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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921043, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049295

RESUMO

Importance: Depression is associated with increased disease burden worldwide and with higher risk of mortality in Western populations. Objective: To investigate whether depression is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study prospectively followed adults aged 30 to 79 years in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study from June 1, 2004, to December 31, 2016, and adults aged 32 to 104 years in the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) study from September 1, 2008, to December 31, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depression was evaluated using the Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the CKB cohort and a 7-item symptoms questionnaire modified from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form in the DFTJ cohort. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association of depression with mortality. Covariates in the final models included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and personal and family medical history. Results: Among 512 712 individuals (mean [SD] age, 52.0 [10.7] years; 302 509 [59.0%] women) in the CKB cohort, there were 44 065 deaths, including 18 273 CVD deaths. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode in the CKB cohort was 0.64%, and the 1-month prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 17.96% in the DFTJ cohort. Among 26 298 individuals (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [7.8] years; 14 508 [55.2%] women) in the DFTJ cohort, there were 2571 deaths, including 1013 CVD deaths. In the multivariable-adjusted model, depression was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.20-1.46]; P < .001; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.06-1.29]; P = .002) and CVD mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.04-1.44]; P = .02; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.14-1.54]; P < .001). In both cohorts, men had statistically significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.32-1.76]; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10-1.41]) and CVD mortality (CKB cohort: HR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.10-1.76]; DFTJ cohort: HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.23-1.80]), while the association of depression with mortality among women was only significant for all-cause mortality in the CKB cohort (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.03-1.37]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that depression is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in adults in China, particularly in men. These findings highlight the importance and urgency of depression management as a measure for preventing premature deaths in China.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer poses a huge disease burden, which could be reduced by adopting healthy lifestyles mainly composed of healthy diet, body weight, physical activity, limited alcohol consumption, and avoidance of smoking. However, no systematic review has summarised the relations of combined lifestyle factors with cancer morbidity and mortality. METHODS: EMBASE and PubMed were searched up to April 2019. Cohort studies investigating the association of combined lifestyle factors with risks of incident cancer and cancer mortality were selected. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity and publication bias tests were conducted. RESULTS: The HRs (95% CIs) comparing individuals with the healthiest versus the least healthy lifestyles were 0.71 (0.66-0.76; 16 studies with 1.9 million participants) for incident cancer and 0.48 (0.42-0.54; 30 studies with 1.8 million participants) for cancer mortality. Adopting the healthiest lifestyles was also associated with 17 to 58% lower risks of bladder, breast, colon, endometrial, oesophageal, kidney, liver, lung, rectal, and gastric cancer. The relations were largely consistent and significant among participants with different characteristics in the subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting healthy lifestyles is associated with substantial risk reduction in cancer morbidity and mortality, and thus should be given priority for cancer prevention.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies with long duration of follow-up have assessed the relations of body mass index (BMI) and weight change with cognitive function, especially in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether BMI and weight change in midlife are associated with cognitive impairment in old age. METHODS: We used data from 14,691 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study and computed weight change as the difference between weight reported at baseline (1993-1998) at mean age of 53.0 years and follow-up 1 (1999-2004) at mean age of 58.6 years. Cognitive impairment was determined using education-specific cut-offs of the Singapore Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at follow-up 3 (2014-2016) at mean age of 72.9 years. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations. RESULTS: Obesity (as defined BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2) was associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment at baseline (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.58) and follow-up 1 (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.10-1.54) compared to BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2. Underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) was not associated with a significant risk either at baseline (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.13) or follow-up 1 (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.85-1.28). Compared to participants with <5% weight change, the ORs (95% CIs) of cognitive impairment were 1.20 (1.03-1.41) for those with 5-9.9% weight loss, 1.53 (1.29-1.81) for ≥10% weight loss, 1.00 (0.85-1.17) for 5-9.9% weight gain, and 1.50 (1.28-1.75) for ≥10% weight gain. CONCLUSION: Obesity, weight loss, and excessive weight gain at midlife were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment at old age.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(2): 125-133, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce their overall substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality, smoking cessation is especially important for people with diabetes. However, the effect of weight change after quitting smoking on the long-term health consequences of smoking cessation is unclear. We aimed to examine smoking cessation and subsequent weight change in relation to incident cardiovascular disease events and mortality among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we analysed data from people with type 2 diabetes from two prospective cohorts in the USA: the Nurses' Health Study (1976-2014) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). We included participants from both cohorts who either had prevalent type 2 diabetes or were diagnosed during the study, and who were either current smokers or never smokers without cardiovascular disease or cancer at diagnosis of diabetes. Information on demographics, newly diagnosed diseases, medical history, and lifestyle factors, including smoking status and weight change, was updated every 2 years through validated questionnaires. We assessed the incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause and cause-specific mortality among recent quitters (within 6 years of stopping) and long-term quitters (>6 years) associated with weight change within 6 years of smoking cessation among people with type 2 diabetes. We did a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the associations of smoking cessation and weight change on the outcomes. FINDINGS: Of 173 229 total cohort participants (121 700 from the Nurses' Health Study and 51 529 from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), 10 809 people with type 2 diabetes were included in the incident cardiovascular disease analysis and 9688 were included in the mortality analysis. 2580 incident cases of cardiovascular disease occurred during 153 166 person-years of follow-up, and 3827 deaths occurred during 152 811 person-years of follow-up. Recent quitters (2-6 consecutive years since smoking cessation) without weight gain within the first 6 years of quitting had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease than people who continued to smoke (multivariable-adjusted HR 0·83 [95% CI 0·70-0·99] among all recent quitters, 0·77 [0·62-0·95] among recent quitters without weight gain, 0·99 [0·70-1·41] among recent quitters with weight gain of 0·1-5·0 kg, 0·89 [0·65-1·23] among recent quitters with weight gain of >5·0 kg, and 0·72 [0·61-0·84] among longer-term quitters [>6 consecutive years since smoking cessation]). Weight gain within 6 years after smoking cessation did not attenuate the inverse relation between long-term cessation and all-cause mortality (multivariable-adjusted HR 0·69 [95% CI 0·58-0·82] among long-term quitters without weight gain, 0·57 [0·45-0·71] among long-term quitters with weight gain of 0·1-5·0 kg, and 0·51 [0·42-0·62] among long-term quitters with weight gain of >5·0 kg), with similar results observed for cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. INTERPRETATION: Smoking cessation without subsequent weight gain is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality among smokers with type 2 diabetes. Weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the reduction in risk of developing cardiovascular disease, but does not attenuate the beneficial effect of smoking cessation with respect to mortality. These findings confirm the overall health benefits of quitting smoking among people with type 2 diabetes, but also emphasise the importance of weight management after smoking cessation to maximise its health benefits. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between circulating folate concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been evaluated in Western populations with inconsistent results; however, the observational and causal associations in Chinese populations with relatively low folate concentrations remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association of circulating folate concentrations with incident CAD in Chinese adults, and further evaluated the causal relation using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: We measured baseline serum folate in 1605 incident CAD cases and 1605 age- and sex-matched controls nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, which recruited 27,009 individuals with a mean age of 63.6 y in 2008-2010 and followed up until the end of 2013 (mean: 4.4 y). We quantified the observational association between folate and incident CAD using conditional logistic regression models. A 2-sample MR analysis was performed using summary statistics obtained for genetic variants identified from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating folate concentrations in participants of European ancestry (n = 37,341) and from the CardiogramplusC4D 1000 genomes-based GWAS meta-analysis (n = 184,305). We also conducted 1-sample MR among 1545 incident CAD cases and 1444 controls with genotyping data in the DFTJ cohort. RESULTS: In the DFTJ cohort, higher serum folate concentrations were associated with a lower risk of CAD: the OR (95% CI) across sex-specific quartiles of folate (from lowest to highest concentrations) was 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.63, 0.97), 0.77 (0.61, 0.97), and 0.75 (0.60, 0.95), respectively (P-trend = 0.01). In the MR analysis, the OR of CAD per SD increase in genetically predicted serum folate was 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) and 0.88 (0.59, 1.32) for European and Chinese populations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found an inverse association between circulating folate concentrations and incident CAD among Chinese populations. However, we confirmed that there was no genetic evidence to support the causal relation in both European and Chinese populations.

6.
Redox Biol ; 29: 101404, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-recognized biomarker of inflammation, which can be used as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Evidence have suggested exposure to multiple metals/metalloids may affect immune system and give rise to cardiovascular disease. However, it is lack of study to comprehensively evaluate the association of multiple metals and CRP, the interactions between metals, and the gene-metal interaction in relation to CRP levels. AIMS: To explore the associations of multiple plasma metals with serum CRP, and to test the interactions between metals, and gene-metal interactions on the levels of serum CRP. METHODS: We included 2882 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, China, and measured 23 plasma metals and serum CRP concentrations. The genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 7 established CRP-associated variants. For metals which were associated with the levels of CRP, we further tested the interactions between metals on CRP, and analyzed the gene-metal interactions on CRP. RESULTS: The median level for CRP in the total population was 1.17 mg/L. After multivariable adjustment, plasma copper was positively associated with serum CRP (FDR < 0.001), whereas selenium was negatively associated with serum CRP (FDR = 0.01). Moreover, selenium and zinc attenuated the positive association between high plasma copper and CRP (P for interaction < 0.001). Participants with a higher GRS had a higher CRP level, with the increase in ln-transformed CRP per increment of 5 risk alleles were 0.64 for weighted GRS, and 0.54 for unweighted GRS (both P < 0.001). Furthermore, the genetic association with CRP was modified by copper concentration (P for interaction < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that serum CRP is positively associated with plasma concentration of copper, and inversely associated with selenium. Plasma zinc, selenium and CRP genetic predisposition would modify the associations between plasma copper and serum CRP.

7.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cooking practice has transitioned from use of solid fuels to use of clean fuels, with addition of better ventilation facilities. However, the change in mortality risk associated with such a transition remains unclear. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) Study enrolled participants (aged 30-79 years) from ten areas across China; we chose to study participants from five urban areas where transition from use of solid fuels to clean fuels for cooking was prevalent. Participants who reported regular cooking (weekly or more frequently) at baseline were categorised as persistent clean fuel users, previous solid fuel users, or persistent solid fuel users, according to self-reported fuel use histories. All-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality were identified through linkage to China's Disease Surveillance Point system and local mortality records. FINDINGS: Between June 24, 2004, and July 15, 2008, 226 186 participants living in five urban areas of China were enrolled in the CKB Study. Among 171 677 participants who reported cooking regularly (weekly or more frequently), 75 785 (44%) were persistent clean fuel users, 80 511 (47%) were previous solid fuel users, and 15 381 (9%) were persistent solid fuel users. During a mean of 9·8 (SD 1·7) years of follow-up, 10 831 deaths were documented, including 3819 cardiovascular deaths and 761 respiratory deaths. Compared with persistent clean fuel users, persistent solid fuel users had significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·19, 95% CI 1·10-1·28), cardiovascular mortality (1·24, 1·10-1·39), and respiratory mortality (1·43, 1·10-1·85). The excess risk of all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality fell by more than 60% in 5 years after cessation of solid fuel use and continued to decrease afterwards. Use of ventilation was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk, even among persistent clean fuel users (HR 0·78, 0·69-0·89). INTERPRETATION: Solid fuel use for cooking is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and cessation of solid fuel use cuts excess mortality risks swiftly and substantially within 5 years. Ventilation use also lowers the risk of mortality, even among people who persistently use clean fuels. It is of prime importance for both policy makers and the public to accelerate the transition from solid fuels to clean fuels and promote efficient ventilation to minimise further adverse health effects. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Wellcome Trust, and Kadoorie Charitable Foundation.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110006, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812020

RESUMO

Metals are widespread pollutants in the environment which have been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction in many existing epidemiological studies. However, most of the studies are cross-sectional design and mainly focus on several toxic metals including arsenic, lead and cadmium. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study within the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to evaluate the associations of plasma multiple metals with the decline in kidney function among Chinese middle-aged and elderly. In total, 1434 participants free of chronic diseases at baseline were included in analysis. We measured baseline plasma concentrations of 23 metals and calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation based on serum creatinine, age, sex and ethnicity. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple testing to reduce the probability of a type I error. Principal component analysis was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of multiple metal co-exposure. Most of the plasma metal concentrations were within the literature reported reference values, whereas the concentration of lead and nickel exceeded the guideline value. We found that plasma concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, barium, lead, molybdenum, rubidium, strontium, vanadium and zinc were significantly associated with the decline in kidney function measured by annual eGFR decline, rapid renal function decline (defined as an annual decline in eGFR ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2) or incident eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with the adjusted beta coefficients (95% CI) for annual eGFR decline 0.50 (0.30, 0.69), 0.98 (0.74, 1.23), 0.56 (0.32, 0.79), 0.21 (0.03, 0.39), 0.35 (0.16, 0.54), 0.94 (0.71, 1.17), 0.37 (0.15, 0.60), 0.78 (0.54, 1.02), and 0.74 (0.57, 0.91), respectively. The metals exposures were linked with increased risks of impaired kidney function. Associations of principal components representing these metals with the decline in kidney function were significant and suggest a possible additional health risk by co-exposure. Participants engaged in manufacturing had higher plasma levels of several metals compared with those who had been involved in management- or administration-related work. Our findings suggest that exposure to multiple metals contribute to the decline in kidney function among the middle-aged and elderly. Co-exposure to multiple metals may have synergetic effect on the kidney function. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential mechanisms.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 263: 692-697, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine prospective associations of clinically relevant depressive symptoms with cognitive functions and rates of cognitive decline among Chinese adults aged 45 years and older. METHODS: Data was from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) with a follow-up of 4 years. Based on the Chinese version of 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), clinically relevant depressive symptoms were defined with a CESD-10 score≥10 points. Cognitive functions were measured in three domains: episodic memory, mental status and global cognition. Linear mixed models were used to assess the associations between clinically relevant depressive symptoms and cognitive functions. RESULTS: A total of 7335 participants (50.10% men; mean age: 57.47) were included in analyses. Participants with clinically relevant depressive symptoms showed poorer episodic memory (ß=-0.35; 95% CI:-0.41, -0.29), mental status (ß=-0.48; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.39), and global cognition (ß=-0.82; 95% CI: -0.94, -0.70) during the follow-up. Compared with counterparts, rates of decline in episodic memory, mental status, and global cognition increased by 0.04 (ß=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.06), 0.06 (ß=0.06; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.09) and 0.11 (ß=0.11; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.15) units per year in participants with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: A major limitation is that clinically relevant depressive symptoms were assessed by a screening tool and the follow-up was short. CONCLUSION: More severe clinically relevant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer cognitive functions and moderately faster cognitive decline in episodic memory, mental status and global cognition in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

11.
Environ Int ; 135: 105368, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are increasingly prevalent in modern society and may be associated with impaired semen quality, yet studies are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reproducibility of semen quality parameters among 842 healthy men screened as potential sperm donors and explore the associations of sleep duration and quality with repeated measures of semen quality parameters. METHODS: We assessed sleep duration (night sleep and daytime napping) and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 842 healthy men screen as potential sperm donors. We examined sleep characteristics in relation to repeated measurements (n = 5601) of semen parameters using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: High degrees of within-individual variability were found for total and progressive sperm motility with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.20 and 0.22, respectively; while fair-to-good reproducibilities were observed for sperm volume, concentration, and total count (ICC = 0.54, 0.62, and 0.50, respectively). Compared to men with total sleep duration of 8.0-8.5 h/day (h/d), men who slept less than 6.0 h/d and higher than 9.0 h/d had lower sperm volume of 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): -22%, -0.68%] and 3.9% (95% CI: -7.3%, -0.44%), respectively. Compared to men with night sleep duration of 7.5-8.0 h/d, men who slept less than 6.0 h/d had lower total and progressive sperm motility of 4.4% (95 CI:-8.4%, -0.24%) and 5.0% (95% CI: -9.2%, -0.48%), respectively. Compared to men who reported good sleep quality (total PSQI score ≤5.0), those reporting poor sleep quality (total PSQI score >5.0) had lower total sperm count, total motility, and progressive motility of 8.0% (95% CI: -15%, -0.046%), 3.9% (95% CI: -6.2%, -1.5%), and 4.0% (95% CI: -6.5%, -1.4%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both long and short sleep duration and poor sleep quality were associated with impaired semen quality parameters. The high within-individual variability of total and progressive sperm motility suggests that a single measurement may result in a moderate degree of classification error.

12.
Environ Int ; 134: 105335, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproductive systems in experimental animals, but human evidence has been inconsistent. Prior researches have been limited by small sample sizes and inadequate exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between blood THMs and repeated measurements of semen quality parameters among 1199 healthy men screened as potential sperm donors. METHODS: We recruited healthy men presenting to the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank from April to December 2017. At study entry, each participant provided a spot blood sample which was used to quantify blood concentrations of four THMs: chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform (TBM). The summary measures of exposure for brominated THMs (Br-THMs; molar sum of BDCM, DBCM and TBM) and total THMs (TTHMs; molar sum of TCM and Br-THMs) were also calculated. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate the cross-sectional associations of tertiles of blood THM concentrations with semen quality parameters measured at study entry, and mixed-effect models to estimate the longitudinal associations accounting for repeated measures of semen quality, adjusting for relevant confounding factors. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, several inverse dose-response relationships were observed across tertiles of blood TCM concentrations and sperm count, total motility and progressive motility, and between blood DBCM, and Br-THMs, and TTHMs and sperm count and concentration. The inverse associations of blood TCM, DBCM, Br-THMs and TTHMs with sperm count were confirmed in the longitudinal, repeated measure analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure to THMs from drinking water may be related to decreased semen quality in young healthy men.

13.
Diabetologia ; 63(1): 21-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482198

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A healthy lifestyle has been widely recommended for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. However, no systematic review has summarised the relationship between combined lifestyle factors (including, but not limited to, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet and being overweight or obese) and incident type 2 diabetes and risk of health outcomes among diabetic individuals. METHODS: EMBASE and PubMed were searched up to April 2019 without language restrictions. References included in articles in relevant publications were also screened. Cohort studies investigating the combined associations of at least three lifestyle factors with incident type 2 diabetes and health outcomes among diabetic individuals were included. Reviewers were paired and independently screened studies, extracted data and evaluated study quality. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary HRs. Heterogeneity and publication bias tests were also conducted. RESULTS: Compared with participants considered to have the least-healthy lifestyle, those with the healthiest lifestyle had a 75% lower risk of incident diabetes (HR 0.25 [95% CI 0.18, 0.35]; 14 studies with approximately 1 million participants). The associations were largely consistent and significant among individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds and baseline characteristics. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes (10 studies with 34,385 participants), the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.44 (0.33, 0.60) for all-cause death, 0.51 (0.30, 0.86) for cardiovascular death, 0.69 (0.47, 1.00) for cancer death and 0.48 (0.37, 0.63) for incident cardiovascular disease when comparing the healthiest lifestyle with the least-healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adoption of a healthy lifestyle is associated with substantial risk reduction in type 2 diabetes and long-term adverse outcomes among diabetic individuals. Tackling multiple risk factors, instead of concentrating on one certain lifestyle factor, should be the cornerstone for reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes.

14.
Hum Reprod ; 34(12): 2330-2339, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858122

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is physical activity or sedentary time associated with semen quality parameters? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among healthy men screened as potential sperm donors, higher self-reported physical activity was associated with increased progressive and total sperm motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Despite the claimed beneficial effect of moderate physical activity on semen quality, results from epidemiological studies have been inconclusive. Previous studies were mostly conducted among endurance athletes or male partners of couples who sought infertility treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Healthy men screened as potential sperm donors were recruited at the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank of China. Between April 2017 and July 2018; 746 men completed the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and provided repeated semen samples (n = 5252) during an approximately 6-month period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Total metabolic equivalents (METs), moderate-to-vigorous METs and sedentary time were abstracted from the IPAQ. Sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive motility and total motility in repeated specimens were determined by trained clinical technicians. Mixed-effect models were applied to investigate the relationships between physical activity and sedentary time and repeated measures of semen quality parameters. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: After adjusting for multiple confounders, total METs and moderate-to-vigorous METs were both positively associated with progressive and total sperm motility. Compared with men in the lowest quartiles, those in the highest quartiles of total and moderate-to-vigorous METs had increased progressive motility of 16.1% (95% CI: 6.4, 26.8%) and 17.3% (95% CI: 7.5, 27.9%), respectively, and had increased total motility of 15.2% (95% CI: 6.2, 24.9%) and 16.4% (95% CI: 7.4, 26.1%), respectively. Sedentary time was not associated with semen quality parameters. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The IPAQ was reported only once from study participants; measurement errors were inevitable and may have biased our results. Furthermore, although we have adjusted for various potential confounders, the possibility of unmeasured confounding cannot be fully ruled out. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that maintaining regular exercise may improve semen quality parameters among healthy, non-infertile men. Specifically, we found that higher self-reported total and moderate-to-vigorous METs were associated with improved sperm motility, which reinforces the existing evidence that physical activity may improve male reproductive health. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Y.-X.W was supported by the Initiative Postdocs Supporting Program (No. BX201700087). A.P. was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC0907504). C.-L.X. was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1000206). The authors report no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

15.
J Nutr ; 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown inconsistent results for the relation between dietary fat intake and cognitive function in the elderly. Furthermore, prospective studies on this topic among the Chinese population are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between midlife dietary fat intake and risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis was conducted among 16,736 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Dietary information was assessed by a validated FFQ at baseline (1993-1998) when participants aged 45-74 y (mean: 53.5; SD: 6.22). Cognitive impairment was identified using the Singapore modified Mini-Mental State Examination at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016) when participants aged 61-96 y (mean: 73.2; SD: 6.41). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was presented in 2397 participants. When substituted for total carbohydrate, dietary fat intake was inversely related to cognitive impairment (OR comparing extreme quartiles: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94; P-trend = 0.003). The OR (95% CI) comparing extreme quartiles of specific dietary fats was 1.08 (0.89, 1.31; P-trend = 0.51) for SFAs, 0.80 (0.64, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) for MUFAs, 0.84 (0.72, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) for PUFAs, 0.92 (0.77, 1.09; P-trend = 0.49) for n-3 PUFAs, and 0.83 (0.70, 0.98; P-trend = 0.01) for n-6 PUFAs. An inverse association was found for plant-based fat (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.98; P-trend = 0.02), but not for animal-based fat (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.15; P-trend = 0.76). When substituted for SFAs, the OR (95% CI) was 0.77 (0.61, 0.97; P-trend = 0.02) for MUFAs and 0.82 (0.70, 0.95; P-trend = 0.003) for PUFAs. CONCLUSIONS: We found that substitution of total carbohydrate or SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs, particularly n-6 PUFAs, was related to a lower risk of cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese participants. In addition, an inverse association with cognitive impairment was found for plant-based fat.

16.
Opt Express ; 27(24): 35659-35669, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878734

RESUMO

The high performance of thin film lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) platform shows potential for electro-optical signal processing and nonlinear optics systems. To realize precise polarization management for sub-wavelength devices, we theoretically and experimentally investigate fundamental transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) mode hybridization in an x-cut LNOI ridge waveguide. Sudden jumps in the free-spectrum-range (FSR) of these modes in a fabricated microring resonator demonstrate the mode hybridization. The measured Q-factor of the lithium niobate (LN) microring is 1.78 million near the critical coupling condition. The hybridization wavelength was designed at 1562 nm and observed at 1537 nm. Potential applications include fundamental mode conversion, polarization rotation, polarization splitter, and polarization insensitive waveguides in optical receiver module.

17.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the prospective association between higher blood pressure (BP) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 9,642 middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults (≥45 years old; 47.30% men) without diabetes from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were included for analyses. Participants were categorized into three groups: normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension, according to the 2010 Chinese Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension. The incidence of T2DM was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis during two follow-up surveys conducted in 2013 to 2014 and 2015 to 2016. RESULTS: During the 4-year follow-up, 429 participants (4.45%) developed T2DM, including 3.51% of the men and 5.29% of the women. The incidence rates of T2DM were 2.57%, 3.75%, and 6.71% in the normal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education level, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, and dyslipidemia, both prehypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.77) and hypertension (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.54 to 2.64) were associated with increased risk of T2DM, compared to those with a normal BP. The ORs associated with T2DM were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.13) for an increase of 10 mm Hg in systolic BP and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10) for an increase of 5 mm Hg in diastolic BP. CONCLUSION: Higher BP is a risk factor for T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chines. It may be a potential target for diabetes prevention.

18.
Diabetes Metab J ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple biomarkers have performed well in predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in Western populations. However, evidence is scarce among Asian populations. METHODS: Plasma triglyceride-to-high density lipoprotein (TG-to-HDL) ratio, alanine transaminase (ALT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), ferritin, adiponectin, fetuin-A, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured in 485 T2DM cases and 485 age-and-sex matched controls nested within the prospective Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort. Participants were free of T2DM at blood collection (1999 to 2004), and T2DM cases were identified at the subsequent follow-up interviews (2006 to 2010). A weighted biomarker score was created based on the strengths of associations between these biomarkers and T2DM risks. The predictive utility of the biomarker score was assessed by the area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: The biomarker score that comprised of four biomarkers (TG-to-HDL ratio, ALT, ferritin, and adiponectin) was positively associated with T2DM risk (P trend <0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile of the score, the odds ratio was 12.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.43 to 26.6) for those in the highest quartile. Adding the biomarker score to a base model that included smoking, history of hypertension, body mass index, and levels of random glucose and insulin improved AUC significantly from 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.83) to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.86; P=0.002). When substituting the random glucose levels with glycosylated hemoglobin in the base model, adding the biomarker score improved AUC from 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.88) to 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.89; P=0.032). CONCLUSION: A composite score of blood biomarkers improved T2DM risk prediction among Chinese.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the impact of combined lifestyle factors on premature mortality and life expectancy in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 44,052 Chinese adults aged 45 to 74 years free of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and diabetes were followed from recruitment (1993-1998) to the end of 2016 in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. A composite score (0-5 scale) was calculated based on five baseline healthy lifestyle factors including healthy diet, non-smoking status, light to moderate alcohol drinking, being physically active and optimal body mass index. Mortality cases were identified through linkage with the nationwide death registry. RESULTS: Adopting five healthy versus none was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.38 (0.29, 0.51) for all-cause mortality, 0.26 (0.13, 0.52) for CVD mortality, and 0.59 (0.37, 0.92) for cancer mortality. Non-adherence to 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors accounted for 34.9% (95% confidence interval: 29.2, 40.2) in population attributable fraction for all-cause mortality, 35.1% (23.7, 44.9) for CVD mortality, and 18.0% (6.5, 28.0) for cancer mortality. Conversely, adherence to 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors versus none could achieve a gain of 8.1 years in women and 6.6 years in men for the life expectancy at 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: A healthier lifestyle is associated with a substantially reduced risk of mortality and a longer life expectancy in the Chinese population. Our findings highlight the necessity of coordinated actions targeting combined lifestyle factors in reducing the overall burden of diseases and premature deaths.

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