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1.
Expert Rev Hematol ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148109

RESUMO

Lack of head-to-head trials highlights a need for comparative real-world evidence of proteasome inhibitors plus Rd.Methods: In this retrospective, US population-representative EHR study of RRMM patients initiating IRd, KRd, or VRd in line of therapy (LOT) ≥2 between 1/2014 and 9/30/2018, 664 patients were treated in LOT ≥2 with: IRd, n = 168; KRd, n = 208; VRd, n = 357. Median age was 71/65/71 years; 67%/70%/75% had a frailtymodified score of intermediate/frail; 20%/28%/13% had high cytogenetic risk in I-/K-/V-Rd groups. Risk of PI-triplet discontinuation was lower for I- vs. K-Rd (HR: 0.71) and I- vs. V-Rd (HR: 0.85); unadjusted, median TTNTs (months): 12.7/8.6/14.2 (LOT ≥2) and 16.8/9.5/14.6 (LOT 2-3) (I-/K-/V-Rd). Adjusted TTNT was comparable between I-/K-/V-Rd in LOT ≥2 with a TTNT benefit among intermediate/frail patients for I- (HR: 0.70; P=0.04) and V- (HR: 0.73; P<0.05) vs. K-Rd. I/K/V-Rd triplets were comparable in TTNT overall, but IRd and VRd were associated with longer TTNT in intermediate/frail patients than KRd. The results suggest a trial-efficacy/real-world-effectiveness gap, especially for KRd, underlining the limited generalizability of trial results where >50% of patients are excluded. Individualized treatment based on patient characteristics, such as frailty status, is especially pertinent in an elderly RRMM population.

2.
Lancet Haematol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is an incurable haematological malignancy, representing over 10% of haematological cancers in the USA. We did a phase 1-2 study of melflufen and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma to determine the maximum tolerated dose of melflufen and to investigate its safety and efficacy. METHODS: We did a multicentre, international, dose-confirmation and dose-expansion, open-label, phase 1-2 study in seven centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma, had received two or more previous lines of therapy (including lenalidomide and bortezomib), were refractory to their last line of therapy, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less. In phase 1, patients received an intravenous infusion of melflufen at 15 mg, 25 mg, 40 mg, or 55 mg for 30 min on day 1 in 21-day cycles plus oral dexamethasone 40 mg weekly and did not receive melflufen as a single agent. Melflufen was also tested in a single-agent cohort late in phase 2 in a small number of patients at the maximum tolerated dose identified in phase 1. In phase 2, patients were enrolled at the maximum tolerated dose in the melflufen plus dexamethasone in the combination cohort.. The phase 1 primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose. The phase 2 primary objective was to evaluate overall response rate and clinical benefit rate. This primary analysis was done per protocol, in the all-treated and efficacy-evaluable population (defined as patients who received at least two doses of melflufen and who had a response assessment after baseline). The single-agent melflufen cohort was closed on October 6, 2016, as per the recommendation by the data safety monitoring committee on the basis of interim data suggesting greater activity in the melflufen plus dexamethasone cohort. The study is completed but survival follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01897714. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between July 4, 2013, and Dec 31, 2016: 23 patients in phase 1 and 58 in phase 2, including six patients from phase 1 treated at the maximum tolerated dose of melflufen 40 mg plus weekly dexamethasone. In phase 2, 45 patients were given a combination of melflufen plus dexamethasone and 13 patients were given single-agent melflufen. In phase 1, the established maximum tolerated dose was 40 mg of melflufen in combination with dexamethasone. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the first three dose cohorts (15 mg, 25 mg, and 40 mg). The highest dose cohort tested (55 mg) exceeded the maximum tolerated dose because four of six patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia with grade 4 thrombocytopenia also occurring in three of these patients; therefore, the planned highest dose of 70 mg was not tested. In phase 2, patients treated with combination therapy achieved an overall response rate of 31% (14 of 45 patients; 95% CI 18-47) and clinical benefit rate of 49% (22 of 45; 34-64) in the all-treated population, and 41% (14 of 34; 25-59) and 65% (22 of 34; 47-80) in the efficacy-evaluable population. In the phase 2 single-agent cohort, the overall response rate was 8% (one of 13 patients; 0·2-36·0) and the clinical benefit rate was 23% (three of 13; 5-54). Among the 45 patients given melflufen plus dexamethasone during phase 2, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were clinically manageable thrombocytopenia (28 [62%] patients) and neutropenia (26 [58%]), and non-haematological toxicity was infrequent. 24 serious adverse events were reported in 17 (38%) of 45 patients, most commonly pneumonia (five [11%]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events that occurred in the phase 2 single-agent cohort of 13 patients were neutropenia (nine [69%]) and thrombocytopenia (eight [62%]). Nine patients experienced serious adverse events in the single-agent cohort, most commonly thrombocytopenia (two [15%]). There were three deaths from adverse events within 30 days of treatment that were possibly related to treatment: one in the 25 mg cohort in phase 1 (due to bacteraemia) and two in the phase 2 combination cohort (one due to neutropenic sepsis and one due to Escherichia coli sepsis), each in the setting of progressive disease. INTERPRETATION: These data show that melflufen is active in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma and tolerable in most patients. These results show the feasibility of this regimen and support the initiation of additional clinical studies of melflufen in multiple myeloma, both in combination with dexamethasone as well as in triplet regimens with additional classes of drugs. FUNDING: Oncopeptides AB.

3.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(2): 17, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054831

RESUMO

The evolving paradigm of continuous therapy and maintenance treatment approaches in multiple myeloma (MM) offers prolonged disease control and improved outcomes compared to traditional fixed-duration approaches. Potential benefits of long-term strategies include sustained control of disease symptoms, as well as continued cytoreduction and clonal control, leading to unmeasurable residual disease and the possibility of transforming MM into a chronic or functionally curable condition. "Continuous therapy" commonly refers to administering a doublet or triplet regimen until disease progression, whereas maintenance approaches typically involve single-agent or doublet treatment following more intensive prior therapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or doublet, triplet, or even quadruplet induction therapy. However, the requirements for agents and regimens within these contexts are similar: treatments must be tolerable for a prolonged period of time, should not be associated with cumulative or chronic toxicity, should not adversely affect patients' quality of life, should ideally be convenient with a minimal treatment burden for patients, and should not impact the feasibility or efficacy of subsequent treatment at relapse. Multiple agents have been and are being investigated as long-term options in the treatment of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM), including the immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide, the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib, and the monoclonal antibodies daratumumab, elotuzumab, and isatuximab. Here we review the latest results with long-term therapy approaches in three different settings in NDMM: (1) maintenance treatment post ASCT; (2) continuous frontline therapy in nontransplant patients; (3) maintenance treatment post-frontline therapy in the nontransplant setting. We also discuss evidence from key phase 3 trials. Our review demonstrates how the paradigm of long-term treatment is increasingly well-established across NDMM treatment settings, potentially resulting in further improvements in patient outcomes, and highlights key clinical issues that will need to be addressed in order to provide optimal benefit.

4.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079295

RESUMO

In the last years, the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been reported as playing a relevant role in esophageal cancer (EC) development, with this compartment being related to several aspects of EC genesis and progression. This sounds very interesting due to the complexity of this highly incident and lethal tumor, which takes the sixth position in mortality among all tumor types worldwide. The well-established increase in ECM stiffness, which is able to trigger mechanotransduction signaling, is capable of regulating several malignant behaviors by converting alteration in ECM mechanics into cytoplasmatic biochemical signals. In this sense, it has been shown that some molecules play a key role in these events, particularly the different collagen isoforms, as well as enzymes related to its turnover, such as lysyl oxidase (LOX) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In fact, MMPs are not only involved in ECM stiffness, but also in other events related to ECM homeostasis, which includes ECM remodeling. Therefore, the crucial role of distinct MMPs isoform has already been reported, especially MMP-2, -3, -7, and -9, along EC development, thus strongly associating these proteins with the control of important cellular events during tumor progression, particularly in the process of invasion during metastasis establishment. In addition, by distinct mechanisms, a vast diversity of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, such as laminin, fibronectin, tenascin C, galectin, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid exert remarkable effects in esophageal malignant cells due to the activation of oncogenic signaling pathways mainly involved in cytoskeleton alterations during adhesion and migration processes. Finally, the wide spectrum of interactions potentially mediated by ECM may represent a singular intervention scenario in esophageal carcinogenesis natural history and, due to the scarce knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in EC development, the growing body of evidence on ECM's role along esophageal carcinogenesis might provide a solid base to improve its management in the future.

5.
Haematologica ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107329

RESUMO

Despite remarkable advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the last decades, the prognosis of patients harboring high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities remains dismal as compared to that of standard-risk patients. Proteasome inhibitors demonstrated to partially ameliorate the prognosis of high-risk patients. We pooled together data from two phase I/II trials on transplant-ineligible patients with multiple myeloma receiving upfront carfilzomib cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone followed by carfilzomib maintenance. The aim of this analysis was to compare treatment outcomes in patients with standard- versus high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. High risk was defined by the presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality, including t(4;14), del17p and t(14;16). Overall, 94 patients were included in the analysis: 57 (61%) in the standard-risk and 37 (39%) in the high-risk group. Median follow-up was 38 months. In standard- vs. high-risk patients, we observed similar progression-free survival (3-year PFS: 52% vs. 43%, respectively; p=0.50), overall survival (3-year OS: 78% vs. 73%; p=0.38), and overall response rate (88% vs 95%; p=0.47), with no statistical differences between the two groups. No difference in terms of progression-free survival was observed between patients with or without del17p. Carfilzomib, used both as induction and maintenance agent for transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients, mitigated the poor prognosis carried by high-risk cytogenetics and resulted into similar progression-free survival and overall survival, as compared to standard-risk patients. ClinicalTrials.gov IDs: NCT01857115 (IST-CAR-561) and NCT01346787 (IST-CAR-506).

6.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 20(1): 8-17.e16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern has been increasing in oncology regarding randomized clinical trial (RCT) eligibility limiting the generalizability of the findings to real-world populations. Using a large US electronic health record database, we investigated the real-world generalizability of the findings from recent RCTs for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with RRMM initiating second-to fourth-line therapy with the control arm of the following RCTs were retrospectively identified and categorized as "RCT eligible" or "RCT ineligible" according to the eligibility criteria: (1) Rd (lenalidomide, dexamethasone)-ASPIRE, TOURMALINE-MM1, POLLUX, and ELOQUENT-2; and (2) Vd (bortezomib, dexamethasone)-CASTOR and ENDEAVOR. Predictors of RCT ineligibility and overall survival were analyzed using logistic regression and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Variations in the individual trial ineligibility rates were noted, with up to 72.3% (range, 47.9%-72.3%) of patients not meeting the eligibility criteria for 1 of the 6 hallmark RCTs (n = 788 for Rd; n = 477 for Vd). Other malignancies, cardiovascular disease, acute infection, and renal dysfunction were the common reasons for ineligibility. Advanced age, Charlson comorbidity score of ≥ 2, later therapy lines (3-4), and refractory status to the previous line were independently predictive of RCT ineligibility. RCT-ineligible versus RCT-eligible patients had a significantly greater mortality risk (hazard ratio, Rd, 1.46; Vd, 1.51). CONCLUSION: Most real-world patients with RRMM were ineligible for the hallmark RCTs. The eligibility rates varied across the RCTs, underlining the flawed nature of cross-study comparisons without RCT validation. Overall survival was significantly affected by the inability to meet the criteria, highlighting the limited generalizability of the RCT results. Greater efforts are required to broaden the eligibility criteria to reflect real-world clinical characteristics and narrow the gap between RCT efficacy and the observed effectiveness in real-world patients with RRMM.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694338

RESUMO

: We conducted a pooled analysis of two phase III trials, RV-MM-EMN-441 and EMN01, to compare maintenance with lenalidomide-prednisone vs. lenalidomide in newly diagnosed transplant-eligible and -ineligible myeloma patients. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival, progression-free survival 2 and overall survival with both regimens. A secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of duration of maintenance on overall survival and on outcome after relapse. A total of 625 patients (lenalidomide-prednisone arm, n = 315; lenalidomide arm, n = 310) were analyzed. The median follow-up was 58 months. Median progression-free survival (25 vs. 19 months; p = 0.08), progression-free survival 2 (56 vs. 49 months; p = 0.9) and overall survival (73 months vs. NR; p = 0.08) were not significantly different between the two arms. Toxicity profiles of lenalidomide-prednisone and lenalidomide were similar, with the exception of neutropenia that was higher in the lenalidomide arm (grade ≥ 3: 9% vs. 19%, p < 0.001), without an increase in the rate of infections. Overall survival (median NR vs. 49 months, p < 0.001), progression-free survival from relapse (median 35 vs. 24 months, p = 0.004) and overall survival from relapse (median not reached vs. 41 months, p = 0.002) were significantly longer in patients continuing maintenance for ≥2 years. We showed that the addition of prednisone at 25 or 50 mg every other day (eod) to lenalidomide maintenance did not induce any significant advantage.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2059516, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737655

RESUMO

GI tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms concerning their natural history and molecular alterations harbored. Nevertheless, these tumors share very high incidence and mortality rates worldwide and patients' poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification of specific biomarkers could increase the development of personalized medicine, in order to improve GI cancer management. In this sense, HMGA family members (HMGA1 and HMGA2) comprise an important group of genes involved in the genesis and progression of malignant tumors. Additionally, it has also been reported that HMGA1 and HMGA2 display an important role in the detection and progression of GI tumors. In this way, HMGA family members could be used as reliable biomarkers able to efficiently track not only the tumor per se but also the main risk conditions related with their development of GI cancers in the future. Finally, it shall be a promising option to revert the current scenario, once HMGA genes and proteins could represent a convergence point in the complex landscape of GI tumors.

9.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582542

RESUMO

In the EMN01 trial, the addition of an alkylator (melphalan or cyclophosphamide) to lenalidomide-steroid induction has been prospectively evaluated in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma patients. After induction, patients were randomly assigned to maintenance treatment with lenalidomide alone or with prednisone continuously. This analysis (median follow-up of 71 months) focused on maintenance treatment and on subgroup analyses according to the International Myeloma Working Group Frailty Score. 217 patients in lenalidomide-dexamethasone, 217 in melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide and 220 in cyclophosphamide-prednisone-lenalidomide arms were evaluable. 284 (43%) patients were fit, 205 (31%) intermediate-fit and 165 (25%) frail. After induction, 402 patients were eligible for maintenance, (lenalidomide arm: 204; lenalidomide-prednisone: 198). After a median duration of maintenance of 22.0 months, progression-free survival from start of maintenance was 22.2 months with lenalidomide-prednisone vs 18.6 months with lenalidomide (HR 0.85,p=0.14), with no differences across frailty subgroups. The most frequent grade ≥3 toxicity was neutropenia (10% of lenalidomide-prednisone and 21% of lenalidomide patients; p=0.001). Grade ≥3 non-hematologic adverse events were rare (<15%). In fit patients, melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared to cyclophosphamide-prednisone-lenalidomide (HR 0.72,p=0.05) and lenalidomide-dexamethasone (HR 0.72, p=0.04). Likewise, a trend towards a better overall survival was noted for melphalan-prednisone-lenalidomide and cyclophosphamide-prednisone-lenalidomide, as compared to lenalidomide-dexamethasone. No differences were observed in intermediate-fit and frail patients. This analysis showed positive outcomes of maintenance with lenalidomide-based regimens, with a good safety profile. For the first time, we showed that fit patients benefit from a triplet full-dose regimen, while intermediate-fit and frail patients from gentler regimens. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01093196.

10.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248973

RESUMO

Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone and continuous lenalidomide-dexamethasone represent the standard treatment of transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed, multiple myeloma patients. To date, no randomized trial has compared bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone to lenalidomide-dexamethasone, and there is no evidence of the optimal treatment for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, particularly in high-risk cytogenetic patients (del(17p), t(4;14) or t(14;16)). We pooled together data from newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone or lenalidomide-dexamethasone induction followed by lenalidomide maintenance 10 mg enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 and EMN01 trials, to evaluate their efficacy in different patient subgroups, focusing on standard and high-risk cytogenetics. Overall, 474 patients were analyzed (bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone: 257 patients; lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide maintenance: 217 patients). No difference in progression-free survival (Hazard Ratio: 0.96) and overall survival (Hazard Ratio: 1.08) was observed between bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone and lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide in standard-risk, while a reduction in the risk of progression (Hazard Ratio: 0.54) and death (Hazard Ratio: 0.73) was seen in high-risk patients treated with bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone vs. lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide. In particular, standard risk patients >75years benefited less from bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone than lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide (Hazard Ratio for progression-free survival: 0.96; Hazard Ratio for overall survival: 1.81). In this non-randomized analysis, bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone and lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide were equally effective in younger (≤75years), standard-risk patients, while older ones (>75years) benefited more from lenalidomide-dexamethasone followed by lenalidomide. In high-risk patients, bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone improved progression-free survival and overall survival irrespective of age. The source trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01063179 and NCT01093196).

11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 3131-3136, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although genoproteomic and clinicopathological knowledge on Lynch syndrome (LS) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has notably increased during the past two decades and even though surgery represents the mainstay of treatment for both conditions, as of 2019, the surgical choice in terms of timing and procedure still appears controversial in the absence of definitive guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively analyzed of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgically treated at our Institution between 1st January 2003 and 31st December 2018. Particular attention was given to patients with LS and FAP ≤45 years of age (young-onset CRC); for this category of patients, the surgical procedures performed were compared in terms of benefits and disadvantages. RESULTS: A total of 1,878 primary CRCs were submitted to major surgery; young-onset malignancies accounted for 3.8% of all CRCs. Thirteen young-onset inherited CRCs were surgically removed from 11 patients with LS and two with FAP. Segmental colectomy and restorative proctocolectomy were the procedures most frequently performed in young patients with LS and FAP, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the light of our retrospective results, we highlight the need for randomized controlled trials comparing the surgical options for LS- and FAP-related CRC developing in young patients. Defining the advantages and risks of each surgical option is of the utmost importance in order to improve prognosis of such patients and establish unanimous recommendations.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/cirurgia , Colectomia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/cirurgia , Proctocolectomia Restauradora , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/mortalidade , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Roma , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Haematologica ; 104(11): 2265-2273, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948492

RESUMO

This is a phase II dose escalation trial of carfilzomib in combination with thalidomide and dexamethasone for induction and consolidation in transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The results of four dose levels are reported. Induction therapy consisted of four cycles of carfilzomib 20/27 mg/m2 (n=50), 20/36 mg/m2 (n=20), 20/45 mg/m2 (n=21), and 20/56 mg/m2 (n=20) on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16 of a 28-day cycle; thalidomide 200 mg on day 1 through 28 and dexamethasone 40 mg weekly. Induction therapy was followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation and consolidation therapy with four cycles of carfilzomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone in the same schedule except a lower dose of thalidomide (50 mg). Very good partial response rate or better and complete response rate or better after induction therapy were 65% and 18%, respectively, increasing to 86% and 63%, respectively, after consolidation therapy. In all cohorts combined, after a median follow up of 58.7 months, median progression-free survival was 58 months (95%CI: 45-67 months). Median overall survival was 83 months (95%CI: 83 months-not reached). Grade 3/4 adverse events consisted mainly of infections, respiratory disorders, skin and vascular disorders in 11%, 8%, 9%, and 9%, respectively. Grade 3 polyneuropathy was only reported in one patient. Cardiac events were limited: grade 3/4 in 5% of patients. Carfilzomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone as induction and consolidation treatment after high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation is highly efficacious and safe in transplant-eligible patients with NDMM. This study was registered as #NTR2422 at http://www.trialregister.nl.

13.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1640-1647, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733270

RESUMO

Twice-weekly carfilzomib is approved at 27 and 56 mg/m2 to treat relapsed multiple myeloma patients. In the phase III study ARROW, once-weekly 70 mg/m 2 carfilzomib prolonged the median progression-free survival of relapsed multiple myeloma patients in comparison with twice-weekly 27 mg/m2 carfilzomib, without adding significant toxicity. Data were pooled from two phase I/II studies of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who received nine induction cycles of carfilzomib (either 70 mg/m2 once-weekly or 36 mg/m2 twice-weekly), cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, followed by carfilzomib maintenance. Overall, 121 transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were analyzed (once-weekly, n=63; twice-weekly, n=58). We found no significant difference in median progression-free survival [35.7 months (95%CI: 23.7-not reached, NR) vs 35.5 months (95%CI: 24.3-NR); HR: 1.39; P=0.26] and 3-year overall survival [70% [95%CI: 59%-84%) vs 72% (95%CI: 60%-85%); HR: 1.27; P=0.5] between once-weekly and twice-weekly carfilzomib. From the start of maintenance, 3-year progression-free survival [47% (95%CI: 33%-68%) vs 51% (95%CI: 38%-70%); HR: 1.04; P=0.92] and overall survival [72% (95%CI: 58%-89%) vs 73% (95%CI: 59%-90%); HR: 0.82; P=0.71] were similar in the once- versus twice-weekly carfilzomib. The rate of grade 3-5 hematologic (24% vs 30%; P=0.82) and non-hematologic (38% vs 41%; P=0.83) adverse events was similar in the two groups. Once-weekly 70 mg/m2 carfilzomib as induction and maintenance therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was as safe and effective as twice-weekly 36 mg/m2 carfilzomib and provided a more convenient schedule. The trials are registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: 01857115 (IST-CAR-561) and 01346787 (IST-CAR-506).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719063

RESUMO

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) affects mainly older men. It is estimated to affect 50% of 51-60-year-old men and 70% of 61-70-year-old men. BPH is a nonmalignant proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate gland regions. Despite the use of conventional pharmacological therapy, herbal medicines are used in BPH therapy, and several mechanisms of action have been suggested based on their complex chemical composition. Considering the ethnomedicinal uses of Kalanchoe gastonis-bonnieri (KGB), we evaluated the inhibitory effects on the proliferation of stromal cells from primary benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) of four different aqueous extracts from this plant: underground parts from specimens in flower (T1 treatment), leaves from specimens in flower (T2 treatment), and flowers (T3 treatment) and leaves from specimens not in flower (T4 treatment). T1, T2, T3, and T4 treatments at 250 µg/ml for 72 hours inhibited BPH cells by 56.7%, 29.2%, 39.4%, and 13.5%, respectively, showing that the KGB underground parts extract (T1 treatment) was the most active. Our findings show that the extract of the KGB underground parts (150 and 250 µg/ml) stimulates important changes in the BPH cells, modulating crucial processes such as proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis provided a tentative identification of glycosylated syringic acid derivatives, glycosylated forms of volatile compounds, and lignans in this extract. Finally, these results suggest that there is a potential therapeutic use for KGB in BPH, which could improve the clinical management of the disease.

15.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 4, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several new drugs are approved for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but no validated biomarkers are available for the prediction of a clinical outcome. We aimed to establish whether pretreatment blood and bone marrow plasma concentrations of major cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) of patients from a phase 3 trial of a MM treatment could have a prognostic and predictive value in terms of response to therapy and progression-free and overall survival and whether these patients could be stratified for their prognosis. METHODS: Blood and bone marrow plasma levels of Ang-2, FGF-2, HGF, VEGF, PDGF-ß, IL-8, TNF-α, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were determined at diagnosis in MM patients enrolled in the GIMEMA MM0305 randomized controlled trial by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These levels were correlated both reciprocally and with the type of therapy and patients' characteristics and with a group of non-MM patients as controls. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected between the blood and bone marrow plasma levels of angiogenic cytokines. A cutoff for each CAF was established. The therapeutic response of patients with blood plasma levels of CAFs lower than the cutoff was better than the response of those with higher levels in terms of percentage of responding patients and quality of response. CONCLUSION: FGF-2, HGF, VEGF, and PDGF-ß plasma levels at diagnosis have predictive significance for response to treatment. The stratification of patients based on the levels of CAFs at diagnosis and their variations after therapy is useful to characterize different risk groups concerning outcome and response to therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial information can be found at the following link: NCT01063179.

16.
Blood ; 133(11): 1217-1221, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692124

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 17p (del17p) that span the TP53 gene are associated with poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM), but the prognostic value of del17p cancer clonal fraction (CCF) remains unclear. We applied uniform cytogenetic assessments in a large cohort of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients carrying varying levels of del17p. Incremental CCF change was associated with shorter survival, and a robust CCF threshold of 0.55 was established in discovery and replication data sets. After stratification on the 0.55-CCF threshold, high-risk patients had statistically significantly poorer outcomes compared with low-risk patients (median progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS], 14 and 32 vs 23.1 and 76.2 months, respectively). Analyses of a third data set comprising whole-exome sequencing data from NDMM patients identified presence of TP53 deletions/mutations as a necessary requirement for high-risk stratification in addition to exceeding the del17p CCF threshold. Meta-analysis conducted across 3 data sets confirmed the robustness of the CCF threshold for PFS and OS. Our analyses demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization- and sequencing-based methods to identify TP53 deletions, estimate CCF, and establish that both CCF threshold of 0.55 and presence of TP53 deletion are necessary to identify del17p-carrying NDMM patients with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Evolução Clonal , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Blood ; 133(2): 156-167, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455381

RESUMO

Proteasome inhibitors (PI) are extensively used for the therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) and mantle cell lymphoma. However, patients continuously relapse or are intrinsically resistant to this class of drugs. Here, to identify targets that synergize with PI, we carried out a functional screening in MM cell lines using a short hairpin RNA library against cancer driver genes. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) was identified as a top candidate, showing a synthetic lethal activity with the PI carfilzomib (CFZ). Combinations of US Food and Drug Administration-approved PI with a pharmacological IDH2 inhibitor (AGI-6780) triggered synergistic cytotoxicity in MM, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. CFZ/AGI-6780 treatment increased death of primary CD138+ cells from MM patients and exhibited a favorable cytotoxicity profile toward peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived stromal cells. Mechanistically, the CFZ/AGI-6780 combination significantly decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and adenosine triphosphate levels as a consequence of enhanced IDH2 enzymatic inhibition. Specifically, CFZ treatment reduced the expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), thus limiting IDH2 activation through the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT3. Consistently, combination of CFZ with either NAMPT or SIRT3 inhibitors impaired IDH2 activity and increased MM cell death. Finally, inducible IDH2 knockdown enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of CFZ in a subcutaneous xenograft model of MM, resulting in inhibition of tumor progression and extended survival. Taken together, these findings indicate that NAMPT/SIRT3/IDH2 pathway inhibition enhances the therapeutic efficacy of PI, thus providing compelling evidence for treatments with lower and less toxic doses and broadening the application of PI to other malignancies.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sirtuína 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 3/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Lancet ; 393(10168): 253-264, 2019 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintenance therapy following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) can delay disease progression and prolong survival in patients with multiple myeloma. Ixazomib is ideally suited for maintenance therapy given its convenient once-weekly oral dosing and low toxicity profile. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of ixazomib as maintenance therapy following ASCT. METHODS: The phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled TOURMALINE-MM3 study took place in 167 clinical or hospital sites in 30 countries in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. Eligible participants were adults with a confirmed diagnosis of symptomatic multiple myeloma according to International Myeloma Working Group criteria who had achieved at least a partial response after undergoing standard-of-care induction therapy followed by high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) conditioning and single ASCT within 12 months of diagnosis. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to oral ixazomib or matching placebo on days 1, 8, and 15 in 28-day cycles for 2 years following induction, high-dose therapy, and transplantation. The initial 3 mg dose was increased to 4 mg from cycle 5 if tolerated during cycles 1-4. Randomisation was stratified by induction regimen, pre-induction disease stage, and response post-transplantation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by intention-to-treat analysis. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of ixazomib or placebo, according to treatment actually received. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02181413, and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July 31, 2014, and March 14, 2016, 656 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ixazomib maintenance therapy (n=395) or placebo (n=261). With a median follow-up of 31 months (IQR 27·3-35·7), we observed a 28% reduction in the risk of progression or death with ixazomib versus placebo (median PFS 26·5 months [95% CI 23·7-33·8] vs 21·3 months [18·0-24·7]; hazard ratio 0·72, 95% CI 0·58-0·89; p=0·0023). No increase in second malignancies was noted with ixazomib therapy (12 [3%] patients) compared with placebo (eight [3%] patients) at the time of this analysis. 108 (27%) of 394 patients in the ixazomib group and 51 (20%) of 259 patients in the placebo group experienced serious adverse events. During the treatment period, one patient died in the ixazomib group and none died in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: Ixazomib maintenance prolongs PFS and represents an additional option for post-transplant maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. FUNDING: Millennium Pharmaceuticals, a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Boro/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Administração Oral , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Boro/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer ; 125(5): 750-760, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) is one of the most relevant prognostic factors in patients with multiple myeloma (MM); however, the impact of maintenance therapy on MRD levels remains unclear. Among patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) who received lenalidomide maintenance until they developed disease progression, the role of MRD status as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allelic-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ASO-RQ-PCR) analysis. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with NDMM enrolled in the RV-MM-EMN-441 (clinical trials.gov identifier, NCT01091831) and RV-MM-COOP-0556 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01208766; European Myeloma Network EMN02/HO95 MM Trial) phase 3 trials who achieved at least a very good partial response after intensification/consolidation were included. The median patient age was 57 years (interquartile range, 53-61 years), and all patients received lenalidomide maintenance until they developed progression. MRD was evaluated on bone marrow after intensification/consolidation, after 6 courses of maintenance, and every 6 months thereafter until clinical relapse using both ASO-RQ-PCR (sensitivity, 10-5 ) and MFC (sensitivity, from 10-4 to 10-5 ). RESULTS: After intensification/consolidation, 33 of 72 patients (46%) achieved a molecular complete response (m-CR), and 44 of 70 (63%) achieved a flow complete response (flow-CR). Almost 27% of patients who were MRD-positive after consolidation became MRD-negative during maintenance. After a median follow-up of 38 months, PFS was prolonged in patients who achieved negative MRD status during maintenance according to results from both ASO-RQ-PCR analysis (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.62; P = .0013) and MFC (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.41; P < .001). The impact of negative MRD status on PFS was similar in all subgroups (ASCT and no-ASCT; International Staging System stages I, II, and III; high-risk and standard-risk cytogenetics), and the two techniques were highly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: MRD status is a stronger predictor of PFS than standard risk factors, and lenalidomide maintenance further increases the rate of negative MRD results.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia de Manutenção/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 132: 9-16, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk-adapted therapy is a common strategy in curable hematologic malignancies: standard-risk patients receive less intensive treatment, whereas high-risk patients require a more intensive approach. This model cannot be applied in multiple myeloma (MM), which is still incurable. Continuous treatment (CT) is a key strategy for MM treatment, since it improves duration of remission. However, the role of CT according to standard- or high-risk baseline prognosis remains an open question. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of 2 phase III trials (GIMEMA-MM-03-05 and RV-MM-PI-209) that randomized patients to CT vs fixed-duration therapy (FDT). RESULTS: In the overall patient population (n = 550), CT improved progression-free survival1 (PFS1) (HR 0.54), PFS2 (HR 0.61) and overall survival (OS) (HR 0.71) vs FDT. CT improved PFS1 both in R-ISS I (HR 0.49) and R-ISS II/III patients (HR 0.55). Four-year PFS1 was 38% in R-ISS II/III patients receiving CT and 25% in R-ISS I patients receiving FDT, with similar trends for PFS2 and OS. High-risk patients benefited more from proteasome-inhibitor plus immunomodulatory-based CT than immunomodulatory alone. CONCLUSION: Good prognosis patients receiving FDT lose their prognostic advantage over high-risk patients receiving CT and high-risk patients may benefit from more intensive maintenance including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
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