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2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic predisposition to cardiovascular disease (CVD), may help to improve clinical intervention strategies. Lifestyle factors such as diet may differ among ethnic groups and may, in turn, modify individuals' risks to diseases. OBJECTIVE: We examined genetic predisposition to ever smoking in relation to CVD mortality and assessed whether such association could be modified by dietary intakes. METHODS: A total of 23,760 Chinese adults from the Singapore Chinese Heath Study (SCHS) who were free of cancer and CVD at recruitment (1993-1998) were included in the study. A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was calculated to define the genetically determined regular smoking behavior (never/ever). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the wGRS and CVD mortality. We also conducted a one-sample Mendelian randomization analysis for ever smoking and CVD mortality. RESULTS: Over a mean 22.6 years of follow-up, 2,301 CVD deaths were identified. Genetic predisposition to ever smoking was significantly associated with CVD mortality; the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of CVD mortality was 1.07 (1.03,1.12) with per-SD increment in the wGRS. However, the Mendelian randomization analysis did not support a causal relationship between ever smoking and CVD mortality (OR [95% CI] 1.13 [0.87,1.45]). Additionally, the DASH score significantly modified the association between the smoking wGRS and CVD mortality, the association between genetic predisposition to smoking and CVD mortality was only observed among individuals with a low DASH score (P-interaction = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to smoking was associated with CVD mortality in the Chinese population. In addition, we detected a significant interaction showing higher genetically determined smoking related CVD mortality among those with lower DASH score.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although carotenoids have been suggested to exhibit antioxidant properties, some experimental studies reported that ß-carotene may show pro-oxidant effects under certain conditions. Current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of carotenoids among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is scarce. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations of individual serum carotenoid concentrations with cardiovascular mortality among adults with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis included 3,107 individuals with T2D from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES 2001-2006. Cardiovascular mortality was ascertained by linkage to National Death Index records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULT: During an average of 14 years of follow-up, 441 cardiovascular deaths occurred. After multivariate adjustment including lifestyles, dietary factors, glucose control, and other major carotenoids, higher serum ß-carotene concentrations were significantly associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality in a dose-response manner. When extreme quartiles of ß-carotene were compared, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 2.47 (95% CI 1.62, 3.76) for cardiovascular mortality (Ptrend = 0.002); and per one-unit increment in natural log-transformed serum ß-carotene was associated with a 46% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001). Other individual carotenoids (α-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) were not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Consistent results were observed when stratifying by age, sex, race, BMI, smoking status, diabetes duration, and glycated hemoglobin A1c levels. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of serum ß-carotene, but not other individual carotenoids, were significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among individuals with T2D. Our findings, if replicated, underscore the need to estimate the optimal serum ß-carotene concentrations in individuals with T2D.

4.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563818

RESUMO

Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) has risen as a promising computational imaging technique that breaks the trade-off between high resolution and large field of view (FOV). Its reconstruction is normally formulated as a blind phase retrieval problem, where both the object and probe have to be recovered from phaseless measured data. However, the stability and reconstruction quality may dramatically deteriorate in the presence of noise interference. Herein, we utilized the concept of alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve this problem (termed ADMM-FPM) by breaking it into multiple subproblems, each of which may be easier to deal with. We compared its performance against existing algorithms in both simulated and practical FPM platform. It is found that ADMM-FPM method belongs to a global optimization algorithm with a high degree of parallelism and thus results in a more stable and robust phase recovery under noisy conditions. We anticipate that ADMM will rekindle interest in FPM as more modifications and innovations are implemented in the future.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of different types of lower-carbohydrate diets with mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: The prospective study included 5,677 patients with T2D. The overall, unhealthy, and healthy lower-carbohydrate-diet scores were calculated based on the percentage of energy from total and subtypes of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Death were determined via linkage to the National Death Index records until 31 st December 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality. RESULTS: During a median of 6.3 years of follow-up (39,401 person-years), 1,432 deaths were documented. After multivariable adjustment including lifestyle factors, diabetes duration, and glycated hemoglobin A1c, patients in the third quartile of overall lower-carbohydrate-diet score had the lowest risk of mortality (hazard ratio: 0.65 [95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.85]), compared with the first quartile. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of mortality across quartiles of healthy lower-carbohydrate-diet score were 1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.64, 0.96), 0.73 (0.58, 0.91), and 0.74 (0.58, 0.95) (P-trend =0.01). Isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from carbohydrates with plant-based protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with 23%~37% lower total mortality. Similar results were observed when analyses were stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, and diabetes duration. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy lower-carbohydrate-diet score was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality in adults with T2D. Adherence to a well-balanced moderate lower-carbohydrate-diet that emphasizes healthy carbohydrate, plant-based protein, and polyunsaturated fat may prevent premature death among patients with T2D.

6.
Diabetes Metab ; : 101348, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452819

RESUMO

AIMS: China has the largest number of adults with diabetes. Although multiple metabolic risk factors (MRFs) are implicated in the development of diabetes, it remains unclear how they progress during the development of diabetes among Chinese. We examined trajectories of multiple MRFs among Chinese and identified the critical period when drastic changes occurred during the development of diabetes. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included participants since 2006-2007 in the Kailuan study. People attended biennial examinations until 2017 with additions of new participants at each examination cycle. The time when a participant first completed the examination was served as the baseline. A total of 122,659 participants without prevalent diabetes at baseline and with complete follow-up data were included. MRFs were collected via biennial physical examinations and laboratory measures. Incident diabetes cases were identified via biennial fasting glucose tests and self-reported physician-diagnosis. RESULTS: During up to 12 years of follow-up, 14,922 incident diabetes cases were identified. Compared with participants who did not develop diabetes, those who developed diabetes had more adverse levels of most MRFs at baseline and during follow-up. Abrupt increases in multiple MRFs (including fasting glucose, surrogate insulin resistance indicators, lipids, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate, alanine aminotransferase, and C-reactive protein) were observed 3 years before the diagnosis of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 3 years before diabetes diagnosis as a critical period when multiple MRFs experienced drastic changes. This would have implications for early monitoring and timely prevention for individuals who experience sudden adverse progression of multiple MRFs.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets are beneficial in short-term metabolic improvement, the associations of these dietary patterns, particularly with different food sources and quality of macronutrients, with mortality remain unclear among people with prediabetes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the associations of different types of lower-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) and lower-fat diets (LFDs) with mortality among individuals with prediabetes. METHODS: This study included 9793 adults with prediabetes from the NHANES 1999-2014. Mortality status was linked to National Death Index mortality data through 31 December, 2015. Overall, unhealthy, and healthy LCD and LFD scores were determined based on the percentages of energy from total and subtypes of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to calculate HRs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Higher healthy LCD score was associated with favorable blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), and blood lipids, whereas higher healthy LFD score was associated with lower blood glucose and CRP at baseline (all P-trend < 0.05). During 72,054 person-years of follow-up, 1352 deaths occurred. The multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality per 20-percentile increment in dietary scores were 0.88 (0.80, 0.96) for healthy LCD score (P = 0.003), 0.85 (0.78, 0.93) for healthy LFD score (P < 0.001), 1.09 (0.99, 1.21) for unhealthy LCD score (P = 0.08), and 1.11 (1.00, 1.22) for unhealthy LFD score (P = 0.05). Isocalorically replacing 3%-5% energy of low-quality carbohydrate or saturated fat with high-quality carbohydrate, plant-based protein, or unsaturated fat was associated with a 14%-37% reduced all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy LCD and LFD scores were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality, whereas unhealthy LCD and LFD scores tended to be associated with higher all-cause mortality, among people with prediabetes.

8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(3): 312-321, 2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381652

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the associations between plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the second trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: Based on data from the Tongji-Shuangliu Birth Cohort enrolled from 2017 to 2019 in the Shuangliu Maternal and Child Health Hospital, it conducted a case-control study among 269 GDM cases who were diagnosed by 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, and 538 non-GDM controls matched at a 1∶2 ratio on maternal age and gestational weeks. The age range of the 807 women was 18-40 years. Fasting plasma n-3 PUFAs were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the second trimester (24-28 weeks). Participants were categorized into quartiles (Q1-Q4) of plasma n-3 PUFAs based on distributions in the control group. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the associations between plasma n-3 PUFAs and GDM. Results: The median (interquartile) relative concentrations of plasma n-3 PUFA C22∶5n-3 was significantly lower in women with GDM 0.87 (0.72, 1.07) compared with women without GDM 0.94 (0.75, 1.19)(P=0.001). Plasma n-3 PUFA C22∶5n-3 was inversely associated with GDM, with an OR (95%CI) of 0.75 (0.62-0.90) for each SD increase of relative concentration. Compared with the Q1 group, the OR values and 95%CIs of Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 0.97 (0.62-1.51), 0.72 (0.45-1.15), and 0.54 (0.32-0.90), respectively (Ptrend<0.05). However, there were no significant associations of C18∶3n-3, C20∶5n-3, C22∶6n-3, and total n-3 PUFAs with GDM. Conclusion: Plasma n-3 PUFA C22∶5n-3 was inversely associated with GDM during the second trimester.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
9.
Asian J Androl ; 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381698

RESUMO

Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that handgrip strength provides predictive potential in physical, mental, and reproductive health status. However, the associations between handgrip strength and semen characteristics have not been explored. We recruited 1382 eligible men at the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank (Wuhan, China) who had their handgrip strength measured at recruitment and provided 6458 repeated semen specimens within a 6-month period. Semen characteristics, including semen volume, sperm motility parameters (immotility, nonprogressive motility, and progressive motility), and sperm concentration, were assessed. Mixed-effect models and restricted cubic spline functions were applied to investigate the relationship of handgrip strength with repeated measurements of semen characteristics. After adjusting for confounding factors, the mixed-effect models revealed that handgrip strength was positively associated with semen volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, total motility, and total count (all P for trend < 0.05). Compared to men in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of handgrip strength had higher semen volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, total motility, and total count, with measurements of 14.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.9%-23.2%), 19.5% (95% CI: 7.3%‒33.1%), 9.5% (95% CI: 3.4%‒15.9%), 8.8% (95% CI: 3.2%‒14.6%), and 36.4% (95% CI: 18.9%‒56.5%), respectively. These positive dose-response relationships were further confirmed in restricted cubic splines, where handgrip strength was modeled as a continuous variable. Handgrip strength, as an indicator of muscular function and strength, was positively associated with semen characteristics in a dose-dependent manner.

11.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(3): 817-838, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282803

RESUMO

Dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator of inherent inflammation that underlies the pathogenesis of obesity. Cordyceps comprises the larval body and the stroma of Cordyceps sinensis (BerK.) Sacc. parasiting on Hepialidae larvae of moths (H. pialusoberthur) with potent metabolic regulation functions. The underlying anti-obesity mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the water extract of Cordyceps attenuates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and its associated inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and microbiomic analysis showed that Cordyceps reduced the amounts of Enterococcus cecorum, a bile-salt hydrolase-producing microbe to regulate the metabolism of bile acids in the gut. Importantly, E. cecorum transplantation or liver-specific knockdown of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid receptor, diminished the protective effect of Cordyceps against HFD-induced obesity. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms that underlie the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of Cordyceps and suggest that targeting intestinalE. cecorum or hepatic FXR are potential anti-obesity and anti-inflammation therapeutic avenues.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Enterococcus , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo
12.
Chemosphere ; 299: 134337, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304217

RESUMO

Personal care products, such as additives, have raised widespread concerns about the potential threat to male reproductive health. The spermatogenesis in humans lasts for approximately 90 days, the average levels of these chemicals remain unclear during spermatogenesis. In our study, we pooled urine samples from each man during the days of 1-15, 16-31, 32-63, and ≥64, and examined exposure to 48 typical additive chemicals. By principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering, and Spearman's rank correlations, we then identified 6 PC scores and 4 clusters based on profiles of these chemicals. Some industrial, commercial or structural similar chemicals (e.g., phthalates) were significantly correlated compared to unrelated chemicals (e.g., benzophenone). PCA scores were associated with individual lifestyles (e.g., household income, tea consumption, and drinking tap water). Distinct exposure components and exposure patterns of personal care products may help the reproductive health assessment of men. We suggested more concerns for widespread exposure to these chemicals for men.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Cosméticos/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Reprodução
13.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282850

RESUMO

There is limited evidence on fruit and vegetable intake in relation to cognitive function. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake in midlife with cognitive impairment in late life. We used data from 16,737 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort study. The participants provided dietary data at recruitment at median age of 52.5 (range: 45-74) years, and also participated in the third follow-up interview 20 years later at median age of 72.2 (range: 61-96) years. Quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed at baseline were measured using a validated food-frequency-questionnaire. Cognitive impairment at the third follow-up was defined using a Singapore-modified version of Mini-Mental State Examination. About 14.3% participants had cognitive impairment. In multivariable logistic regression models, comparing extreme quartiles for intake of fruits and vegetables combined, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] associated with cognitive impairment was 0.83 (0.73, 0.95; P-trend=0.006) for quantity and 0.76 (0.67, 0.87; P-trend<0.001) for variety scores. Independently, those with increased variety of fruit intake or higher quantity of vegetable intake also had significantly 22% and 15% reduced odds of cognitive impairment, respectively. Finally, compared to those with low intake for both quantity and variety, those with both high quantity and variety scores for fruits and vegetables had 23% reduction in odds of cognitive impairment. In conclusion, increase in quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables in midlife may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in late life.

14.
BJOG ; 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and semen quality. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank of China (from April 2017 to July 2018). POPULATION: A total of 1164 healthy male sperm donors with 5739 specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure sperm mtDNAcn. We also determined semen volume, concentration and motility parameters (progressive motility, nonprogressive motility and immotility). METHODS: Mixed-effect models and general linear models were uses. RESULTS: After adjusting for relevant confounding factors, mixed-effect models revealed diminished sperm motility (progressive and total), concentration, and total count across the quartiles of mtDNAcn (all P < 0.05). Compared with men in the lowest quartile, men in the highest quartile of mtDNAcn had lower progressive sperm motility, total motility, concentration and total count of -8.9% (95% CI -12.7% to -5.0%), -8.0% (95% CI -11.6% to -4.4%), -42.8% (95% CI -47.7% to -37.4%), and - 44.3% (95% CI -50.1% to -37.7%), respectively. These inverse dose-response relationships were further confirmed in the cubic spline models, where mtDNAcn was modelled as a continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: We found that mtDNAcn was inversely associated with semen quality in a dose-dependent manner. Our results provide novel clues that sperm mtDNAcn may serve as a useful predictor of human semen characteristics.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146118, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103793

RESUMO

Importance: The joint association of antihypertensive medication use and healthy lifestyle with mortality among individuals with hypertension is unclear. Objective: To examine the association of lifestyle factors combined with antihypertensive medication use, as well as changes in lifestyle, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among individuals with hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, a long-term, prospective cohort including employees at a manufacturer in China, with baseline from 2008 to 2010. Participants with hypertension were followed up for a median (IQR) of 7.3 (5.7-10.3) years, ending in 2018. Data were analyzed from February to April 2021. Exposures: Lifestyle factors, including body mass index, smoking status, diet, physical activity, and sleep duration, were coded on a 3-point scale (range, 0-2, with higher score indicating a healthier lifestyle). Lifestyle was evaluated according to the total score of all 5 factors, and categorized into 3 groups: unfavorable (scores 0-4), intermediate (scores 5-7), and favorable (scores 8-10). Antihypertensive medication use was defined as use within the last 2 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were identified by linking the cohort database with the health care system through December 31, 2018. Results: A total of 14 392 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.6 [7.4] years; 7277 [50.6%] men and 7115 [49.4%] women) with hypertension were included, and 2015 deaths were documented, including 761 cardiovascular deaths and 525 cancer deaths. Compared with individuals not using antihypertensive medication and with a lifestyle score of 0 to 4, the combination of using antihypertensive medication and having a lifestyle score of 8 to 10 was associated with the lowest risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25-0.42), cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21-0.53), and cancer mortality (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.19-0.47). In addition, improvement in lifestyle score after hypertension diagnosis was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.36-0.76) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.94). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that adherence to healthy lifestyle and antihypertensive medication treatment were associated with lower risk of mortality among adults with hypertension. These findings further support that, in addition to antihypertensive medication use, adopting a healthy lifestyle is associated with benefits in the prevention of premature death among individuals with hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estilo de Vida , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relations of dietary total antioxidant capacity (DTAC) with mortality outcomes in a Chinese population. METHODS: The study included 62,063 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. The participants were 45-74 years at baseline (1993-1998) when dietary data were collected with a validated 165-item food frequency questionnaire. The DTAC was derived using two widely adopted scores of integrated dietary consumption of antioxidant nutrients, i.e., the Comprehensive Dietary Antioxidant Index (CDAI) and Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). We used Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During 1,212,318 person-years of follow-up, 23,397 deaths [cardiovascular diseases (CVD): 7523; respiratory diseases: 4696; and cancer: 7713] occurred. In multivariable models, the HR (95% CI) comparing participants in the highest vs. lowest quartile of CDAI was 0.85 (0.82, 0.88) for all-cause mortality, 0.82 (0.76, 0.88) for CVD mortality, 0.76 (0.70, 0.83) for respiratory disease mortality (all P-trend < 0.001), and 0.94 (0.88, 1.00) for cancer mortality (P-trend = 0.16). Similar associations were found with the VCEAC index. Higher intakes of the DTAC components, i.e., vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and flavonoids, were all associated with lower mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Diet with a higher antioxidant capacity in midlife was associated with a lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality in the Singapore Chinese population, supporting the public health recommendation of consuming more plant-based foods that are rich in antioxidant nutrients.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 150(10): 1599-1608, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001362

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major contributor to cancer death globally. Several studies showed some protections by certain individual dietary antioxidants against CRC development. Epidemiologic data on the composite dietary antioxidant index (CDAI) in relation to CRC risk are sparse. Using the Singapore Chinese Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort consisting of 61 321 cancer-free participants aged 45 to 74 years at baseline, a food-based CDAI was calculated according to a previously established and validated method that included six food-sourced antioxidants including vitamins A, C and E, manganese, selenium and zinc. Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CRC associated with various levels of CDAI with adjustment for multiple potential confounders. After an average of 17.5 years of follow-up, 2140 participants developed CRC. HRs (95% CIs) of CRC for quartiles 2, 3 and 4 of CDAI were 0.94 (0.83-1.07), 0.86 (0.75-1.00) and 0.80 (0.66-0.98), respectively, compared to the lowest quartile (Ptrend  = .02). This inverse association between CDAI and CRC risk was more apparent in women or those without a history of diabetes, without family history of CRC, never smokers or overweight/obese individuals. However, none of the heterogeneity tests for the CDAI-CRC risk association reached statistical significance. Our findings suggest that food-based antioxidants may be beneficial for reducing the risk of CRC in the general population.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias Colorretais , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2146124, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35099545

RESUMO

Importance: The associations of serum folate and vitamin B12 levels with cardiovascular outcomes among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the associations of serum folate and vitamin B12 levels with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among individuals with T2D. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 8067 patients with T2D who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 through 2014 and NHANES III (1988-1994). American Diabetes Association criteria were used to define T2D. Data were analyzed between October 1, 2020, and April 1, 2021. Exposures: Serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% CIs for the associations of serum folate and vitamin B12 levels with risks of CVD and all-cause mortality. Two multivariable models were constructed. Restricted cubic spline analyses were used to examine the nonlinear association of serum folate levels and vitamin B12 levels with CVD mortality, and nonlinearity was assessed using the likelihood ratio test. Results: This cohort study included data from 7700 participants in the folate analysis (mean [SE] age, 57.8 [0.3] years; 3882 men [weighted, 50.5%]; median serum folate level, 12.1 ng/mL [IQR, 7.1-19.5 ng/mL]) and 4860 participants for the vitamin B12 analysis (mean [SE] age, 57.8 [0.3] years; 2390 men [weighted, 50.7%]; median serum vitamin B12 level, 506.1 pg/mL [IQR, 369.1-703.5 pg/mL]). During 72 031 person-years of follow-up, 799 CVD deaths were documented for the folate analysis, and during 43 855 person-years of follow-up, 467 CVD deaths were reported for the vitamin B12 analysis. Nonlinear associations were observed for serum levels of folate (P = .04 for nonlinearity) and vitamin B12 (P = .04 for nonlinearity) with risk of CVD mortality among patients with T2D. Compared with participants in the second quartile of serum folate levels (7.1-12.1 ng/mL), the hazard ratios for CVD mortality were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.04-1.98) for participants in the lowest serum folate level quartile (<7.1 ng/mL) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.74-1.44) for participants in the highest quartile (≥19.5 ng/mL). In addition, compared with participants in the second quartile of serum vitamin B12 levels (369.1-506.0 pg/mL), the hazard ratios for CVD mortality were 1.74 (95% CI, 1.20-2.52) for participants in the lowest quartile (<369.1 pg/mL) and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.60-3.35) for participants in the highest quartile (≥703.5 pg/mL). Similar patterns of association were observed for all-cause mortality (nonlinearity: P = .01 for folate and P = .02 for vitamin B12). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that both low and high serum levels of vitamin B12 as well as low serum levels of folate were significantly associated with higher risk of CVD mortality among individuals with T2D.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081616

RESUMO

In this commentary, we discuss themes that emerged from the symposium about what modern epidemiology as a science may learn from the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We reflect on the successes and limitations of this discipline from multiple perspectives, including junior and senior epidemiologists and scientists on the front lines of generating evidence for the COVID-19 pandemic response from Wuhan, China to Ontario, Canada. These themes include: the role of the traditional scientific process in a public health emergency; epidemiologic methods and data that are critical for an effective pandemic response; the interventions that epidemiologists recommended and interventions that we may explore in the future; inequitable impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic contrasted with homogeneity in epidemiologists' workforce; effective and honest communication of uncertainty; trust and collaboration; and the extent to which these themes are currently reflected in our training programs and discipline. We look forward to insights from field epidemiologists directly involved in the ongoing response to the COVID-19 pandemic and further reflection from epidemiologists throughout our discipline.

20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 386, 2022 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046401

RESUMO

Disordered hepatic glucagon response contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. The regulators involved in glucagon response are less understood. This work aims to investigate the roles of mitochondrial ß-oxidation enzyme HADHA and its downstream ketone bodies in hepatic glucagon response. Here we show that glucagon challenge impairs expression of HADHA. Liver-specific HADHA overexpression reversed hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice, while HADHA knockdown augmented glucagon response. Stable isotope tracing shows that HADHA promotes ketone body production via ß-oxidation. The ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) but not acetoacetate suppresses gluconeogenesis by selectively inhibiting HDAC7 activity via interaction with Glu543 site to facilitate FOXO1 nuclear exclusion. In HFD-fed mice, HADHA overexpression improved metabolic disorders, and these effects are abrogated by knockdown of BHB-producing enzyme. In conclusion, BHB is responsible for the inhibitory effect of HADHA on hepatic glucagon response, suggesting that HADHA activation or BHB elevation by pharmacological intervention hold promise in treating diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/biossíntese , Glucagon/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa da Proteína Mitocondrial Trifuncional/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Células HEK293 , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxibutirato Desidrogenase , Marcação por Isótopo , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Ligação Proteica
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