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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the relations of individual lifestyle factors and its composite score with healthy ageing among Chinese. METHODS: We included 14,159 participants aged 45-74 years at baseline from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort. A protective lifestyle score (0-5 scale) was calculated at baseline (1993-1998) and updated at the second follow-up visit (2006-2010) on the basis of optimal body mass index (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), healthy diet (upper 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score), being physically active (≥2 hours/week of moderate activity or ≥0.5 hours/week of strenuous activity), non-smoking (never smoking), and low-to-moderate alcohol drinking (>0 to ≤14 drinks/week for men and >0 to ≤7 drinks/week for women). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), and was defined as absence of specific chronic diseases, absence of cognitive impairment and limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, good mental and overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain. RESULTS: About 20.0% (2,834) participants met the criteria of healthy ageing after a median follow-up of 20 years. Each one-point increase in the protective lifestyle score computed at baseline and second follow-up visits was associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing by 25% (95% CI: 20%-30%) and 24% (18%-29%), respectively. The population-attributable risk percent of adherence to 4-5 protective lifestyle factors was 34.3% (95% CI: 25.3%-42.3%) at baseline and 31.3% (23.0%-38.7%) at second follow-up visits for healthy ageing. In addition, positive increase in lifestyle scores from baseline to second follow-up visits was also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of healthy ageing with an odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.24) for each increment in protective lifestyle score. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed that adopting healthy lifestyle factors, even after midlife, was associated with healthy ageing at old age.

2.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 35(1): 9-16, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593521

RESUMO

Patient-perceived quality of inpatient/outpatient psychiatric care remains under-researched. A cross-sectional survey with purposive sampling comprising 567 inpatients and 549 outpatients was conducted among eight psychiatric care facilities in Taiwan to examine the factors influencing patient-perceived care quality. Inpatients and outpatients perceived moderate quality of care, where "Encounter" was reported as the highest dimension. Inpatients perceived "Secure environment" as the lowest; outpatients rated "Discharge/Referring" as the lowest. Hospital region and customer loyalty were significantly associated with patient-perceived care quality. Other significant factors were also identified: inpatient employment, perceived mental health and treatment effects, understanding diagnosis, previous treatment, and visited by appointment.

3.
Opt Lett ; 46(1): 29-32, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362005

RESUMO

Synthetic aperture radar can measure the phase of a microwave with an antenna, which cannot be directly extended to visible light imaging due to phase lost. In this Letter, we report an active remote sensing with visible light via reflective Fourier ptychography, termed coherent synthetic aperture imaging (CSAI), achieving high resolution, a wide field-of-view (FOV), and phase recovery. A proof-of-concept experiment is reported with laser scanning and a collimator for the infinite object. Both smooth and rough objects are tested, and the spatial resolution increased from 15.6 to 3.48 µm with a factor of 4.5. The speckle noise can be suppressed obviously, which is important for coherent imaging. Meanwhile, the CSAI method can tackle the aberration induced from the optical system by one-step deconvolution and shows the potential to replace the adaptive optics for aberration removal of atmospheric turbulence.

4.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(1): 92-99, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy lifestyles caused a huge disease burden. Adopting healthy lifestyles is the most cost-effective strategy for preventing non-communicable diseases. The aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the relationship of combined lifestyle factors (eg, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet and overweight/obesity) with the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to April 2019. Cohort studies investigating the association between the combination of at least three lifestyle factors and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence of CVD were filtered by consensus among reviewers. Pairs of reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated study quality. Random-effects models were used to pool HRs. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested. RESULTS: In total, 142 studies were included. Compared with the participants with the least-healthy lifestyles, those with the healthiest lifestyles had lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR=0.45, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.48, 74 studies with 2 584 766 participants), cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.46, 41 studies with 1 743 530 participants), incident CVD (HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.51, 22 studies with 754 894 participants) and multiple subtypes of CVDs (HRs ranging from 0.29 to 0.45). The associations were largely significant and consistent among individuals from different continents, racial groups and socioeconomic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Given the great health benefits, comprehensively tackling multiple lifestyle risk factors should be the cornerstone for reducing the global disease burden.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 125-130, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation of changes in sleep duration with risk of cognitive impairment are inconclusive. This study evaluated the prospective relationships of changes in sleep duration with risk of cognitive impairment in Singapore Chinese. METHODS: We used data from 16,948 Chinese men and women who were aged 45-74 years at baseline (1993-1998) during recruitment into the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort. Daily sleep duration was assessed at baseline, follow-up 2 (2006 to 2010) and follow-up 3 interviews (2014-2016). Cognitive function was evaluated with a Singapore-Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at follow-up 3 interviews when participants were 61-96 years old. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Of the 16,948 participants, 14.4% were defined to have cognitive impairment. Compared with 7 h/day sleep at both baseline and follow-up 2, the OR (95% CI) for cognitive impairment was 1.50 (1.04-2.16) for those who maintained long sleep duration (≥9 h/day), 2.18 (1.37-3.45) for those who prolonged sleep from short duration (≤5 h/day) to long duration (≥9 h/day), and 1.55 (1.20-2.02) for those who prolonged sleep from recommended duration (7 h/day) to long duration. The highest risk was observed in those who shortened sleep from long to short duration (2.93, 1.35-6.34). LIMITATIONS: Measures of sleep were self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial changes in sleep duration over time were associated with higher risks of cognitive impairment. The findings underscore the importance of maintaining optimal sleep duration for the prevention of cognitive impairment.

6.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: evidence from prospective studies investigating the association between consumption of nuts in midlife and risk of cognitive impairment in late life is limited. METHODS: this study analysed data from 16,737 participants in a population-based cohort, the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Intake of nuts was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (1993-1998), when participants were 45-74 years old (mean age = 53.5 years). Cognitive function was tested using the Singapore modified Mini-Mental State Examination during the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), when participants were 61-96 years old (mean age = 73.2 years). Cognitive impairment was defined using education-specific cut-off points. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between intake and risk of cognitive impairment. RESULTS: cognitive impairment was identified in 2,397 (14.3%) participants. Compared with those who consumed <1 serving/month of nuts, participants who consumed 1-3 servings/month, 1 serving/week and ≥2 servings/week had 12% (95% CI 2-20%), 19% (95% CI 4-31%) and 21% (2-36%) lower risk of cognitive impairment, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Further adjustment for intake of unsaturated fatty acids attenuated the association to non-significance. Mediation analysis showed that the 50.8% of the association between nuts and risk of cognitive impairment was mediated by the intake of total unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: higher intake of nuts in midlife was related to a lower risk of cognitive impairment in late life, which was partly mediated by unsaturated fatty acids.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2027928, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346844

RESUMO

Importance: Menstrual cycle dysfunction is associated with insulin resistance, a key feature early in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the evidence linking irregular and long menstrual cycles with type 2 diabetes is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: To evaluate the associations between menstrual cycle characteristics at different points throughout a woman's reproductive life span and risk of type 2 diabetes and the extent to which this association is modified by lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 75 546 premenopausal US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II from 1993 to June 30, 2017. Data analysis was performed from February 1 to December 30, 2019. Exposures: Self-reported usual length and regularity of menstrual cycles at the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident type 2 diabetes identified through self-report and confirmed by validated supplemental questionnaires. Results: Among the 75 546 women in the study at baseline, the mean (SD) age was 37.9 (4.6) years (range, 29.0-46.0 years). A total of 5608 participants (7.4%) had documented new cases of type 2 diabetes during 1 639 485 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, women reporting always having irregular menstrual cycles between the age ranges of 14 to 17 years, 18 to 22 years, and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 32% (95% CI, 22%-44%), 41% (95% CI, 23%-62%), and 66% (95% CI, 49%-84%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women reporting very regular cycles (within 3-4 days of expected period) in the same age range. Similarly, women reporting a usual cycle length of 40 days or more between the age ranges of 18 to 22 years and 29 to 46 years were, respectively, 37% (95% CI, 19%-57%) and 50% (95% CI, 36%-65%) more likely to develop type 2 diabetes during follow-up compared with women reporting a usual cycle length of 26 to 31 days in the same age ranges. These associations appeared to be stronger among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity. The relative excess risk of type 2 diabetes due to the interaction between irregular and long menstrual cycles and the overall unhealthy lifestyle score was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.83), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US female nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study II, irregular and long menstrual cycles throughout life were associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, particularly among women with overweight or obesity, a low-quality diet, and low levels of physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Res ; : 110373, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190805

RESUMO

A single measurement of organophosphate flame retardant (OPFR) metabolites in a spot sample is often used in epidemiological studies to estimate individual exposures. Over seven consecutive days, we collected 661 spot samples, including 127 first morning voids (FMVs) and 123 simulated 24-h collections, from 20 healthy adults and analyzed for eight OPFR metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate the variability of the analyzed metabolites. In spot samples group, serial measurements of OPFR metabolites showed poor reproducibility (0.0422 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.349), and the within-day variability was the main contributor of the total variability. The estimated ICCs based on different correction methods for urine dilution (i.e., specific gravity-adjusted, creatinine-adjusted, and creatinine as a covariate) were similar, but varied according to gender and body mass index. Uniformly low sensitivities (0.417-0.633) were observed when using a single FMV or spot sample to predict the 1-week highly (top 33.0%) exposed volunteers. Therefore, using a single urinary measurement to predict chronic exposure to OPFRs can lead to a high degree of classification errors. When multiple urine samples are collected, considering the sampling type, the time of collection, and demographic characteristics may provide a more complete approach to assess exposure to diverse OPFRs.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence regarding vitamin D status and mortality among diabetes is scarce. This study aimed to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 6,329 adults with diabetes from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES 2001-2014. Death outcomes were ascertained by linkage to National Death Index records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. RESULTS: The weighted mean (95% CI) level of serum 25(OH)D was 57.7 (56.6, 58.8) nmol/L, and 46.6% had deficient vitamin D (<50 nmol/L [20 ng/mL]). Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance, HbA1c, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein at baseline (all P trend < 0.05). During 55,126 person-years of follow-up, 2,056 deaths were documented, including 605 CVD deaths and 309 cancer deaths. After multivariate adjustment, higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and linearly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality: there was a 31% reduced risk of all-cause mortality and a 38% reduced risk of CVD mortality per one-unit increment in natural log-transformed 25(OH)D (both P < 0.001). Compared with participants with 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L, the multivariate-adjusted HRs and 95% CI for participants with 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L were 0.59 (0.43, 0.83) for all-cause mortality (P trend = 0.003), 0.50 (0.29, 0.86) for CVD mortality (P trend = 0.02), and 0.49 (0.23, 1.04) for cancer mortality (P trend = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality. These findings suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may lower mortality risk in individuals with diabetes.

10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between dietary patterns in midlife and likelihood of future healthy ageing in Chinese older adults. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 14,159 participants aged 45-74 years who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes at baseline (1993-1998) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: Dietary intakes in midlife were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Diet quality was scored according to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, overall plant-based diet index (PDI), and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), which occurred about 20 years after the baseline visit, and was defined as the absence of 10 chronic diseases, no impairment of cognitive function, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no clinical depression at screening, good overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain among participants who had survival to at least 65 years of age. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each dietary pattern score and healthy ageing. RESULTS: About 20.0% of participants met the healthy ageing criteria. The OR (95% CI) for healthy ageing comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of diet quality scores was 1.52 (1.31-1.77) for aMED, 1.53 (1.35-1.73) for DASH, 1.39 (1.23-1.57) for AHEI-2010, 1.34 (1.18-1.53) for PDI, and 1.45 (1.27-1.65) for hPDI (all P-trend < .001). Each standard deviation increment in different diet quality scores was associated with 12% to 18% higher likelihood of healthy ageing. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In this Chinese population, adherence to various healthy dietary patterns at midlife is associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing at later life.

11.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(11): nzaa157, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204933

RESUMO

Background: The Health Star Rating (HSR) is the government-endorsed front-of-pack labeling system in Australia and New Zealand. Objectives: We aimed to examine prospective associations of a dietary index (DI) based on the HSR, as an indicator of overall diet quality, with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods: We utilized data from the national population-based Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. The HSR-DI at baseline (1999-2000) was constructed by 1) calculation of the HSR points for individual foods in the baseline FFQ, and 2) calculation of the HSR-DI for each participant based on pooled HSR points across foods, weighted by the proportion of energy contributed by each food. Vital status was ascertained by linkage to the Australian National Death Index. Associations of HSR-DI with mortality risk were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Among 10,025 eligible participants [baseline age: 51.6 ± 14.3 y (mean ± standard deviation)] at entry, higher HSR-DI (healthier) was associated with higher consumption of healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, and lower consumption of discretionary foods such as processed meats and confectionery (P-trend < 0.001 for each). During a median follow-up of 16.9 y, 1682 deaths occurred with 507 CVD deaths. In multivariable models adjusted for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions, higher HSR-DI was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, with a hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.80 (0.69, 0.94; P-trend < 0.001) comparing the fifth with the first HSR-DI quintile. A corresponding inverse association was observed for CVD mortality (0.71; 0.54, 0.94; P-trend = 0.008). Conclusions: Better diet quality as defined by the HSR-DI was associated with lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality among Australian adults. Our findings support the use of the HSR nutrient profiling algorithm as a valid tool for guiding consumer food choices.

12.
Retina ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of posterior scleral contraction (PSC) to treat myopic foveoschisis (MF). METHODS: The records of MF patients treated with PSC were reviewed. During PSC, a cross-linked fusiform strip from allogeneic sclera was used and designed axial length (AL) shortening amount was around 2.0∼3.0mm based on preoperative AL. The middle part of the strip was placed at posterior pole of the eye. After few aqueous humors were released, the strip was tightened to contract posterior sclera and shorten AL. Clinical data were collected at pre-operation (op) and post-op follow-ups for 12 months. RESULTS: Twenty-four eyes were collected. The AL at pre-op, post-op 1-week, 3-month, 6-month and 12-month were 29.84±1.24, 27.39±1.32, 27.73±1.23, 27.86±1.26, and 27.91±1.29mm. There was no AL difference between post-op 6-month and 12-month (P=0.242). The accumulated MF reattachment rate at post-op 1-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month were 8.3%, 16.7%, 50.5% and 95.8%. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at post-op 6-month and 12-month were 0.71±0.39 (Snellen acuity 20/80) and 0.64±0.37 (Snellen acuity 20/63), improving significantly compared to pre-op (P=0.006 and <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The PSC was effective to treat MF. The AL stabilized after post-op 6-month and MF reattached gradually with improved visual acuity up to post-op 12-month.

13.
BMJ ; 371: m3464, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether irregular or long menstrual cycles throughout the life course are associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (age <70 years). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017). PARTICIPANTS: 79 505 premenopausal women without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who reported the usual length and regularity of their menstrual cycles at ages 14-17 years, 18-22 years, and 29-46 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before age 70 years) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 1975 premature deaths were documented, including 894 from cancer and 172 from cardiovascular disease. Women who reported always having irregular menstrual cycles experienced higher mortality rates during follow-up than women who reported very regular cycles in the same age ranges. The crude mortality rate per 1000 person years of follow-up for women reporting very regular cycles and women reporting always irregular cycles were 1.05 and 1.23 for cycle characteristics at ages 14-17 years, 1.00 and 1.37 for cycle characteristics at ages 18-22 years, and 1.00 and 1.68 for cycle characteristics at ages 29-46 years. The corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for premature death during follow-up were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37), 1.37 (1.09 to 1.73), and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70), respectively. Similarly, women who reported that their usual cycle length was 40 days or more at ages 18-22 years and 29-46 years were more likely to die prematurely than women who reported a usual cycle length of 26-31 days in the same age ranges (1.34, 1.06 to 1.69; and 1.40, 1.17 to 1.68, respectively). These relations were strongest for deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The higher mortality associated with long and irregular menstrual cycles was slightly stronger among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of premature mortality (age <70 years). This relation is slightly stronger among women who smoke.


Assuntos
Ciclo Menstrual , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current evidence on the associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes and mortality is inconsistent, whereas the evidence on artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) was sparse. We aimed to investigate the associations of SSB and ASB intakes with mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. METHODS: Participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2014; n = 31,402) were linked to the US mortality registry by the end of 2015. SSB and ASB intakes were collected using 24-h dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the associations of intakes of SSBs, ASBs, and added sugar from SSBs with mortality with adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, comorbidity, and dietary factors. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, 3878 deaths were identified. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with each additional serving/d of SSB were 1.05 (1.01-1.09) for all-cause mortality and 1.11 (1.03-1.21) for heart disease mortality. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the extreme quintiles of added sugar intakes from SSBs were 1.22 (1.05-1.42) for all-cause mortality and 1.45 (1.06-1.97) for heart disease mortality. No significant relationship was found between SSB intakes and cancer mortality or between high ASB intakes and mortality. Substituting one serving/d of SSB by an equivalent amount of ASBs, unsweetened coffees and teas, and plain water was associated with a 4-7% lower risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Higher SSB intakes were associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality and heart disease mortality. High ASB intakes were not significantly associated with mortality. ASBs, unsweetened coffees and teas, and plain water might be optional alternatives for reducing SSB intakes.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754119

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes correlates with poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19, but very few studies have evaluated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is also a risk factor for the poor outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Here we aimed to examine the associations between IFG and diabetes at admission with risks of complications and mortality among patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 312 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 5 hospitals in Wuhan from Jan 1 to Mar 17, 2020. Clinical information, laboratory findings, complications, treatment regimens, and mortality status were collected. The associations between hyperglycemia and diabetes status at admission with primary composite end-point events (including mechanical ventilation, admission to intensive care unit, or death) were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: The median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range 38-66), and 172 (55%) were women. At the time of hospital admission, 84 (27%) had diabetes (and 36 were new-diagnosed), 62 (20%) had IFG, and 166 (53%) had normal fasting glucose (NFG) levels. Compared to patients with NFG, patients with IFG and diabetes developed more primary composite end-point events (9 [5%], 11 [18%], 26 [31%]), including receiving mechanical ventilation (5 [3%], 6 [10%], 21 [25%]), and death (4 [2%], 9 [15%], 20 [24%]). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed diabetes was associated increased risks of primary composite end-point events (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 1.48-8.40) and mortality (6.25; 1.91-20.45), and IFG was associated with an increased risk of mortality (4.11; 1.15-14.74), after adjusting for age, sex, hospitals and comorbidities. Conclusion: IFG and diabetes at admission were associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Jejum , Feminino , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/virologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(11): 2017-2026, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity often initiates or coexists with certain metabolic abnormalities. This study sought to examine the independent and joint relations of weight and metabolic syndrome (MetS) with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) among Chinese elderly people. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 15,229 participants (mean age: 62.8 years) from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort with complete baseline questionnaire and medical examination data were followed from 2008 to 2010 to 2013. All participants were categorized into four phenotypes: metabolically healthy non-overweight/obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-overweight/obesity (MUNO), metabolically unhealthy overweight/obesity (MUO). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of four phenotypes with the risk of incident CKD, which was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 1151 CKD cases were identified during a mean of 4.6-year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, both overweight/obesity and MetS were associated with higher risk of CKD, and the ORs (95% CI) were 1.32 (1.15-1.52) and 1.50 (1.31-1.73), respectively. The risk of CKD was progressively higher in MHO (1.31, 1.09-1.57), MUNO (1.54, 1.22-1.93), and MUO (2.05, 1.73-2.42) as compared with MHNO phenotype, without significant multiplicative interaction between overweight/obesity and MetS (Pinteraction = 0.906). These associations were slightly stronger among those aged >60 years or with baseline diabetes. CONCLUSION: Both overweight/obesity and MetS were associated with an increased risk of CKD. It is worth noting that MHO and MUNO also have an elevated risk. Maintaining both normal weight and healthy metabolic profile is recommended.

17.
JAMA ; 324(10): 951-960, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789505

RESUMO

Importance: A vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is urgently needed. Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational inactivated whole-virus COVID-19 vaccine in China. Interventions: In the phase 1 trial, 96 participants were assigned to 1 of the 3 dose groups (2.5, 5, and 10 µg/dose) and an aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant-only group (n = 24 in each group), and received 3 intramuscular injections at days 0, 28, and 56. In the phase 2 trial, 224 adults were randomized to 5 µg/dose in 2 schedule groups (injections on days 0 and 14 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28], and days 0 and 21 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28]). Design, Setting, and Participants: Interim analysis of ongoing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 clinical trials to assess an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The trials were conducted in Henan Province, China, among 96 (phase 1) and 224 (phase 2) healthy adults aged between 18 and 59 years. Study enrollment began on April 12, 2020. The interim analysis was conducted on June 16, 2020, and updated on July 27, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions 7 days after each injection, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response 14 days after the whole-course vaccination, which was measured by a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test against live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results: Among 320 patients who were randomized (mean age, 42.8 years; 200 women [62.5%]), all completed the trial up to 28 days after the whole-course vaccination. The 7-day adverse reactions occurred in 3 (12.5%), 5 (20.8%), 4 (16.7%), and 6 (25.0%) patients in the alum only, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups, respectively, in the phase 1 trial; and in 5 (6.0%) and 4 (14.3%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 14 for vaccine and alum only, and 16 (19.0%) and 5 (17.9%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 21 for vaccine and alum only, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. The most common adverse reaction was injection site pain, followed by fever, which were mild and self-limiting; no serious adverse reactions were noted. The geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups at day 14 after 3 injections were 316 (95% CI, 218-457), 206 (95% CI, 123-343), and 297 (95% CI, 208-424), respectively, in the phase 1 trial, and were 121 (95% CI, 95-154) and 247 (95% CI, 176-345) at day 14 after 2 injections in participants receiving vaccine on days 0 and 14 and on days 0 and 21, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. There were no detectable antibody responses in all alum-only groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this interim report of the phase 1 and phase 2 trials of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, patients had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity; the study is ongoing. Efficacy and longer-term adverse event assessment will require phase 3 trials. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2000031809.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Hidróxido de Alumínio/administração & dosagem , Hidróxido de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Propiolactona , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 750-758, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713271

RESUMO

Systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg has been defined as stage I hypertension by the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines. Drug treatment is recommended for stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease in the 2017 Hypertension Clinical Practice Guidelines but not in the 2018 Chinese guidelines. However, the cost-effectiveness of drug treatment among this subgroup of Chinese patients is unclear. This study developed a microsimulation model to compare costs and effectiveness of drug treatment and nondrug treatment for the subgroup of stage I hypertensive patients over a lifetime horizon from a government affordability perspective. Event rates of mortality and cardiovascular complications were estimated from 3 cohorts in the Chinese population. Costs and health utilities were obtained from the national statistics report and published literature. The model predicted that drug treatment generated quality-adjusted life-years of 13.52 and associated with expected costs of $6825 in comparison with 13.81 and $7328 produced by nondrug treatment over a lifetime horizon among stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $8836/quality-adjusted life-year (the GDP per capita in 2017), drug treatment only had a 1.8% probability of being cost-effective compared with nondrug treatment after 10 000 probabilistic simulations. Sensitivity analysis of treatment costs, benefits expected from treatment, health utilities, and discount rates did not change the results. Our results suggested that drug treatment was not cost-effective compared with nondrug treatment for stage I hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years without cardiovascular disease in China.

19.
Rep Prog Phys ; 83(9): 096101, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679569

RESUMO

Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a promising and fast-growing computational imaging technique with high resolution, wide field-of-view (FOV) and quantitative phase recovery, which effectively tackles the problems of phase loss, aberration-introduced artifacts, narrow depth-of-field and the trade-off between resolution and FOV in conventional microscopy simultaneously. In this review, we provide a comprehensive roadmap of microscopy, the fundamental principles, advantages, and drawbacks of existing imaging techniques, and the significant roles that FPM plays in the development of science. Since FPM is an optimization problem in nature, we discuss the framework and related work. We also reveal the connection of Euler's formula between FPM and structured illumination microscopy. We review recent advances in FPM, including the implementation of high-precision quantitative phase imaging, high-throughput imaging, high-speed imaging, three-dimensional imaging, mixed-state decoupling, and introduce the prosperous biomedical applications. We conclude by discussing the challenging problems and future applications. FPM can be extended to a kind of framework to tackle the phase loss and system limits in the imaging system. This insight can be used easily in speckle imaging, incoherent imaging for retina imaging, large-FOV fluorescence imaging, etc.

20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(11): 1201-1209, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on preventing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging to interpret due to varying study designs with heterogeneous endpoints and credibility. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence with prospective designs to propose evidence-based suggestions on AD prevention. METHODS: Electronic databases and relevant websites were searched from inception to 1 March 2019. Both observational prospective studies (OPSs) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. The multivariable-adjusted effect estimates were pooled by random-effects models, with credibility assessment according to its risk of bias, inconsistency and imprecision. Levels of evidence and classes of suggestions were summarised. RESULTS: A total of 44 676 reports were identified, and 243 OPSs and 153 RCTs were eligible for analysis after exclusion based on pre-decided criteria, from which 104 modifiable factors and 11 interventions were included in the meta-analyses. Twenty-one suggestions are proposed based on the consolidated evidence, with Class I suggestions targeting 19 factors: 10 with Level A strong evidence (education, cognitive activity, high body mass index in latelife, hyperhomocysteinaemia, depression, stress, diabetes, head trauma, hypertension in midlife and orthostatic hypotension) and 9 with Level B weaker evidence (obesity in midlife, weight loss in late life, physical exercise, smoking, sleep, cerebrovascular disease, frailty, atrial fibrillation and vitamin C). In contrast, two interventions are not recommended: oestrogen replacement therapy (Level A2) and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (Level B). INTERPRETATION: Evidence-based suggestions are proposed, offering clinicians and stakeholders current guidance for the prevention of AD.

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