16 per 10,000 person-weeks; 95% CI, 4-33; 95% PrI, 0-92; 5 studies; 70,683 participants) or in kidney or pancreas/kidney transplant recipients (23 per 10,000 person-weeks; 95% CI, 18-30; 95% PrI, 2-67; 29 studies; 120,281 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, the incidence of death in people with CKD and COVID-19 was 32 per 1,000 person-weeks (95% CI, 30-35; 95% PrI, 4-81; 229 studies; 70,922 participants), which may be higher than in people with CKD without COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 10.26; 95% CI, 6.78-15.53; 95% PrI, 2.62-40.15; 4 studies; 18,347 participants). LIMITATIONS: Analyses were generally based on low-certainty evidence. Few studies reported outcomes in people with CKD without COVID-19 to calculate the excess risk attributable to COVID-19, and potential confounders were not adjusted for in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of COVID-19 may be higher in people receiving maintenance dialysis than in those with CKD not requiring kidney replacement therapy or those who are kidney or pancreas/kidney transplant recipients. People with CKD and COVID-19 may have a higher incidence of death than people with CKD without COVID-19.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049130, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess values, preferences and burden of treatment that patients with type 2 diabetes consider when initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) compared with other glucose-lowering options. METHODS: Paired reviewers independently included studies reporting quantitative or qualitative methods to assess values, preferences and burden of treatment reported by patients with type 2 diabetes regarding the initiation of GLP-1 RA or SGLT-2i over other alternatives. A systematic search in MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception until May 2020 was performed by an experienced librarian. Risk of bias was assessed with a specifically designed tool for values and preferences studies. RESULTS: 17 studies (7296 patients) proved eligible. Studies fulfilling criteria for SGLT-2i were not identified. Five studies (2662 patients) evaluated preferences for GLP-1 RA compared with other glucose-lowering medications. 12 studies (4634 patients) evaluated preferences between, at least, two kinds of GLP-1 RA or their injection devices based on the following attributes: efficacy, dose, application frequency, device characteristics. Among studies comparing GLP-1 RA to other glucose-lowering medications, some preferences were observed for dypeptil peptidase-4 inhibitors compared with once daily liraglutide. Comparing different attributes of GLP-1 RA drugs and devices, cardiovascular risk reduction, glucose lowering potential, once weekly and simple administered regimens were the most preferred. CONCLUSIONS: As no evidence for preferences on SGLT-2i was available, only preferences for GLP-1 RA were assessed; however, evidence is still limited for the latter. Studies comparing preferences for GLP1-RA to other glucose-lowering alternatives only included twice daily or once daily injection regimens of GLP-1 RA drugs. According to our findings, once weekly alternatives are widely preferred than the formers. The extent to which patients with type 2 diabetes value reduced adverse cardiovascular and kidney outcomes, weighed benefits against harms and burden of treatment is limited and with very low certainty. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020159284.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1447, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To summarise the evidentiary basis related to causes of inequities in chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Peoples. METHODS: We conducted a Kaupapa Maori meta-synthesis evaluating the epidemiology of chronic kidney diseases in Indigenous Peoples. Systematic searching of MEDLINE, Google Scholar, OVID Nursing, CENTRAL and Embase was conducted to 31 December 2019. Eligible studies were quantitative analyses (case series, case-control, cross-sectional or cohort study) including the following Indigenous Peoples: Maori, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, Métis, First Nations Peoples of Canada, First Nations Peoples of the United States of America, Native Hawaiian and Indigenous Peoples of Taiwan. In the first cycle of coding, a descriptive synthesis of the study research aims, methods and outcomes was used to categorise findings inductively based on similarity in meaning using the David R Williams framework headings and subheadings. In the second cycle of analysis, the numbers of studies contributing to each category were summarised by frequency analysis. Completeness of reporting related to health research involving Indigenous Peoples was evaluated using the CONSIDER checklist. RESULTS: Four thousand three hundred seventy-two unique study reports were screened and 180 studies proved eligible. The key finding was that epidemiological investigators most frequently reported biological processes of chronic kidney disease, particularly type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as the principal causes of inequities in the burden of chronic kidney disease for colonised Indigenous Peoples. Social and basic causes of unequal health including the influences of economic, political and legal structures on chronic kidney disease burden were infrequently reported or absent in existing literature. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review with meta-synthesis, a Kaupapa Maori methodology and the David R Williams framework was used to evaluate reported causes of health differences in chronic kidney disease in Indigenous Peoples. Current epidemiological practice is focussed on biological processes and surface causes of inequity, with limited reporting of the basic and social causes of disparities such as racism, economic and political/legal structures and socioeconomic status as sources of inequities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Hawaii , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Taiwan
6.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risks of mortality in people with chronic kidney disease. The benefits and harm of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality are unknown. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of calcifediol in reducing mortality in patients with vitamin D insufficiency on hemodialysis compared to no additional therapy. METHODS: A phase III, multicenter, randomized, open-label trial was conducted including 284 adults with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who were randomly assigned to receive oral calcifediol or standard care for 24 months. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-four participants were enrolled (143 assigned to the calcifediol group and 141 to the no additional therapy group). The primary outcome (mortality) occurred in 34 and 31 participants in the calcifediol and control group, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.67]. Calcifediol had no detectable effects on cardiovascular death (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.41-2.74), non-cardiovascular death (HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.62-2.04), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.67) or nonfatal stroke (HR could not be estimated). The incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia was similar between groups. None of the participants underwent parathyroidectomy. CONCLUSIONS: In adults treated with hemodialysis and who had vitamin D insufficiency, calcifediol supplementation for 24 months had inconclusive effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01457001.

7.
Cell Metab ; 33(5): 1042-1061.e7, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951465

RESUMO

Tubulointerstitial abnormalities are predictive of the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and their targeting may be an effective means for prevention. Proximal tubular (PT) expression of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, as well as blood and urinary levels, are increased early in human diabetes and can predict the rate of disease progression. Here, we report that KIM-1 mediates PT uptake of palmitic acid (PA)-bound albumin, leading to enhanced tubule injury with DNA damage, PT cell-cycle arrest, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and secondary glomerulosclerosis. Such injury can be ameliorated by genetic ablation of the KIM-1 mucin domain in a high-fat-fed streptozotocin mouse model of DKD. We also identified TW-37 as a small molecule inhibitor of KIM-1-mediated PA-albumin uptake and showed in vivo in a kidney injury model in mice that it ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis. Together, our findings support KIM-1 as a new therapeutic target for DKD.

8.
BMJ ; 373: n1091, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975892

RESUMO

CLINICAL QUESTION: What are the benefits and harms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists when added to usual care (lifestyle interventions and/or other diabetes drugs) in adults with type 2 diabetes at different risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes? CURRENT PRACTICE: Clinical decisions about treatment of type 2 diabetes have been led by glycaemic control for decades. SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are traditionally used in people with elevated glucose level after metformin treatment. This has changed through trials demonstrating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) benefits independent of medications' glucose-lowering potential. RECOMMENDATIONS: The guideline panel issued risk-stratified recommendations concerning the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists in adults with type 2 diabetes• Three or fewer cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation against starting SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists.• More than three cardiovascular risk factors without established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak against starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD or CKD: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists.• Established CVD and CKD: Strong recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors and weak recommendation for starting GLP-1 receptor agonists.• For those committed to further reducing their risk for CVD and CKD outcomes: Weak recommendation for starting SGLT-2 inhibitors rather than GLP-1 receptor agonists. HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED: An international panel including patients, clinicians, and methodologists created these recommendations following standards for trustworthy guidelines and using the GRADE approach. The panel applied an individual patient perspective. THE EVIDENCE: A linked systematic review and network meta-analysis (764 randomised trials included 421 346 participants) of benefits and harms found that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists generally reduce overall death, and incidence of myocardial infarctions, and end-stage kidney disease or kidney failure (moderate to high certainty evidence). These medications exert different effects on stroke, hospitalisations for heart failure, and key adverse events in different subgroups. Absolute effects of benefit varied widely based on patients' individual risk (for example, from five fewer deaths in the lowest risk to 48 fewer deaths in the highest risk, for 1000 patients treated over five years). A prognosis review identified 14 eligible risk prediction models, one of which (RECODe) informed most baseline risk estimates in evidence summaries to underpin the risk-stratified recommendations. Concerning patients' values and preferences, the recommendations were supported by evidence from a systematic review of published literature, a patient focus group study, a practical issues summary, and a guideline panel survey. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION: We stratified the recommendations by the levels of risk for CVD and CKD and systematically considered the balance of benefits, harms, other considerations, and practical issues for each risk group. The strong recommendation for SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with CVD and CKD reflects what the panel considered to be a clear benefit. For all other adults with type 2 diabetes, the weak recommendations reflect what the panel considered to be a finer balance between benefits, harms, and burdens of treatment options. Clinicians using the guideline can identify their patient's individual risk for cardiovascular and kidney outcomes using credible risk calculators such as RECODe. Interactive evidence summaries and decision aids may support well informed treatment choices, including shared decision making.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/uso terapêutico , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Humanos , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco
9.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines of dietary management are designed to promote a balanced diet and maintain health in patients undergoing haemodialysis but they may not reflect patients' preferences. We aimed to investigate the consistency between the dietary intake of patients on maintenance haemodialysis and guideline recommendations. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the DIET-HD study, which included 6,906 adults undergoing haemodialysis in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was determined using the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), and compared with the European Best Practice Guidelines. Consistency with guidelines was defined as achieving the minimum daily recommended intake for energy (≥ 30 kcal/kg) and protein (≥ 1.1 g/kg), and not exceeding the maximum recommended daily intake for phosphate (≤ 1000 mg), potassium (≤ 2730 mg), sodium (≤ 2300 mg) and calcium (≤ 800 mg). RESULTS: Overall, patients' dietary intakes of phosphate and potassium were infrequently consistent with guidelines (consistent in 25% and 25% of patients, respectively). Almost half of the patients reported that energy (45%) and calcium intake (53%) was consistent with the guidelines, while the recommended intake of sodium and protein was consistent in 85% and 67% of patients, respectively. Results were similar across all participating countries. Intake was consistent with all six guideline recommendations in only 1% of patients. CONCLUSION: Patients on maintenance haemodialysis usually have a dietary intake which is inconsistent with current recommendations, especially for phosphate and potassium.

10.
BMJ ; 372: m4573, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes at varying cardiovascular and renal risk. DESIGN: Network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to 11 August 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists with placebo, standard care, or other glucose lowering treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes with follow up of 24 weeks or longer. Studies were screened independently by two reviewers for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequentist random effects network meta-analysis was carried out and GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) used to assess evidence certainty. Results included estimated absolute effects of treatment per 1000 patients treated for five years for patients at very low risk (no cardiovascular risk factors), low risk (three or more cardiovascular risk factors), moderate risk (cardiovascular disease), high risk (chronic kidney disease), and very high risk (cardiovascular disease and kidney disease). A guideline panel provided oversight of the systematic review. RESULTS: 764 trials including 421 346 patients proved eligible. All results refer to the addition of SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists to existing diabetes treatment. Both classes of drugs lowered all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and kidney failure (high certainty evidence). Notable differences were found between the two agents: SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced mortality and admission to hospital for heart failure more than GLP-1 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced non-fatal stroke more than SGLT-2 inhibitors (which appeared to have no effect). SGLT-2 inhibitors caused genital infection (high certainty), whereas GLP-1 receptor agonists might cause severe gastrointestinal events (low certainty). Low certainty evidence suggested that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists might lower body weight. Little or no evidence was found for the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists on limb amputation, blindness, eye disease, neuropathic pain, or health related quality of life. The absolute benefits of these drugs vary substantially across patients from low to very high risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes (eg, SGLT-2 inhibitors resulted in 5 to 48 fewer deaths in 1000 patients over five years; see interactive decision support tool (https://magicevidence.org/match-it/200820dist/#!/) for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced cardiovascular and renal outcomes, with notable differences in benefits and harms. Absolute benefits are determined by individual risk profiles of patients, with clear implications for clinical practice, as reflected in the BMJ Rapid Recommendations directly informed by this systematic review. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019153180.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
11.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(1): 162-171, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation is a medically supervised program after coronary events that involves exercise and dietary modification. We evaluated the comparative benefits and harms of cardiac rehabilitation strategies via a network meta-analysis. METHODS: We followed a pre-specified protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42018094998). We searched Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Trials databases for randomized controlled trials that evaluated cardiac rehabilitation vs a second form of rehabilitation or standard/usual care in adults after myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, or angiography. Risk of bias and evidence quality was evaluated using the Cochrane tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), respectively. Pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed for 11 clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We included 134 randomized controlled trials involving 62,322 participants. Compared with standard care, exercise-only cardiac rehabilitation reduced the odds of cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.51-0.96; moderate-quality evidence), major adverse cardiovascular events (OR, 0.57; 95% CrI, 0.40-0.78; low-quality evidence), nonfatal myocardial infarction (OR, 0.71; 95% CrI, 0.54-0.93; moderate-quality evidence), all-cause hospitalization (OR, 0.74; 95% CrI, 0.54-0.98; moderate-quality evidence), and cardiovascular hospitalization (OR, 0.69; 95% CrI, 0.51-0.88; moderate-quality evidence). Exercise-only cardiac rehabilitation was associated with lower cardiovascular hospitalization risk relative to cardiac rehabilitation without exercise (OR, 0.68; 95% CrI, 0.48-0.97; moderate-quality evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac rehabilitation programs containing exercise might provide broader cardiovascular benefits compared with those without exercise.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Cardiopatias/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício , Hospitalização , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD007004, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, resolution of proteinuria may be incomplete with these therapies and the addition of an aldosterone antagonist may be added to further prevent progression of CKD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009 and updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of aldosterone antagonists (selective (eplerenone), non-selective (spironolactone or canrenone), or non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists (finerenone)) in adults who have CKD with proteinuria (nephrotic and non-nephrotic range) on: patient-centred endpoints including kidney failure (previously know as end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)), major cardiovascular events, and death (any cause); kidney function (proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and doubling of serum creatinine); blood pressure; and adverse events (including hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury, and gynaecomastia). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 13 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared aldosterone antagonists in combination with ACEi or ARB (or both) to other anti-hypertensive strategies or placebo in participants with proteinuric CKD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Data were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. We expressed summary treatment estimates as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, or standardised mean difference (SMD) when different scales were used together with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane tool. Evidence certainty was evaluated using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four studies (5745 participants) were included. Risk of bias in the evaluated methodological domains were unclear or high risk in most studies. Adequate random sequence generation was present in 12 studies, allocation concealment in five studies, blinding of participant and investigators in 18 studies, blinding of outcome assessment in 15 studies, and complete outcome reporting in 24 studies. All studies comparing aldosterone antagonists to placebo or standard care were used in addition to an ACEi or ARB (or both). None of the studies were powered to detect differences in patient-level outcomes including kidney failure, major cardiovascular events or death. Aldosterone antagonists had uncertain effects on kidney failure (2 studies, 84 participants: RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.33 to 27.65, I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence), death (3 studies, 421 participants: RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.50, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), and cardiovascular events (3 studies, 1067 participants: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.56; I² = 42%; low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce protein excretion (14 studies, 1193 participants: SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.20, I² = 82%; very low certainty evidence), eGFR (13 studies, 1165 participants, MD -3.00 mL/min/1.73 m², 95% CI -5.51 to -0.49, I² = 0%, low certainty evidence) and systolic blood pressure (14 studies, 911 participants: MD -4.98 mmHg, 95% CI -8.22 to -1.75, I² = 87%; very low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists probably increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (17 studies, 3001 participants: RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.22, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), acute kidney injury (5 studies, 1446 participants: RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.97, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and gynaecomastia (4 studies, 281 participants: RR 5.14, 95% CI 1.14 to 23.23, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Non-selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB had uncertain effects on protein excretion (2 studies, 139 participants: SMD -1.59, 95% CI -3.80 to 0.62, I² = 93%; very low certainty evidence) but may increase serum potassium (2 studies, 121 participants: MD 0.31 mEq/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.45, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared to diuretics plus ACEi or ARB. Selective aldosterone antagonists may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (2 studies, 500 participants: RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.95, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared ACEi or ARB (or both). There were insufficient studies to perform meta-analyses for the comparison between non-selective aldosterone antagonists and calcium channel blockers, selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB (or both) and nitrate plus ACEi or ARB (or both), and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists and selective aldosterone antagonists. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of aldosterone antagonists when added to ACEi or ARB (or both) on the risks of death, major cardiovascular events, and kidney failure in people with proteinuric CKD are uncertain. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce proteinuria, eGFR, and systolic blood pressure in adults who have mild to moderate CKD but may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and gynaecomastia when added to ACEi and/or ARB.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Canrenona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
13.
Perit Dial Int ; 40(6): 540-547, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can offer more flexibility and independence compared with hemodialysis, yet uptake of PD remains low. Barriers to PD include the fear of dialyzing without medical assistance and uncertainty about recognizing and managing complications. There is increasing use of remote monitoring in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), but little is known about its acceptability by patients and caregivers. We aimed to describe patients' and caregivers' expectations and experiences of remote monitoring for APD. METHODS: Qualitative study design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews of patients who either receiving PD or were considered eligible for PD, and their caregivers. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 34 participants, 27 were patients and the remainder caregivers. Four themes (with subthemes) were identified reducing patient burden (seeking reassurance and shared responsibility, convenience and accuracy); strengthening partnerships in care (empowering knowledge and understanding, increased accountability to dialysis team); improving access to treatment (saving time and money, providing timely care and avoiding hospital); and preserving quality patient-provider interactions (enhancing face-to-face contact, clarifying expectations of access and use of data). CONCLUSIONS: Remote monitoring may increase patient knowledge about their kidney disease and its treatment, encourage accountability to the clinical team, enhance partnerships with clinicians, and improve access to treatment and timely care. It is also important to ensure that remote monitoring does not replace face-to-face clinical contact with clinicians.

14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(8): 1129-1138, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Elevated BP is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of over 80% in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. We assessed the comparative BP-lowering efficacy and the safety of BP-lowering drugs in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. DESIGN, SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We performed a frequentist random effects network meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials evaluating BP-lowering agents in adult patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. Electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase) were systematically searched (up to August 2018) for relevant trials. The main outcome was systolic BP reduction. RESULTS: Forty trials (4283 participants) met our inclusion criteria. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and aldosterone antagonists lowered systolic BP to a greater extent than placebo, with effect sizes ranging from -10.8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -14.8 to -6.7 mm Hg) for the aldosterone antagonists to -4.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -7.2 to -1.5 mm Hg) for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Aldosterone antagonists and ß-blockers were superior to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium-channel blockers, and renin inhibitors at lowering systolic BP. Compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and ß-blockers lowered systolic BP by 6.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -11.4 to -1.4 mm Hg) and 4.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -7.4 to -1.3 mm Hg), respectively. Systolic BP reduction was not different with angiotensin receptor blockers, α-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Renin inhibitors were less effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists incurred risks of drug discontinuation due to adverse events and hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: BP-lowering agents significantly reduced systolic BP in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. ß-Blockers and aldosterone antagonists may confer larger reductions, although treatment with aldosterone antagonists may be limited by adverse events.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 382(26): 2504-2513, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated serum urate levels are associated with progression of chronic kidney disease. Whether urate-lowering treatment with allopurinol can attenuate the decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease who are at risk for progression is not known. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned adults with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease and no history of gout who had a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio of 265 or higher (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine in grams) or an eGFR decrease of at least 3.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area in the preceding year to receive allopurinol (100 to 300 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was the change in eGFR from randomization to week 104, calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. RESULTS: Enrollment was stopped because of slow recruitment after 369 of 620 intended patients were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol (185 patients) or placebo (184 patients). Three patients per group withdrew immediately after randomization. The remaining 363 patients (mean eGFR, 31.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m2; median urine albumin:creatinine ratio, 716.9; mean serum urate level, 8.2 mg per deciliter) were included in the assessment of the primary outcome. The change in eGFR did not differ significantly between the allopurinol group and the placebo group (-3.33 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 per year [95% confidence interval {CI}, -4.11 to -2.55] and -3.23 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 per year [95% CI, -3.98 to -2.47], respectively; mean difference, -0.10 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 per year [95% CI, -1.18 to 0.97]; P = 0.85). Serious adverse events were reported in 84 of 182 patients (46%) in the allopurinol group and in 79 of 181 patients (44%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic kidney disease and a high risk of progression, urate-lowering treatment with allopurinol did not slow the decline in eGFR as compared with placebo. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and the Health Research Council of New Zealand; CKD-FIX Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12611000791932.).


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Supressores da Gota/uso terapêutico , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Supressores da Gota/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Falha de Tratamento
16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3): 321-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475604

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Comparative benefits and harms of calcimimetic agents used for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism have not been well characterized. We sought to compare the effectiveness of 3 calcimimetic agents using published data. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials and network meta-analysis. SETTING & STUDY POPULATION: Adults with chronic kidney disease enrolled in a clinical trial of a calcimetic agent. SEARCH STRATEGY & SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL (from February 7, 2013, to November 21, 2019), and a published meta-analysis. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted the study data, assessed risk of bias, and rated evidence certainty using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted. The primary review outcomes were achievement of a target reduction in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and hypocalcemia. Additional outcomes were nausea, vomiting, serious adverse events, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, heart failure, and fracture. RESULTS: 36 trials (11,247 participants) were included. All except 4 trials involved dialysis patients. Median follow-up was 26 weeks (range, 1 week to 21.2 months). Compared with placebo, calcimimetic agents had higher odds of achieving target PTH levels with high or moderate certainty. Etelcalcetide had the highest odds of achieving a PTH target compared with evocalcet (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 1.33-18.2) and cinacalcet (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.19-6.67). Etelcalcetide appeared to cause more hypocalcemia than cinacalcet and evocalcet. Cinacalcet and to a lesser extent etelcalcetide appeared to cause more nausea than placebo. Differences in risk for mortality, cardiovascular end points, or fractures across calcimimetic agents could not be discerned with sufficient certainty. LIMITATIONS: Lack of longer-term data; heterogeneous end point definitions. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the benefits of calcimimetic therapy is limited to short-term assessment of a putative surrogate outcome (serum PTH). Although etelcalcetide was associated with the largest reduction in PTH levels, side-effect profiles differed across the 3 calcimimetic agents, making it not possible to identify 1 preferred agent.


Assuntos
Calcimiméticos/uso terapêutico , Cinacalcete/uso terapêutico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Calcimiméticos/efeitos adversos , Cálcio/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cinacalcete/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/etiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013165, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperkalaemia is a common electrolyte abnormality caused by reduced renal potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Potassium binders, such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate and calcium polystyrene sulfonate, are widely used but may lead to constipation and other adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, reducing their tolerability. Patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate are newer ion exchange resins for treatment of hyperkalaemia which may cause fewer GI side-effects. Although more recent studies are focusing on clinically-relevant endpoints such as cardiac complications or death, the evidence on safety is still limited. Given the recent expansion in the available treatment options, it is appropriate to review the evidence of effectiveness and tolerability of all potassium exchange resins among people with CKD, with the aim to provide guidance to consumers, practitioners, and policy-makers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of potassium binders for treating chronic hyperkalaemia among adults and children with CKD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 10 March 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled studies (quasi-RCTs) evaluating potassium binders for chronic hyperkalaemia administered in adults and children with CKD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed risks of bias and extracted data. Treatment estimates were summarised by random effects meta-analysis and expressed as relative risk (RR) or mean difference (MD), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Evidence certainty was assessed using GRADE processes. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen studies, randomising 1849 adult participants were eligible for inclusion. Twelve studies involved participants with CKD (stages 1 to 5) not requiring dialysis and three studies were among participants treated with haemodialysis. Potassium binders included calcium polystyrene sulfonate, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, patiromer, and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate. A range of routes, doses, and timing of drug administration were used. Study duration varied from 12 hours to 52 weeks (median 4 weeks). Three were cross-over studies. The mean study age ranged from 53.1 years to 73 years. No studies evaluated treatment in children. Some studies had methodological domains that were at high or unclear risks of bias, leading to low certainty in the results. Studies were not designed to measure treatment effects on cardiac arrhythmias or major GI symptoms. Ten studies (1367 randomised participants) compared a potassium binder to placebo. The certainty of the evidence was low for all outcomes. We categorised treatments in newer agents (patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) and older agents (calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sodium polystyrene sulfonate). Patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate may make little or no difference to death (any cause) (4 studies, 688 participants: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.11, 4.32; I2 = 0%; low certainty evidence) in CKD. The treatment effect of older potassium binders on death (any cause) was unknown. One cardiovascular death was reported with potassium binder in one study, showing that there was no difference between patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate and placebo for cardiovascular death in CKD and HD. There was no evidence of a difference between patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate and placebo for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at the end of treatment (one study) in CKD or HD. Potassium binders had uncertain effects on nausea (3 studies, 229 participants: RR 2.10, 95% CI 0.65, 6.78; I2 = 0%; low certainty evidence), diarrhoea (5 studies, 720 participants: RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.47, 1.48; I2 = 0%; low certainty evidence), and vomiting (2 studies, 122 participants: RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.35 to 8.51; I2 = 0%; low certainty evidence) in CKD. Potassium binders may lower serum potassium levels (at the end of treatment) (3 studies, 277 participants: MD -0.62 mEq/L, 95% CI -0.97, -0.27; I2 = 92%; low certainty evidence) in CKD and HD. Potassium binders had uncertain effects on constipation (4 studies, 425 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 0.71, 3.52; I2 = 0%; low certainty evidence) in CKD. Potassium binders may decrease systolic blood pressure (BP) (2 studies, 369 participants: MD -3.73 mmHg, 95%CI -6.64 to -0.83; I2 = 79%; low certainty evidence) and diastolic BP (one study) at the end of the treatment. No study reported outcome data for cardiac arrhythmias or major GI events. Calcium polystyrene sulfonate may make little or no difference to serum potassium levels at end of treatment, compared to sodium polystyrene sulfonate (2 studies, 117 participants: MD 0.38 mEq/L, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.79; I2 = 42%, low certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in systolic BP (one study), diastolic BP (one study), or constipation (one study) between calcium polystyrene sulfonate and sodium polystyrene sulfonate. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose patiromer for death (sudden death) (one study), stroke (one study), myocardial infarction (one study), or constipation (one study). The comparative effects whether potassium binders were administered with or without food, laxatives, or sorbitol, were very uncertain with insufficient data to perform meta-analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence supporting clinical decision-making for different potassium binders to treat chronic hyperkalaemia in adults with CKD is of low certainty; no studies were identified in children. Available studies have not been designed to measure treatment effects on clinical outcomes such as cardiac arrhythmias or major GI symptoms. This review suggests the need for a large, adequately powered study of potassium binders versus placebo that assesses clinical outcomes of relevance to patients, clinicians and policy-makers. This data could be used to assess cost-effectiveness, given the lack of definitive studies and the clinical importance of potassium binders for chronic hyperkalaemia in people with CKD.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia por Quelação/métodos , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Quelantes/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Quelação/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polímeros/efeitos adversos , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Poliestirenos/efeitos adversos , Poliestirenos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Silicatos/efeitos adversos , Silicatos/uso terapêutico
19.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(3): 330-340, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The dietary self-management of CKD is challenging. Telehealth interventions may provide an effective delivery method to facilitate sustained dietary change. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This pilot, randomized, controlled trial evaluated secondary and exploratory outcomes after a dietitian-led telehealth coaching intervention to improve diet quality in people with stage 3-4 CKD. The intervention group received phone calls every 2 weeks for 3 months (with concurrent, tailored text messages for 3 months), followed by 3 months of tailored text messages without telephone coaching, to encourage a diet consistent with CKD guidelines. The control group received usual care for 3 months, followed by nontailored, educational text messages for 3 months. RESULTS: Eighty participants (64% male), aged 62±12 years, were randomized to the intervention or control group. Telehealth coaching was safe, with no adverse events or changes to serum biochemistry at any time point. At 3 months, the telehealth intervention, compared with the control, had no detectable effect on overall diet quality on the Alternative Health Eating Index (3.2 points, 95% confidence interval, -1.3 to 7.7), nor at 6 months (0.5 points, 95% confidence interval, -4.6 to 5.5). There was no change in clinic BP at any time point in any group. There were significant improvements in several exploratory diet and clinical outcomes, including core food group consumption, vegetable servings, fiber intake, and body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth coaching was safe, but appeared to have no effect on the Alternative Healthy Eating Index or clinic BP. There were clinically significant changes in several exploratory diet and clinical outcomes, which require further investigation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Evaluation of Individualized Telehealth Intensive Coaching to Promote Healthy Eating and Lifestyle in CKD (ENTICE-CKD), ACTRN12616001212448.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Tutoria , Estado Nutricional , Nutricionistas , Valor Nutritivo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Telemedicina , Idoso , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Queensland , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Autocuidado , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD003965, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerulonephritis world-wide. IgA nephropathy causes end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in 15% to 20% of affected patients within 10 years and in 30% to 40% of patients within 20 years from the onset of disease. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003 and updated in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of immunosuppression strategies for the treatment of IgA nephropathy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 9 September 2019 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of treatment for IgA nephropathy in adults and children and that compared immunosuppressive agents with placebo, no treatment, or other immunosuppressive or non-immunosuppressive agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study risk of bias and extracted data. Estimates of treatment effect were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Treatment effects were expressed as relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous outcomes. Risks of bias were assessed using the Cochrane tool. Evidence certainty was evaluated using GRADE methodology. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-eight studies involving 3933 randomised participants were included. Six studies involving children were eligible. Disease characteristics (kidney function and level of proteinuria) were heterogeneous across studies. Studies evaluating steroid therapy generally included patients with protein excretion of 1 g/day or more. Risk of bias within the included studies was generally high or unclear for many of the assessed methodological domains. In patients with IgA nephropathy and proteinuria > 1 g/day, steroid therapy given for generally two to four months with a tapering course probably prevents the progression to ESKD compared to placebo or standard care (8 studies; 741 participants: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.65; moderate certainty evidence). Steroid therapy may induce complete remission (4 studies, 305 participants: RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.01; low certainty evidence), prevent doubling of serum creatinine (SCr) (7 studies, 404 participants: RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.65; low certainty evidence), and may lower urinary protein excretion (10 studies, 705 participants: MD -0.58 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.33;low certainty evidence). Steroid therapy had uncertain effects on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), death, infection and malignancy. The risk of adverse events with steroid therapy was uncertain due to heterogeneity in the type of steroid treatment used and the rarity of events. Cytotoxic agents (azathioprine (AZA) or cyclophosphamide (CPA) alone or with concomitant steroid therapy had uncertain effects on ESKD (7 studies, 463 participants: RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.20; low certainty evidence), complete remission (5 studies; 381 participants: RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.30; very low certainty evidence), GFR (any measure), and protein excretion. Doubling of serum creatinine was not reported. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) had uncertain effects on the progression to ESKD, complete remission, doubling of SCr, GFR, protein excretion, infection, and malignancy. Death was not reported. Calcineurin inhibitors compared with placebo or standard care had uncertain effects on complete remission, SCr, GFR, protein excretion, infection, and malignancy. ESKD and death were not reported. Mizoribine administered with renin-angiotensin system inhibitor treatment had uncertain effects on progression to ESKD, complete remission, GFR, protein excretion, infection, and malignancy. Death and SCr were not reported. Leflunomide followed by a tapering course with oral prednisone compared to prednisone had uncertain effects on the progression to ESKD, complete remission, doubling of SCr, GFR, protein excretion, and infection. Death and malignancy were not reported. Effects of other immunosuppressive regimens (including steroid plus non-immunosuppressive agents or mTOR inhibitors) were inconclusive primarily due to insufficient data from the individual studies in low or very low certainty evidence. The effects of treatments on death, malignancy, reduction in GFR at least of 25% and adverse events were very uncertain. Subgroup analyses to determine the impact of specific patient characteristics such as ethnicity or disease severity on treatment effectiveness were not possible. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In moderate certainty evidence, corticosteroid therapy probably prevents decline in GFR or doubling of SCr in adults and children with IgA nephropathy and proteinuria. Evidence for treatment effects of immunosuppressive agents on death, infection, and malignancy is generally sparse or low-quality. Steroid therapy has uncertain adverse effects due to a paucity of studies. Available studies are few, small, have high risk of bias and generally do not systematically identify treatment-related harms. Subgroup analyses to identify specific patient characteristics that might predict better response to therapy were not possible due to a lack of studies. There is no evidence that other immunosuppressive agents including CPA, AZA, or MMF improve clinical outcomes in IgA nephropathy.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Creatinina/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Leflunomida/efeitos adversos , Leflunomida/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Ribonucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Risco , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/efeitos adversos
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