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1.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213845

RESUMO

The prevalence of older patients with dementia and oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is rising and management is poor. Our aim was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, and long-term nutritional and respiratory complications during follow-up of OD in older demented patients. We designed a prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study with 255 patients with dementia. OD was assessed with the Volume-Viscosity Swallowing Test and a geriatric evaluation was performed. OD patients received compensatory treatments based on fluid viscosity and texture modified foods and oral hygiene, and were followed up for 18 months after discharge. Mean age was 83.5 ± 8.0 years and Alzheimer's disease was the main cause of dementia (52.9%). The prevalence of OD was 85.9%. Up to 82.7% patients with OD required fluid thickening and 93.6% texture modification, with poor compliance. OD patients were older (p < 0.007), had worse functionality (p < 0.0001), poorer nutritional status (p = 0.014), and higher severity of dementia (p < 0.001) than those without OD and showed higher rates of respiratory infections (p = 0.011) and mortality (p = 0.0002) after 18 months follow-up. These results show that OD is very prevalent among patients with dementia and is associated with impaired functionality, malnutrition, respiratory infections, and increased mortality. New nutritional strategies should be developed to increase the compliance and therapeutic effects for this growing population of dysphagic patients.

3.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause of death worldwide. As recently described, CAP shows different biological endotypes. Improving characterization of these endotypes is needed to optimize individualized treatment of this disease. The potential value of the leukogram to assist prognosis in severe CAP has not been previously addressed. METHODS: A cohort of 710 patients with CAP admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) at Hospital of Mataró and Parc Taulí Hospital of Sabadell was retrospectively analyzed. Patients were split in those with septic shock (n = 304) and those with no septic shock (n = 406). A single blood sample was drawn from all the patients at the time of admission to the emergency room. ICU mortality was the main outcome. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lymphopenia <675 cells/mm3 or <501 cells/mm3 translated into 2.32- and 3.76-fold risk of mortality in patients with or without septic shock, respectively. In turn, neutrophil counts were associated with prognosis just in the group of patients with septic shock, where neutrophils <8850 cells/mm3 translated into 3.6-fold risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: lymphopenia is a preserved risk factor for mortality across the different clinical presentations of severe CAP (sCAP), while failing to expand circulating neutrophils counts beyond the upper limit of normality represents an incremental immunological failure observed just in those patients with the most severe form of CAP, septic shock.

4.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(2): 106-111, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183671

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the monetary savings resulting from a pharmacist intervention on the appropriateness of prescribed drugs in community-dwelling polymedicated (≥8 drugs) elderly people (≥70 years). Method: An evaluation of pharmaceutical expenditure reduction was performed within a randomised, multicentre clinical trial. The study intervention consisted of a pharmacist evaluation of all drugs prescribed to each patient using the "Good Palliative-Geriatric Practice" algorithm and the "Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment" criteria (STOPP/START). The control group followed the routine standard of care. A time horizon of one year was considered and cost elements included human resources and drug expenditure. Results: 490 patients (245 in each group) were analysed. Both groups experienced a decrease in drug expenditure 12 months after the study started, but this decrease was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (−14.3% vs.−7.7%; p=0.041). Total annual drug expenditure decreased 233.75 Euros/patient (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 169.83-297.67) in the intervention group and 169.40 Euros/patient (95%CI: 103.37-235.43) in the control group over a one-year period, indicating that 64.30 Euros would be the drug expenditure savings per patient a year attributable to the study intervention. The estimated return per Euro invested in the programme would be 2.38 Euros per patient a year on average. Conclusions: The study intervention is a cost-effective alternative to standard care that could generate a positive return of investment


Objetivo: Evaluar los ahorros monetarios resultantes de la intervención de un farmacéutico orientada a mejorar la adecuación de los fármacos prescritos en ancianos (≥70 años) polimedicados (≥8 medicamentos) de la comunidad. Método: Se evaluó la reducción del gasto farmacéutico en el marco de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado y multicéntrico. La intervención del estudio consistió en una evaluación de todos los fármacos prescritos a cada paciente utilizando el algoritmo Good Palliative-Geriatric Practice y los criterios Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START). El grupo control siguió la práctica clínica habitual. Se consideró un horizonte temporal de un año y los elementos de costes incluyeron los recursos humanos y el gasto en medicamentos. Resultados: Se analizaron 490 pacientes (245 por grupo). La disminución del gasto farmacéutico a los 12 meses fue significativamente mayor en el grupo de intervención que en el grupo control (−14,3% vs.−7,7%; p=0,041). El gasto anual en medicamentos disminuyó 233,75 Euros por paciente (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 169,83-297,67) en el grupo de intervención y 169,40 Euros por paciente (IC95%: 103,37-235,43) en el grupo control, indicando un ahorro farmacéutico de 64,30 Euros por paciente/año atribuible a la intervención del estudio. Se ha estimado un retorno de 2,38 Euros por cada euro invertido en el programa. Conclusiones: La intervención en estudio es una alternativa rentable a la atención estándar, que podría generar un retorno positivo de la inversión


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Reconciliação de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Polimedicação , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas/organização & administração , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
5.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893821

RESUMO

High intracellular water (ICW) content has been associated with better functional performance and a lower frailty risk in elderly people. However, it is not clear if the protective effect of high ICW is due to greater muscle mass or better muscle quality and cell hydration. We aimed to assess the relationship between ICW content in lean mass (LM) and muscle strength, functional performance, frailty, and other clinical characteristics in elderly people. In an observational cross-sectional study of community-dwelling subjects aged ≥75 years, ICW and LM were estimated by bioelectrical impedance, and the ICW/LM ratio (mL/kg) calculated. Muscle strength was measured as hand grip, frailty status was assessed according to Fried criteria, and functional status was assessed by Barthel score. For 324 recruited subjects (mean age 80 years), mean (SD) ICW/LM ratio was 408 (29.3) mL/kg. The ICW/LM ratio was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.249; p < 0.001). A higher ICW/LM ratio was associated with greater muscle strength, better functional capacity, and a lower frailty risk, even when adjusted by age, sex, nº of co-morbidities, and LM. ICW content in LM (including the muscle) may influence muscle strength, functional capacity and frailty. However, further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Água Corporal , Fragilidade , Vida Independente , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Gac Sanit ; 33(2): 106-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the monetary savings resulting from a pharmacist intervention on the appropriateness of prescribed drugs in community-dwelling polymedicated (≥8 drugs) elderly people (≥70 years). METHOD: An evaluation of pharmaceutical expenditure reduction was performed within a randomised, multicentre clinical trial. The study intervention consisted of a pharmacist evaluation of all drugs prescribed to each patient using the "Good Palliative-Geriatric Practice" algorithm and the "Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment" criteria (STOPP/START). The control group followed the routine standard of care. A time horizon of one year was considered and cost elements included human resources and drug expenditure. RESULTS: 490 patients (245 in each group) were analysed. Both groups experienced a decrease in drug expenditure 12 months after the study started, but this decrease was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (-14.3% vs.-7.7%; p=0.041). Total annual drug expenditure decreased 233.75 €/patient (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 169.83-297.67) in the intervention group and 169.40 €/patient (95%CI: 103.37-235.43) in the control group over a one-year period, indicating that 64.30 € would be the drug expenditure savings per patient a year attributable to the study intervention. The estimated return per Euro invested in the programme would be 2.38 € per patient a year on average. CONCLUSIONS: The study intervention is a cost-effective alternative to standard care that could generate a positive return of investment.


Assuntos
Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
8.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(9): 479-485, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176439

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess the clinical characteristics of patients with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in Spain and to identify predictors for CN-related complications. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was conducted at five tertiary hospitals with diabetic foot care units in Spain. Data were collected from 83 patients, including demographic profiles, foot factors, diabetes characteristics, and presence of microvascular and macrovascular comorbidity, and a podiatric examination was also performed. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of the predefined clinical events. Results: Signs of diabetic neuropathy were found in almost all patients (98.9%) at the initial assessment, approximately half of them had diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy (61.5% and 51.8%, respectively), and peripheral artery disease was uncommon (8.6%). Thirty-eight patients (47.5%) experienced one or more relevant clinical events: 22 (27.5%) a new foot ulcer; 7 (8.7%) a major amputation; 20 (25%) were admitted to hospital; and 4 (5%) died. Only the presence of diabetic nephropathy was independently associated to development of any of the complications studied (p = 0.009; odds ratio = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.12-10.1). Conclusions: Almost half the patients with CN attending specialised foot care units in tertiary hospitals experienced short-term CN-associated complications, and the risk was 3 times higher in those with a history of diabetic nephropathy


Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de pacientes con neuroartropatía de Charcot (NC) en España e identificar predictores de complicaciones relacionadas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo llevado a cabo en 5 hospitales terciarios de España con unidad de pie diabético. Se recopilaron datos de 83 pacientes incluyendo perfil demográfico, datos provenientes de la exploración podológica, características de la diabetes y presencia de comorbilidad micro y macro vascular. Para determinar los predictores significativos de acontecimientos clínicos predefinidos se utilizaron análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: Casi todos los pacientes (98,9%) tenían signos de neuropatía diabética en la evaluación inicial, aproximadamente la mitad tenían retinopatía o nefropatía diabética (61,5 y 51,8%, respectivamente) y la enfermedad arterial periférica era infrecuente (8,6%). Treinta y ocho pacientes (47,5%) experimentaron uno o más acontecimientos clínicos relevantes: 22 (27,5%) una nueva úlcera en el pie, 7 (8,7%) una amputación mayor, 20 (25%) fueron hospitalizados y 4 (5%) murieron. Solamente la presencia de nefropatía diabética se encontró independientemente asociada al desarrollo de alguna de las complicaciones estudiadas (p = 0,009; odds ratio = 3,37; 95% CI: 1,12-10,1). Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de los pacientes con NC atendidos en unidades de cuidado del pie diabético en hospitales terciarios experimentaron complicaciones asociadas a NC a corto plazo, y el riesgo entre aquellos sujetos con historia de úlcera previa era 3 veces mayor


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artropatia Neurogênica/complicações , Pé Diabético/complicações , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Artropatia Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Artropatia Neurogênica/epidemiologia , Deformidades do Pé/etiologia , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 65(9): 479-485, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical characteristics of patients with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in Spain and to identify predictors for CN-related complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at five tertiary hospitals with diabetic foot care units in Spain. Data were collected from 83 patients, including demographic profiles, foot factors, diabetes characteristics, and presence of microvascular and macrovascular comorbidity, and a podiatric examination was also performed. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of the predefined clinical events. RESULTS: Signs of diabetic neuropathy were found in almost all patients (98.9%) at the initial assessment, approximately half of them had diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy (61.5% and 51.8%, respectively), and peripheral artery disease was uncommon (8.6%). Thirty-eight patients (47.5%) experienced one or more relevant clinical events: 22 (27.5%) a new foot ulcer; 7 (8.7%) a major amputation; 20 (25%) were admitted to hospital; and 4 (5%) died. Only the presence of diabetic nephropathy was independently associated to development of any of the complications studied (p = 0.009; odds ratio = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.12-10.1). CONCLUSIONS: Almost half the patients with CN attending specialised foot care units in tertiary hospitals experienced short-term CN-associated complications, and the risk was 3 times higher in those with a history of diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Artropatia Neurogênica/complicações , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Artropatia Neurogênica/diagnóstico , Artropatia Neurogênica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 150(12): 455-459, jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173646

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: El asma es una enfermedad crónica que precisa tratamiento inhalado y que, a su vez, es factor de riesgo (FR) de neumonía. En la cavidad orofaríngea existen numerosas especies de bacterias que podrían ser arrastradas a nivel broncoalveolar. Objetivo: determinar si la salud bucodental es un FR de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) en pacientes asmáticos que realizan tratamiento inhalado y determinar si la frecuencia de utilización de los dispositivos de inhalación y el tipo de fármaco inhalado son FR de NAC. Pacientes y método: Estudio de casos y controles en población asmática con tratamiento inhalado. Se seleccionaron 126 pacientes asmáticos diagnosticados de neumonía por criterios clínicos y radiológicos (casos) y 252 asmáticos no diagnosticados de neumonía durante el último año (controles), emparejados por edad. El principal factor de estudio fue la puntuación del General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Resultados: El análisis bivariado muestra una asociación estadísticamente significativa de la NAC con un índice de GOHAI≤57 puntos (mala salud bucodental) (OR 1,69), el tratamiento anticolinérgico (OR 2,41), realizar 6 o más inhalaciones al día (OR 3,23), el uso de cámara (OR 1,62), el FEV1 (OR 0,98), una alteración de la funcionalidad (OR 2,08) y los trastornos psiquiátricos o la depresión (OR 0,41). El análisis multivariante muestra una asociación independiente de realizar 6 o más inhalaciones al día (OR 2,74) y de las alteraciones de la funcionalidad (OR 1,67). Conclusiones: Los resultados evidencian que una mala salud bucodental podría ser un FR de NAC


Introduction and objective: Asthma is a chronic disease requiring inhaled treatment and in addition it is a risk factor (RF) of pneumonia. In the oropharyngeal cavity there are numerous species of bacteria that could be dragged to the bronco-alveolar level. Objective: to decide whether oral health is a community acquired pneumonia (CAP) RF in asthmatic patients who are taking inhaled treatment, and determining whether the frequency of use of inhalation devices and the type of inhaled drug are CAP RF. Patients and method: Case-control study in asthmatic population with inhaled treatment. We recruited 126 asthmatic patients diagnosed with pneumonia by clinical and radiological criteria (cases) and 252 asthmatics not diagnosed with pneumonia during the last year (controls), matched by age. The main factor of study was the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) score. Results: Bivariated analysis showed a statistically significant association of CAP with a GOHAI score≤57 points (poor oral health) (OR 1.69), anticholinergic treatment (OR 2.41), 6 or more inhalations (3.23), chamber use (OR 1.62), FEV1 (OR 0.98), altered functionality (OR 2.08) and psychiatric disorders or depression (OR 0.41). The multivariated analysis shows an independent association of performing 6 or more inhalations per day (OR 2.74) and functional impairment (OR 1.67). Conclusions: The results suggest that poor oral health may be a CAP RF


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Higiene Bucal/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Bacteriana/etiologia , Asma/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Risco , Administração por Inalação , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas
11.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 150(6): 209-214, mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171542

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de ingresos por reacciones adversas a medicamentos (RAM) y si el ingreso era evitable o no, y qué fármacos y factores de riesgo estaban implicados. Diseño: Estudio observacional transversal. Muestra de estudio Todos los pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad geriátrica de agudos durante el período de enero de 2001 a diciembre de 2010 fueron estudiados. Mediciones: Para determinar si los ingresos se debieron a RAM se utilizaron los criterios de la World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre y la escala de Naranjo. Para detectar los medicamentos potencialmente inadecuados se utilizaron los criterios de Beers. Resultados: Se estudió un total de 3.292 pacientes (edad media 84,7 años, 60,1% mujeres). De estos, 197 (6%) fueron ingresos por RAM, de los cuales 152 (76,4%) se consideraron ingresos evitables. Los 5 grupos de fármacos más frecuentemente asociados a los ingresos por RAM fueron digoxina, antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, benzodiacepinas, diuréticos y antibióticos. Los factores de riesgo independientes de ingreso por RAM fueron el sexo femenino (OR 1,84; IC 95% 1,3-2,61), la medicación inadecuada según los criterios de Beers (OR 4,2; IC 95% 2,9-6,03), la polifarmacia (>5 fármacos) (OR 1,5; IC 95% 1,04-2,13), el filtrado glomerular<30ml/min (OR 3; IC 95% 2,12-4,23) y el uso de sedantes (OR 1,4; IC 95% 1-1,91). Conclusión: Las RAM fueron responsables del 6% de los ingresos en una unidad geriátrica de agudos, considerándose evitables tres cuartas partes de estos ingresos. El sexo femenino, la medicación inadecuada, la polifarmacia, la insuficiencia renal y el uso de sedantes fueron factores de riesgo independientes de ingreso por RAM (AU)


Objective: To determine prevalence of admissions due to an adverse drug reaction (ADR) and determine whether or not admission was avoidable, and what drugs and risk factors were implicated. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Study sample: All patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric unit during the period January 2001 to December 2010 were studied. Measurement: To determine whether admissions were due toADR, we used the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria and the Naranjo scale. Beers criteria were used to detect potentially inappropriate medication. Results: A total of 3,292 patients (mean age 84.7 years, 60.1% women) were studied. Of these, 197 (6%) were admissions for ADR and nearly three quarters (76.4%, 152 cases) were considered avoidable admissions. The 5 most frequent drugs associated with admissions for ADR were digoxin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines, diuretics and antibiotics. Independent risk factors for admissions for ADR were being female (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.30-2.61), inappropriate medication according to Beers criteria (OR 4.20; 95% CI 2.90-6.03), polypharmacy (>5 drugs) (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.04-2.13), glomerular filtration rate<30mL/min (OR 3; 95% CI 2.12-4.23) and sedative use (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1-1.91). Conclusion: ADR were responsible for 6% of admissions to an acute geriatric unit, and over 75% of these admissions were considered avoidable. Associated risk factors were being female, inappropriate medication, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency and sedative use (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Fatores de Risco , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Análise Estatística
12.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 88(5): 728-734, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An association of pregnancy outcomes with subclinical hypothyroidism has been reported; however, there still exists a strong controversy regarding whether subclinical hypothyroidism ought to be dealt with or not. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of foetal-maternal complications with first trimester maternal Thyrotropin (TSH) values. DESIGN: A retrospective study in a single tertiary care hospital was performed. PATIENTS: A total of 1981 pregnant women were studied during 2012. MEASUREMENTS: Thyrotropin (TSH) universal screening was performed between 9 and 12 weeks of gestation. Outcomes included foetal-maternal complications and newborn health parameters. RESULTS: Median TSH was 1.72 (0.99-2.61) mIU/L. The incidence of perinatal loss, miscarriage and stillbirth was 7.2%, 5.9% and 1.1%, respectively. Median TSH of women with and without miscarriage was 1.97 (1.29-3.28) vs 1.71 (0.96-2.58) mIU/L (P = .009). Incidence of pre-eclampsia was 3.2%; TSH in these women was 2.10 (1.40-2.74) vs 1.71 (0.98-2.59) mIU/L in those without (P = .027). TSH in women with dystocia in labour was 1.76 (1.00-2.53) vs 1.68 (0.94-2.59) mIU/L in those who gave birth with normal progression (P = .044). Women with TSH 2.5-5.1 mIU/L had a higher risk of perinatal loss [OR 1.589 (1.085-2.329)], miscarriage [OR 1.702 (1.126-2.572)] and premature birth [OR 1.39 (1.013-1.876)], adjusted by mother's age. There was no association with the other outcomes analysed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive association between maternal TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy and the incidence of perinatal loss and miscarriage. The TSH cut-off value of 2.5 mIU/L identified women with higher adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Tireotropina/sangue , Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea
13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 150(6): 209-214, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of admissions due to an adverse drug reaction (ADR) and determine whether or not admission was avoidable, and what drugs and risk factors were implicated. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. STUDY SAMPLE: All patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric unit during the period January 2001 to December 2010 were studied. MEASUREMENT: To determine whether admissions were due toADR, we used the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria and the Naranjo scale. Beers criteria were used to detect potentially inappropriate medication. RESULTS: A total of 3,292 patients (mean age 84.7 years, 60.1% women) were studied. Of these, 197 (6%) were admissions for ADR and nearly three quarters (76.4%, 152 cases) were considered avoidable admissions. The 5 most frequent drugs associated with admissions for ADR were digoxin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines, diuretics and antibiotics. Independent risk factors for admissions for ADR were being female (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.30-2.61), inappropriate medication according to Beers criteria (OR 4.20; 95% CI 2.90-6.03), polypharmacy (>5 drugs) (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.04-2.13), glomerular filtration rate<30mL/min (OR 3; 95% CI 2.12-4.23) and sedative use (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1-1.91). CONCLUSION: ADR were responsible for 6% of admissions to an acute geriatric unit, and over 75% of these admissions were considered avoidable. Associated risk factors were being female, inappropriate medication, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency and sedative use.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Polimedicação , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 150(12): 455-459, 2018 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic disease requiring inhaled treatment and in addition it is a risk factor (RF) of pneumonia. In the oropharyngeal cavity there are numerous species of bacteria that could be dragged to the bronco-alveolar level. OBJECTIVE: to decide whether oral health is a community acquired pneumonia (CAP) RF in asthmatic patients who are taking inhaled treatment, and determining whether the frequency of use of inhalation devices and the type of inhaled drug are CAP RF. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Case-control study in asthmatic population with inhaled treatment. We recruited 126 asthmatic patients diagnosed with pneumonia by clinical and radiological criteria (cases) and 252 asthmatics not diagnosed with pneumonia during the last year (controls), matched by age. The main factor of study was the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) score. RESULTS: Bivariated analysis showed a statistically significant association of CAP with a GOHAI score≤57 points (poor oral health) (OR 1.69), anticholinergic treatment (OR 2.41), 6 or more inhalations (3.23), chamber use (OR 1.62), FEV1 (OR 0.98), altered functionality (OR 2.08) and psychiatric disorders or depression (OR 0.41). The multivariated analysis shows an independent association of performing 6 or more inhalations per day (OR 2.74) and functional impairment (OR 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that poor oral health may be a CAP RF.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Saúde Bucal , Pneumonia/etiologia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/complicações , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/microbiologia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 149(3): 107-113, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-164957

RESUMO

Objetivos: Se pretende evaluar los niveles de la fracción de gammaglobulinas en suero como un marcador biológico para valorar la gravedad y predecir la mortalidad y nuevas agudizaciones en los pacientes ingresados por una agudización de la EPOC. Pacientes y métodos: El estudio VIRAE es una cohorte de pacientes ingresados por una agudización de probable causa infecciosa de la EPOC en un período de 2 años. Se analizaron los niveles de la fracción de gammaglobulinas del proteinograma en 120 pacientes. Se evaluaron los principales indicadores clínicos de gravedad. Se compararon las características principales en 2 grupos (mayor o menor de 6,6g/dl de la fracción gamma del proteinograma). Resultados: Los niveles de la fracción gamma del proteinograma se correlacionan con el valor del FEV1 (p=0,009), la PCR (p=0,04) y el número de reingresos a los 6 meses de la hospitalización (p=0,04). Se demuestra una buena asociación con la escala GOLD, el índice BODE y la escala de disnea de mMRC; y también con el tratamiento con corticoides orales y la oxigenoterapia domiciliaria. No hemos observado que sea un buen predictor de mortalidad, aun observando una mayor mortalidad al año del ingreso hospitalario en los pacientes con niveles bajos. Conclusiones: Los niveles de la fracción de gammaglobulinas en el proteinograma tienen una buena correlación con el FEV1. Además, se asocian a una mayor gravedad de los pacientes con EPOC. Este biomarcador sencillo puede ser útil para identificar pacientes de alto riesgo (AU)


Objectives: To evaluate the levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction in proteinograms as a biomarker to assess the severity, and to predict the mortality and new exacerbations in patients admitted for an exacerbation of a COPD. Patients and methods: The VIRAE study was carried out on a cohort of patients hospitalized for an exacerbation of probable infectious origin of COPD over a period of 2 years. The levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction were analyzed in the proteinogram of 120 patients. The main clinical indicators of severity were also evaluated. Key features were compared in 2 groups (gamma fraction in the proteinogram greater or less than 6.6g/dl). Results: The levels of the serum gamma fraction in the proteinogram correlated with the FEV1 (P=.009), the CRP (P=.04), and the number of readmissions after 6 months of hospitalization (P=.04). We observed a good association with the GOLD scale, the BODE index and the mMRC dyspnea scale; and also with treatment with oral corticoids and home oxygen therapy. We did not find it to be a good predictor of mortality, despite observing increased mortality rates one year after hospital admission in patients with low levels of the factor. Conclusions: The levels of the gamma globulin fraction in proteinograms has a good correlation with the FEV1. In addition, they are associated with a greater severity of patients with COPD. This simple biomarker may be useful in identifying high-risk patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , gama-Globulinas/análise , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biomarcadores/análise , Oxigenoterapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes
16.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 149(3): 107-113, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28233558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction in proteinograms as a biomarker to assess the severity, and to predict the mortality and new exacerbations in patients admitted for an exacerbation of a COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The VIRAE study was carried out on a cohort of patients hospitalized for an exacerbation of probable infectious origin of COPD over a period of 2 years. The levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction were analyzed in the proteinogram of 120 patients. The main clinical indicators of severity were also evaluated. Key features were compared in 2 groups (gamma fraction in the proteinogram greater or less than 6.6g/dl). RESULTS: The levels of the serum gamma fraction in the proteinogram correlated with the FEV1 (P=.009), the CRP (P=.04), and the number of readmissions after 6 months of hospitalization (P=.04). We observed a good association with the GOLD scale, the BODE index and the mMRC dyspnea scale; and also with treatment with oral corticoids and home oxygen therapy. We did not find it to be a good predictor of mortality, despite observing increased mortality rates one year after hospital admission in patients with low levels of the factor. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of the gamma globulin fraction in proteinograms has a good correlation with the FEV1. In addition, they are associated with a greater severity of patients with COPD. This simple biomarker may be useful in identifying high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , gama-Globulinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Fam Pract ; 34(1): 36-42, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27605543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is frequent in the elderly population and is associated with potentially drug inappropriateness and drug-related problems. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of a medication evaluation programme for community-dwelling polymedicated elderly people. DESIGN: Randomized, open-label, multicentre, parallel-arm clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. SETTING: Primary care centres. PARTICIPANTS: Polymedicated (≥8 drugs) elderly people (≥70 years). STUDY INTERVENTION: Pharmacist review of all medication according to the Good Palliative-Geriatric Practice algorithm and the Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions-Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment criteria and recommendations to the patient's physician. CONTROL INTERVENTION: Routine clinical practice. MEASUREMENTS: Recommendations and changes implemented, number of prescribed drugs, restarted drugs, primary care and emergency department consultations, hospitalizations and death. RESULTS: About 503 (252 intervention and 251 control) patients were recruited and 2709 drugs were evaluated. About 26.5% of prescriptions were rated as potentially inappropriate and 21.5% were changed (9.1% discontinuation, 6.9% dose adjustment, 3.2% substitution and 2.2% new prescription). About 2.62 recommendations per patient were made and at least one recommendation was made for 95.6% of patients. The mean number of prescriptions per patient was significantly lower in the intervention group at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Discontinuations, dose adjustments and substitutions were significantly higher than in the control group at 3, 6 and 12 months. No differences were observed in the number of emergency visits, hospitalizations and deaths. CONCLUSION: The study intervention was safe, reduced potentially inappropriate medication, but did not reduce emergency visits and hospitalizations in polymedicated elderly people.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Polimedicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Farmácia
18.
Clin Nutr ; 36(4): 1110-1116, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent risk factor for malnutrition (MN) in older patients and both conditions are related to poor outcome. OBJECTIVE: To explore the nutritional status in older patients with OD in a chronic and an acute clinical situation. DESIGN: We examined 95 older (≥70 years) patients with OD associated to chronic neurological diseases or aging, and 23 older patients with OD and acute community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with videofluoroscopy; and 15 older people without OD. We collected nutritional status, measured with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), anthropometric measurements, and biochemistry and bioimpedance for body composition. Functional status was assessed with the Barthel index. RESULTS: 1) Taking into consideration patients with OD with chronic conditions, 51.1% presented a MNA® ≤23.5; 16.7%, sarcopenia and a) reduced visceral and muscular protein compartments and fat compartment; b) muscular weakness c) intracellular water depletion, and d) reduced body weight. Patients with OD and MNA® ≤23 needed higher levels of nectar viscosity for a safe swallow and had increased oropharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosity. 2) Patients with OD and CAP, 69.5%, presented an MNA® ≤23.5 and 29.4% sarcopenia, the inflammatory response of the pneumonia adding to the more severe depletion in visceral protein and muscular mass. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of impaired nutritional status (malnutrition risk, and sarcopenia) among older patients with OD associated with either chronic or acute conditions is very high. In patients with OD and chronic diseases, poor nutritional status further impairs OD with an increase in oropharyngeal residue at spoon-thick viscosity. In the acute setting there is inflammation and an additional protein deficiency. These findings will help develop specific products both for OD and nutritional status in each specific clinical situation.


Assuntos
Doença Aguda , Doença Crônica , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Desnutrição/etiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 3(1): e000152, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933180

RESUMO

INSTRUCTION: There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. METHODS: This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient care (hospital ward) (n=173), and patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n=191). RESULTS: Serum total IgG (and IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), IgA and IgM were measured at the first clinical visit. Normal cutpoints were defined as the lowest value obtained in controls (≤680, ≤323, ≤154, ≤10, ≤5, ≤30 and ≤50 mg/dL for total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM and IgA, respectively). Serum immunoglobulin levels decreased in relation to severity of CAP. Low serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 showed a relationship with ICU admission. Low serum level of total IgG was independently associated with ICU admission (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.2, p=0.002), adjusted by the CURB-65 severity score and comorbidities (chronic respiratory and heart diseases). Low levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe CAP admitted to the ICU showed lower levels of immunoglobulins than non-ICU patients and this increased mortality.

20.
Dysphagia ; 31(5): 697-705, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492407

RESUMO

Scientific evidence on the impact of medication on the physiology of swallowing is scarce and mainly based on clinical case reports. To evaluate the association between oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and chronic exposure to medication in older patients admitted to the acute geriatric unit (AGU) of a secondary hospital, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 966 patients admitted to an AGU from 2008 to 2011. We reviewed (a) diagnosis of OD (assessed with the volume-viscosity swallow test, V- VST); (b) chronic patient medication classified by anatomical, therapeutic, chemical codes; and (c) demographic and clinical data. A univariate analysis was performed to determine which medications were associated with OD. A multivariate analysis adjusting for confounding clinical factors was performed to identify which of those medications were independently associated with OD. The age of patients included was 85.3 ± 6.37 years and 59.4 % were women. A total of 41.9 % presented OD. We found a possible protective effect of beta blocking agents on OD after the multivariate analysis (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.35-0.85). None of the categories of drugs was associated with an altered swallowing function after adjusting for confounding variables. The present study is the first one to widely investigate the association between drugs and OD, increasing understanding of their association. The role of beta blockers in OD needs to be further studied as their potentially beneficial effects on the swallowing function in older patients could help to prevent complications.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos
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