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1.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(10): E282-E288, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for the treatment of symptomatic aortic stenosis. The EuroScore (ES) II, logistic EuroScore (log ES), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score are the most applied scores for surgical risk stratification. However, their predictive value for patients undergoing TAVI is still unclear. AIM: To evaluate the performance of STS, log ES and ES II as predictors of short-term and long-term mortality in patients undergoing TAVI. METHODS: Between February 2008 and October 2017, a total of 384 patients underwent transfemoral TAVI at our institution and constituted the study population. Patients were divided into three groups based on the class of risk (low, intermediate, and high) calculated by each score. In-hospital complications, 30-day outcomes, and 5-year outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality rate was 2.6% (n = 10). All scores over-estimated the risk of 30-day mortality, especially for the highest risk classes. At the end of follow-up (5 years), STS risk stratification was able to stratify all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality (P<.01 and P=.02, respectively). Patients with intermediate ES II risk showed a lower survival rate (P=.04) while CV deaths did not differ between classes of risk. All-cause mortality and CV mortality curves did not diverge according to the patients' risk profiles derived from log ES. CONCLUSION: Conventional surgical risk scores are not appropriate to predict 30-day mortality in patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI. STS assessment was the only risk score able to stratify long-term all-cause and CV mortality.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart team-guided incomplete coronary revascularization in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). BACKGROUND: Revascularization strategy of CAD diagnosed with routine coronary angiography before TAVI is uncertain. METHODS: Five hundred and forty consecutive TAVI patients were classified as having CAD or normal coronary arteries (no-CAD). Within the CAD group, patients were further classified as those with complete (CR) versus incomplete revascularization (IR). Revascularization strategy was guided by the Heart Team following an algorithm largely based on current guidelines. Main outcome of interest was the incidence of 5-year cardiovascular (CV) death. RESULTS: Prevalence of CAD was 53.9%. CAD patients showed significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 55.8 ± 13.4% CAD vs. 61.4% ± 12.1 no-CAD, p < .0001), lower gradients, and larger ventricular volumes in comparison with the no-CAD group. Within the CAD group, 138 patients (47.4%) received CR and 153 (52.6%) IR. In-hospital mortality was 3.9%, without significant difference between groups (4.0% no-CAD vs. 3.8% CAD, p = .88; 2.9% CR vs. 4.6% IR, p = .45). Median follow-up was 57.8 months. Five-year survival free from CV death was 79.6% in the CAD versus 77.9% in the no-CAD group (p = .98), and 84.3% in the CR versus 74.3% in the IR groups (p = .25). These results were confirmed excluding patients with previous revascularization. At multivariable analyses, presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was significantly associated with 5-year CV death. CONCLUSIONS: CAD is frequent in patients undergoing TAVI but portends an adverse prognosis only when presenting with ACS. Heart-team directed complete or reasonably incomplete revascularization was associated with comparable outcomes.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(3): e007541, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether the risks and benefits of prolonging dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year after drug-eluting stent implantation depend on clinical presentation in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials comparing ≤1- versus >1-year DAPT after drug-eluting stent placement were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and proceedings of international meetings. The primary efficacy end point was myocardial infarction, whereas the primary safety end point was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit was defined as the composite of myocardial infarction or major bleeding. Outcomes were analyzed according to patient presentation with stable ischemic heart disease versus acute coronary syndromes. The meta-analysis included 6 trials with a total of 21 457 patients, including 14 132 with stable ischemic heart disease and 7325 with acute coronary syndrome. After a median follow-up of 19.5 months, ≤1-year DAPT was associated with higher rates of myocardial infarction compared with >1-year DAPT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.37-1.95), with no interaction apparent between treatment effect and clinical presentation. Shorter DAPT was associated with reduced rates of major bleeding compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.99) with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation. However, a net clinical benefit of >1-year DAPT was present in patients with acute coronary syndrome (HR of shorter versus longer DAPT, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.24-2.02) but not in those with stable ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.89-1.51; Pinteraction=0.04). Shorter DAPT was also associated with lower rates of noncardiac mortality compared with longer DAPT (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.96), with no significant interaction between treatment effect and clinical presentation ( Pinteraction=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ≤1-year DAPT, >1-year DAPT reduces the risk of myocardial infarction but increases the risk of major bleeding and noncardiac mortality. A net clinical benefit of extended DAPT was apparent for patients with acute coronary syndrome but not for those with stable ischemic heart disease.

4.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(1): 149-162, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) is intended to reduce ischaemic events, at the cost of an increased bleeding risk in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we evaluated whether race influences the ischaemia/bleeding risk trade-off. METHODS: We searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing DAPT duration after PCI. To compare the benefit or harm between DAPT duration by race, individual patient-level landmark meta-analysis was performed after discontinuation of the shorter duration DAPT group in each RCT. The primary ischaemic endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and the primary bleeding endpoint was major bleeding events (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03338335). RESULTS: Seven RCTs including 16,518 patients (8,605 East Asians, 7,913 non-East Asians) were pooled. MACE occurred more frequently in non-East Asians (0.8% vs. 1.8%, p < 0.001), while major bleeding events occurred more frequently in East Asians (0.6% vs. 0.3%, p = 0.001). In Cox proportional hazards model, prolonged DAPT significantly increased the risk of major bleeding in East Asians (hazard ratio [HR], 2.843, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.474-5.152, p = 0.002), but not in non-East Asians (HR, 1.375, 95% CI, 0.523-3.616, p = 0.523). East Asians had a higher median probability risk ratio of bleeding to ischaemia (0.66 vs. 0.15), and the proportion of patients with higher probability of bleeding than ischaemia was significantly higher in East Asians (32.3% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We suggest that the ischaemia/bleeding trade-off may be different between East Asians and non-East Asians. In East Asians, prolonged DAPT may have no effect in reducing the ischaemic risk, while significantly increases the bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/etnologia , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia/etnologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Plaquetas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Stents Farmacológicos , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Probabilidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 268: 61-67, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is mainly based on demographics and clinical presentation (stable coronary artery disease [CAD] vs. acute coronary syndromes [ACS]). We investigated the impact of PCI extent and complexity on 2-year clinical outcomes after successful implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) and whether this effect is influenced by clinical presentation and/or high platelet reactivity (HPR) on clopidogrel. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients from the prospective, multicenter Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents study were stratified according to PCI complexity, with complex PCI (C-PCI) defined as ≥3 stents implanted, bifurcation PCI with 2 stents, rotational atherectomy use for severely calcified lesions, or left main or saphenous vein graft (SVG) PCI. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis) were compared at 2-year follow-up in patients with and without C-PCI. Successful DES PCI was performed in 8582 patients-2255 (26.3%) with C-PCI. C-PCI was independently associated with higher 2-year risk of MACE (adjusted HR [adjHR]: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.29-1.89; p<0.0001), MI (adjHR: 1.71; 95%CI: 1.37-2.14; p<0.0001), and ST (adjHR: 2.26; 95%CI: 1.42-3.59; p=0.0006). The association between C-PCI vs. non-C-PCI and the risk of MI and ST was greater in stable CAD than in ACS (Pinteraction=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). SVG PCI, 2-stent bifurcation treatment, and implantation of ≥3 stents were independently associated with MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing extensive and more complex PCI experienced worse outcomes after successful PCI. Considering the extent and complexity of PCI revascularization may improve risk stratification.

7.
Platelets ; 29(5): 528-530, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617211

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation measured by high-sensitivity C reactive protein (CPR) is associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Recent clinical trials targeting CPR showed a reduction in MACE after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Inflammation could be linked to high platelet reactivity (HPR), which is an independent predictor of MACE in patients with ACS. We aimed to evaluate the impact of 1-month C-reactive Protein (CRP) levels on HPR in patients enrolled in the GEPRESS study. We measured CRP and platelet reactivity index (PRI) at 30 days follow-up. PRI was assessed with vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay at the same timepoint. HPR was defined as PRI >50%. Of the 1042 patients included in the GEPRESS study, 756 (75%) had both VASP and CRP data at 30 days follow-up. HPR was found in 61 (49.1%) patients with CRP >1 mg/L and 233 (36.4%) patients with CRP ≤1 mg/L, p = 0.012. After adjustment for covariates, we found a direct gradient of effect between CRP and HPR; the inclusion of CRP significantly increased the discrimination of HPR regression model. This is the first study showing that residual HPR is more likely to occur in patients with CRP >1 mg/L at 1 month after non-ST elevation-ACS and this may contribute to the unfavorable outcome observed in such patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/patologia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(9): 892-902, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the impact of nonemergent, uncomplicated target lesion revascularization (TLR) on the risk of long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Restenosis requiring TLR after PCI is generally considered a benign event. METHODS: The study pooled patient-level data from 21 randomized trials. Subjects dying the same day as or the day after the TLR procedure as well as those with myocardial infarction (MI) the day before, the same day as or the day after TLR were excluded. The primary endpoint of the study was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The dataset included 32,524 patients who were stratified according to whether repeat TLR was performed during follow-up. During a median follow-up of 37 months, 2,330 (7.2%) patients underwent a nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR procedure. After adjusting for potential confounders, TLR was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.45; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR had significantly higher rates of non-procedure-related MI compared with those without TVR. Among patients undergoing elective TLR, MI occurring after TLR was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 3.82; 95% confidence interval: 2.44 to 5.99; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Nonemergent, uncomplicated TLR after PCI is an independent predictor of long-term mortality, an association in part explained by higher rates of MI occurring after TLR. Efforts aimed at reducing TLR risk may translate into prognostic benefits including reduced rates of MI and survival.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 259: 20-25, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly treated with dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) represent a challenging population because of increased risk of both ischemic and bleeding events. We aimed to investigate the association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) and long-term outcome in elderly with non-ST-elevated acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) undergoing PCI. METHODS: Platelet reactivity was measured by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) assay at three time-points (baseline, discharge, 1 month after PCI) in 1053 NSTE-ACS patients (311 elderly) treated with clopidogrel. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were assessed up to 1 year-follow-up. RESULTS: Elderly with HPR at discharge showed a significantly higher incidence of overall MACE (13 vs 4%, p = .006), cardiac death (6 vs 0.7%, p = .020), myocardial infarction (MI, 12 vs 4%, p = .031) and a trend for higher stent-thrombosis (5 vs 0.7%, p = .068). Similarly, elderly with 1-month-HPR showed between 1 month and 1 year significantly higher incidence of MACE (10 vs 4%, p = .012), cardiac death (6 vs 0.7%, p = .019) and composite cardiac death/MI (11 vs 4%, p = .014). Up to 1 year, elderly with HPR showed a 4-fold increased risk of MACE compared to both elderly without HPR (for discharge-HPR: p = .005; for 1-month-HPR: p = .01) and non-elderly with HPR (for discharge-HPR: p < .001; for 1-month-HPR: p < .0001). At multivariable analysis, HPR could independently predict 1-year-MACE in elderly (for discharge-HPR: HR = 3.191, CI: 1.373-7.417, p = .007; for 1-month-HPR: HR = 3.542, CI: 1.373-9.137, p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly with NSTE-ACS undergoing PCI and treated with clopidogrel, HPR was independently associated with an increased risk of MACE up to 1 year.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/genética , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Am Heart J ; 197: 103-112, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared efficacy and safety of short- (3 or 6 months) versus long-term (≥12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, according to the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patient-level pooled analysis was performed with 7242 patients (87.2% with 2nd generation DES) from 5 randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: In both CKD (1273 patients) and non-CKD (5969 patients) population, the rates of patient-oriented composite outcomes at 1-year (POCO, all-cause death, any myocardial infarction [MI], stroke and TIMI major bleeding) were not different between the short- and long-term DAPT (hazard ratio [HR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-1.86, P=.449 in CKD population; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.56, P=.434 in non-CKD population). The rates of coronary thrombotic events (any MI and definite/probable stent thrombosis) also did not differ between short- and long-term DAPT in either CKD or non-CKD population. As for bleeding events, long-term DAPT increased the TIMI major bleeding (HR 2.91, 95% CI 1.31-6.48, P=.009) in non-CKD population. The similar trend was observed with long-term DAPT in CKD population. But it did not reach statistical significance (HR 3.15, 95% CI 0.64-15.63, P=.160). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of POCO and coronary thrombotic events were significantly higher in patients with CKD compared with those without CKD, which were not affected by short- or long-term DAPT. Higher bleeding incidence by long-term DAPT was only observed in non-CKD patients but not in CKD patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(5): 435-443, 2018 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) in elderly patients. BACKGROUND: Qualified studies to evaluate the optimal duration of DAPT in elderly patients have been very limited. METHODS: Using 6 randomized trials that compared short-term (≤6 months) and long-term (12 months) DAPT, individual participant data meta-analysis was performed in elderly patients (≥65 years of age). The primary study outcome was the 12-month risk of a composite of myocardial infarction, definite or probable stent thrombosis, or stroke. The major secondary outcome was the 12-month risk of major bleeding. RESULTS: The primary outcome risk did not significantly differ between patients receiving short-term and long-term DAPT (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88 to 1.43; p = 0.3581) in the overall group of study participants. In subgroup analysis, a significant interaction between age and DAPT duration was observed for primary outcome risk (p for interaction = 0.0384). In the subset of younger patients (<65 years of age, n = 6,152), short-term DAPT was associated with higher risk of primary outcome (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.44; p = 0.0082). In elderly patients (n = 5,319), however, the risk of primary outcome did not significantly differ between patients receiving short-term and long-term DAPT (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.16; p = 0.2856). Short-term DAPT was associated with a significant reduction in major bleeding compared with long-term DAPT (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84; p = 0.0081) in the overall group, and particularly in elderly patients (HR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.88; p = 0.0196). CONCLUSIONS: Short-term DAPT after new-generation DES implantation may be more beneficial in elderly patients than in younger patients.

12.
Kardiol Pol ; 76(2): 440-451, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a leading arrhythmia with high incidence and serious clinical implications after cardiac surgery. Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response including increase in cytokines and activation of endothelial and leukocyte responses. AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukins (IL), with POAF following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated valvular surgery, or a combination of these procedures. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies evaluating measured baseline (from one week before surgical procedures) and postoperative levels (until one week after surgical procedures) of inflammatory markers in patients with POAF. A compre-hensive search was performed in electronic medical databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) from their inception through May 2017 to identify relevant studies. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A literature search of all major databases retrieved 1014 studies. After screening, 42 studies were analysed including a total of 8398 patients. Pooled analysis showed baseline levels of CRP (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.457 mg/L, p < 0.001), baseline levels of IL-6 (SMD 0.398 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of CRP (SMD 0.576 mg/L, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-6 (SMD 1.66 pg/mL, p < 0.001), postoperative levels of IL-8 (SMD 0.839 pg/mL, p < 0.001), and postoperative levels of IL-10 (SMD 0.590 pg/mL, p < 0.001) to be relevant inflammatory parameters significantly associated with POAF. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative inflammation is proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of POAF. Therefore, perioperative assessment of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 can help clinicians in terms of predicting and monitoring for POAF.

13.
Platelets ; 29(3): 309-311, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206072

RESUMO

Smokers receiving clopidogrel show a lower residual platelet reactivity than non-smokers, a phenomenon generally ascribed to smoking-induced increased production of clopidogrel active metabolite, but also associated with the high hemoglobin levels of smokers, which decreases platelet reactivity in tests that measure platelet function in whole blood. We evaluated the impact of cigarette smoking and of hemoglobin levels on platelet reactivity index (PRI) measured by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P) assay in whole blood samples from patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions, both before and after clopidogrel administration. PRI was measured in 718 clopidogrel-naïve NSTE-ACS patients, both before and 1 month after treatment with clopidogrel (75 mg daily). Smokers (n = 347, 48%) had significantly lower mean PRI levels at both baseline (57.7 ± 24.1 vs. 64.8 ± 19.8, p < 0.001) and 1 month (43.4 ± 20.3% vs. 46.8 ± 18.0%, p = 0.017) than non-smokers. After adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, Syntax score>15), the ß coefficient of smoke on PRI was -8.51 [-11.90 to -5.11, p < 0.001] at baseline and -3.41 [-6.30 to -0.51, p = 0.02] after 1 month. Hemoglobin was higher in smokers (13.8 ± 1.5 g/dL) than non-smokers (13.1 ± 1.7 g/dL, p < 0.001), but was not significantly correlated with PRI both at baseline (Rho = 0.02, p = 0.60) and at 1 month (Rho = 0.01, p = 0.80). Our analysis confirms that clopidogrel-treated smokers have lower platelet reactivity, measured by the VASP-P assay, compared to clopidogrel-treated non-smokers. However, smokers had lower platelet reactivity already before receiving clopidogrel treatment, suggesting that smoke affects platelet reactivity independently of its potential effect on the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. Our data also indicate that such an effect is not mediated by increased hemoglobin levels.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Clopidogrel , Comorbidade , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Kardiol Pol ; 76(1): 107-118, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is one of the most critical and common complications after cardio¬vascular surgery precipitating early and late morbidities. Complete blood count (CBC) is an imperative blood test in clinical practice, routinely used in the examination of cardiovascular diseases. AIM: This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to determine the strength of evidence for evaluating the association of haematological indices in CBC tests with atrial fibrillation following isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), isolated valvular surgery, or a combination of these treatments. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies evaluating pre- and postoperative haematological indices in patients with POAF. A comprehensive subgroup analysis was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A literature search of all major databases retrieved 732 studies. After screening, 22 studies were analysed including a total of 6098 patients. Pooled analysis showed preoperative platelet count (PC) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -7.07 × 109/L and p < 0.001), preoperative mean platelet volume (MPV) (WMD = 0.53 FL and p < 0.001), preoperative white blood cell count (WBC) (WMD = 0.130 × 109/L and p < 0.001), preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (WMD = 0.33 and p < 0.001), preoperative red blood cell distribution width (RDW) (WMD = 0.36% and p < 0.001), postoperative WBC (WMD = 1.36 × 109/L and p < 0.001), and postoperative NLR (WMD = 0.74 and p < 0.001) as associated factors with POAF. CONCLUSIONS: Haematological indices may predict the risk of POAF before surgery. These easily-performed tests should defi¬nitely be taken into account in patients undergoing isolated CABG, valvular surgery, or combined procedures.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 44(3): 355-361, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840456

RESUMO

Statin use is associated with enhanced pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the impact of statin therapy on clopidogrel response profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing PCI has not been established and represents the objective of this investigation. On-treatment P2Y12 platelet reactivity was measured using the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assay before PCI, at hospital discharge, and at 1 month after PCI in ACS patients enrolled in the multicenter, prospective GEne polymorphisms, Platelet Reactivity, and Syntax Score (GEPRESS) study (n = 962). High platelet reactivity (HPR) was defined as platelet reactivity index ≥50%. Statins were prescribed at hospital discharge in 87% (n = 835) of patients. All patients were followed for 1 year. The 1-month HPR rate was lower in statin than in non-statin treated patients (39.6 vs 52%, respectively, p = 0.009). This finding was confirmed also among statin-treated patients with high Syntax score (≥15). After adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics, statin use at discharge was independently associated with 1-month HPR rate (odds ratio, 0.58, 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.89; p = 0.015). In ACS patients undergoing PCI treated with clopidogrel the use of statins at discharge was associated with significantly lower 1-month HPR rates compared with patients not treated with statins.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clopidogrel , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Ticlopidina/farmacocinética
18.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(16): 1621-1630, 2017 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838471

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the presence of a clinically relevant rebound phenomenon after dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discontinuation in randomized trials. BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown whether clopidogrel discontinuation after short-term DAPT is associated with an early hazard of ischemic events. METHODS: The authors performed an individual participant data analysis and aggregate meta-analysis. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. RESULTS: The study included 11,473 PCI patients with individual participant data from 6 randomized trials comparing short-term DAPT (3 or 6 months) versus long-term DAPT (12 months or more). During the first 90 days following clopidogrel discontinuation, there was no significant increase in the risk of MACCE between patients randomized to short-term DAPT compared with long-term DAPT (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.98; p = 0.52; absolute risk difference 0.10%; 95% CI: -0.16% to 0.36%). The risk of MI or stent thrombosis was similar among patients randomized to short-term DAPT versus long-term DAPT (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.46 to 1.90; p = 0.85). In the aggregate data meta-analysis of 11 trials including 38,919 patients, a higher risk of early MACCE was observed after long-term (≥12 months) DAPT duration (HR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.69 to 3.09; p < 0.001) but not short-term (<12 months) DAPT duration (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.74; p for interaction = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing PCI with predominantly new-generation DES, discontinuation of clopidogrel after 3 or 6 months DAPT duration was not associated with an early increase in adverse clinical events. An early increase in MACCE was observed after long-term (≥12 months) DAPT exposure.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am Heart J ; 190: 54-63, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760214

RESUMO

Some but not all randomized controlled trials (RCT) have suggested that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery for the treatment of unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD). We therefore aimed to compare the risk of all-cause mortality between PCI and CABG in patients with ULMCAD in a pairwise meta-analysis of RCT. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials comparing PCI vs CABG for the treatment of ULMCAD were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and proceedings of international meetings. RESULTS: Six trials including 4,686 randomized patients were identified. After a median follow-up of 39 months, there were no significant differences between PCI vs CABG in the risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.30) or cardiac mortality. However, a significant interaction for cardiac mortality (Pinteraction= .03) was apparent between randomization arm and SYNTAX score, such that the relative risk for mortality tended to be lower with PCI compared with CABG among patients in the lower SYNTAX score tertile, similar in the intermediate tertile, and higher in the upper SYNTAX score tertile. Percutaneous coronary intervention compared with CABG was associated with a similar long-term composite risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.82-1.37), with fewer events within 30 days after PCI offset by fewer events after 30 days with CABG (Pinteraction < .0001). Percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with greater rates of unplanned revascularization compared with CABG (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.47-2.07). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing revascularization for ULMCAD, PCI was associated with similar rates of mortality compared with CABG at a median follow-up of 39 months, but with an interaction effect suggesting relatively lower mortality with PCI in patients with low SYNTAX score and relatively lower mortality with CABG in patients with high SYNTAX score. Both procedures resulted in similar long-term composite rates of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, with PCI offering an early safety advantage and CABG demonstrating greater durability.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Causas de Morte/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
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