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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the associations of long-term changes in consumption of sugary beverages (including sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) with subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We followed up 76,531 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012), 81,597 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013), and 34,224 men in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1986-2012). Changes in beverage consumption (in 8-ounce serving/day) were calculated from food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 years. Multivariable Cox proportional regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for diabetes associated with changes in beverage consumption. Results of the three cohorts were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: During 2,783,210 person-years of follow-up, we documented 11,906 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for BMI and initial and changes in diet and lifestyle covariates, increasing total sugary beverage intake (including both sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices) by >0.50 serving/day over a 4-year period was associated with a 16% (95% CI 1%, 34%) higher diabetes risk in the subsequent 4 years. Increasing ASB consumption by >0.50 serving/day was associated with 18% (2-36%) higher diabetes risk. Replacing one daily serving of sugary beverage with water, coffee or tea, but not ASB, was associated with a 2-10% lower diabetes risk. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing consumption of sugary beverages or ASBs was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, albeit the latter may be affected by reverse causation and surveillance bias.

2.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4303, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541100

RESUMO

Glucagon promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis and maintains whole-body glucose levels during fasting. The regulatory factors that are involved in fasting glucagon response are not well understood. Here we report a role of p52, a key activator of the noncanonical nuclear factor-kappaB signaling, in hepatic glucagon response. We show that p52 is activated in livers of HFD-fed and glucagon-challenged mice. Knockdown of p52 lowers glucagon-stimulated hyperglycemia, while p52 overexpression augments glucagon response. Mechanistically, p52 binds to phosphodiesterase 4B promoter to inhibit its transcription and promotes cAMP accumulation, thus augmenting the glucagon response through cAMP/PKA signaling. The anti-diabetic drug metformin and ginsenoside Rb1 lower blood glucose at least in part by inhibiting p52 activation. Our findings reveal that p52 mediates glucagon-triggered hepatic gluconeogenesis and suggests that pharmacological intervention to prevent p52 processing is a potential therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10685-10693, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479251

RESUMO

Theanine is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in Camellia sinensis, but it is not known how a tea plant accumulates such high levels of theanine. The endophyte isolated from in vitro grown plantlets of C. sinensis cultivars was identified as Luteibacter spp., showing strong biocatalytic activity for converting both glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Theanine was secreted outside of the bacteria. The endophyte isolated from in vitro plantlets of Camellia oleifera cultivar was identified as Bacillus safensis and did not convert glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Enzymatic assays in vitro indicated that γ-glutamyltranspeptidases rCsEGGTs from the endophyte Luteibacter strains converted glutamine and ethylamine to theanine at higher rates than rCsGGTs from C. sinensis. This is the first report on theanine biosynthesis by an endophyte from C. sinensis, which provides a new pathway to explore the mechanism of theanine biosynthesis in C. sinensis and the interactions between an endophyte and tea plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
6.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482198

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A healthy lifestyle has been widely recommended for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. However, no systematic review has summarised the relationship between combined lifestyle factors (including, but not limited to, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet and being overweight or obese) and incident type 2 diabetes and risk of health outcomes among diabetic individuals. METHODS: EMBASE and PubMed were searched up to April 2019 without language restrictions. References included in articles in relevant publications were also screened. Cohort studies investigating the combined associations of at least three lifestyle factors with incident type 2 diabetes and health outcomes among diabetic individuals were included. Reviewers were paired and independently screened studies, extracted data and evaluated study quality. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary HRs. Heterogeneity and publication bias tests were also conducted. RESULTS: Compared with participants considered to have the least-healthy lifestyle, those with the healthiest lifestyle had a 75% lower risk of incident diabetes (HR 0.25 [95% CI 0.18, 0.35]; 14 studies with approximately 1 million participants). The associations were largely consistent and significant among individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds and baseline characteristics. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes (10 studies with 34,385 participants), the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.44 (0.33, 0.60) for all-cause death, 0.51 (0.30, 0.86) for cardiovascular death, 0.69 (0.47, 1.00) for cancer death and 0.48 (0.37, 0.63) for incident cardiovascular disease when comparing the healthiest lifestyle with the least-healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adoption of a healthy lifestyle is associated with substantial risk reduction in type 2 diabetes and long-term adverse outcomes among diabetic individuals. Tackling multiple risk factors, instead of concentrating on one certain lifestyle factor, should be the cornerstone for reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes.

7.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(9): 1208-1217, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to estimate the frequency of each AT(N) (ß-amyloid deposition [A], pathologic tau [T], and neurodegeneration [N]) profile in different clinical diagnosis groups and to describe the longitudinal change in clinical outcomes of individuals in each group. METHODS: Longitudinal change in clinical outcomes and conversion risk of AT(N) profiles are assessed using linear mixed-effects models and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard models, respectively. RESULTS: Participants with A+T+N+ showed faster clinical progression than those with A-T-N- and A+T±N-. Compared with A-T-N-, participants with A+T+N± had an increased risk of conversion from cognitively normal (CN) to incident prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and from MCI to AD dementia. A+T+N+ showed an increased conversion risk when compared with A+T±N-. DISCUSSION: The 2018 research framework may provide prognostic information of clinical change and progression. It may also be useful for targeted recruitment of participants with AD into clinical trials.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11114, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366957

RESUMO

We report the implementation of a parallel microscopy system (96 Eyes) that is capable of simultaneous imaging of all wells on a 96-well plate. The optical system consists of 96 microscopy units, where each unit is made out of a four element objective, made through a molded injection process, and a low cost CMOS camera chip. By illuminating the sample with angle varying light and applying Fourier Ptychography, we can improve the effective brightfield imaging numerical aperture of the objectives from 0.23 to 0.3, and extend the depth of field from ±5 µm to ±15 µm. The use of Fourier Ptychography additionally allows us to computationally correct the objectives' aberrations out of the rendered images, and provides us with the ability to render phase images. The 96 Eyes acquires raw data at a rate of 0.7 frame per second (all wells) and the data are processed with 4 cores of graphical processing units (GPUs; GK210, Nvidia Tesla K80, USA). The system is also capable of fluorescence imaging (excitation = 465 nm, emission = 510 nm) at the native resolution of the objectives. We demonstrate the capability of this system by imaging S1P1-eGFP-Human bone osteosarcoma epithelial (U2OS) cells.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 912-920, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies linking dietary pattern and cognitive function in the elderly are limited in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations between various healthful dietary patterns and risk of cognitive impairment in Chinese adults. METHODS: We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study of 16,948 men and women who were aged 45-74 y at baseline (1993-1998) and reinterviewed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), ∼20 y later. Diet quality at baseline was assessed according to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, overall plant-based diet index (PDI), and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Cognitive function was evaluated using a Singapore-modified Mini-Mental State Examination during the third follow-up visit when subjects were aged 61-96 y. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute ORs and 95% CIs associated with the risk of cognitive impairment defined using education-specific cut-offs. RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was present in 2443 (14.4%) participants. The OR (95% CI) for cognitive impairment comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of diet quality scores was 0.67 (0.59, 0.77) for aMED, 0.71 (0.62, 0.81) for DASH, 0.75 (0.66, 0.85) for AHEI-2010, 0.82 (0.71, 0.94) for PDI, and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for hPDI (all P values for trend <0.001). Each SD increment in different diet quality scores was associated with 7-16% lower risk of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that adherence to healthy dietary patterns in midlife is associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment in late life in Chinese adults.

10.
Br J Nutr ; 122(3): 343-351, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337445

RESUMO

Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals' 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01-0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals' long-term exposures.

11.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(10): 107387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in 2011-2012 (Wave 1) and followed up in 2013-2014 (Wave 2) and 2015-2016 (Wave 3) in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Chinese language version of 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) at three waves. T2DM was assessed by biochemical biomarkers at Wave 1 and reported physician-diagnosis at Wave 2 and 3. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the bidirectional association. RESULTS: Participants with baseline depressive symptoms were 1.33 times as likely to develop T2DM (HR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.66), compared to their counterparts after adjusting for demographic characteristics and T2DM risk factors. The risk of T2DM increased linearly with higher severity of depression as determined by a higher CESD-10 score (P for trend ≪ 0.001). In addition, baseline T2DM was associated with increased risk of incident depressive symptoms (1.15; 1.00, 1.31) and persistent depressive symptoms (1.35; 1.03, 1.77). CONCLUSION: There is a positive bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and T2DM in middle-aged and elderly Chinese.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319862066, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for high blood pressure lowered the hypertension criteria from systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) of 140/90 mmHg or greater to 130/80 mmHg or greater, while the potential impact of the change on Chinese adults remains unclear. DESIGN: A pooled prospective cohort analysis. METHODS: Included were 154,407 Chinese adults from three prospective cohorts, which measured blood pressure at baseline and follow-up visits, and tracked death events by linkages to medical insurance system or vital statistics registries. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a total follow-up of 1,718,089 person-years, 14,692 deaths were documented including 5086 cardiovascular deaths (1277 ischaemic heart disease and 2509 cerebrovascular disease deaths). Compared to normal blood pressure (SBP/DBP < 120/80 mmHg), newly defined stage 1 hypertension (SBP/DBP 130-139/80-89 mmHg) was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.69; HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.65 for ischaemic heart disease mortality; HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.18-2.00 for cerebrovascular mortality), but not with all-cause mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21). Stage 2 hypertension (SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) showed significant associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, while elevated blood pressure (SBP 120-129 mmHg and DBP < 80 mmHg) showed null associations. The associations were stronger in adults younger than 65 years and adults without pre-existing cardiovascular disease compared with their counterparts (P for heterogeneity < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The newly defined stage 1 hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in the Chinese population, particularly among younger adults and those without a history of cardiovascular disease.

13.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1661-1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167624

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Circulating metals synchronously reflect multiple metal exposures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, which may be linked with the risk of stroke. However, there is a lack of prospective studies investigating the associations of multiple metal exposures with incident stroke. Methods- We performed a nested case-control study within the ongoing Dongfeng-Tongji cohort launched in 2008. A total of 1304 incident stroke cases (1035 ischemic strokes and 269 hemorrhagic strokes) were prospectively identified by December 31, 2016, and matched to incident identity sampled controls according to age (within 1 year), sex, and blood sampling date (within 1 month). We determined the concentrations of 24 plasma metals and assessed the associations of plasma multiple metal concentrations with incident stroke using conditional logistic regression and elastic net model. Results- The average follow-up was 6.1 years. After adjusting for established risk confounders, copper, molybdenum, and titanium were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.13-1.46], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.35], and 1.30 [95% CI, 1.07-1.59]), whereas rubidium and selenium were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke (odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.50-0.87] and 0.68 [95% CI, 0.51-0.91]). The predictive plasma metal scores based on multiple metal exposures were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.20-1.56] and 1.53 [95% CI, 1.16-2.01]). Conclusions- Plasma copper, molybdenum, and titanium were associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke, whereas plasma rubidium and selenium were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke. These findings may have important public health implications given the ever-increasing burden of stroke worldwide.

14.
Environ Int ; 129: 354-363, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence has found links between endocrine disruptor phthalates and male reproductive disorders, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly known. Seminal plasma metabolomes may mediate associations of phthalate exposure with impaired semen quality. OBJECTIVE: To identify seminal plasma metabolomes associated with poor semen quality and evaluate their associations with urinary phthalate metabolites among 660 Chinese adult men. METHOD: The seminal plasma metabolic profiles were acquired using an untargeted approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. We explored the differences in seminal plasma metabolites between participants with poor and good semen quality and evaluated cross-sectional associations between discriminatory metabolic biomarkers and urinary phthalate metabolites. RESULTS: Differences between poor and good semen quality groups were observed in relation to 25 seminal plasma metabolites, mostly related to the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and acylcarnitine (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for various confounders and multiple tests, metabolites were all significantly associated with one or more individual sperm quality parameters (motility, concentration, total count, and morphology) (all p < 0.05). Among identified metabolic biomarkers, seminal plasma L-palmitoylcarnitine, linoelaidyl carnitine, and oleic acid were inversely associated with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and seminal plasma L-acetylcarnitine was inversely associated with the proportion of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites (DEHP) excreted as MEHP in urine (%MEHP) (all p < 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that oleic acid and L-acetylcarnitine mediated significant proportions (6.7% and 17%, respectively) of the positive associations between urinary DEHP metabolites and the percentage of spermatozoa with an abnormal head. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated urinary phthalate metabolites may impact semen quality by causing metabolic disorders of seminal plasma PUFAs and acylcarnitine. These pathways warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Sêmen/metabolismo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Transversais , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies directly investigating the association between different types of meat intake and cognitive impairment are limited. We, therefore, examined this association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: In total, 16,948 participants were included in analysis. Diet was measured by a 165-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (1993-1998) when participants were 45-74 years. Cognitive impairment was defined using a Singapore modified version of Mini-Mental State Examination during follow-up three visits (2014-2016) when participants were 61-96 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Cognitive impairment was present in 2443 (14.4%) participants. Compared to the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of red meat intake was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.32, P for trend = 0.009), while the corresponding value for poultry intake was 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.02, P for trend = 0.10). Higher fresh fish/shellfish was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77-1.00, P for trend = 0.03), while preserved fish/shellfish intake was associated with a higher risk (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36, P for trend = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study found that a higher intake of red meat in midlife was associated with increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in later life, while substitution of red meat intake with poultry or fresh fish/shellfish was associated with reduced risk.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is unclear if midlife consumption of dairy and soy food intake, and their components of calcium and isoflavones (in soy), is related to cognitive impairment in elderly. METHODS: We used baseline data on lifestyle and habitual diet of 16,948 participants collected during their recruitment into the Singapore Chinese Health Study from 1993 to 1998, and data on their cognitive function, measured using a 30-item Singapore modified Mini-Mental State Examination, during follow-up interviews from 2014 to 2016. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cognitive impairment. RESULTS: Higher dairy intake was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment in a dose-dependent manner (P for trend = 0.009). Compared to the lowest quartile of dairy intake, ORs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.81-1.07) for the second, 0.88 (0.76-1.01) for the third, and 0.82 (0.72-0.94) for the fourth quartiles of intake. Similar results were found for dairy calcium intake (P for trend = 0.008). However, there was no statistically significant association for intake of soy (OR comparing extreme quartiles 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.14, P for trend = 0.92), isoflavones (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.15, P for trend = 0.90) or non-dairy calcium (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.86-1.30, P for trend = 0.81) with risk of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Dairy intake at midlife could have a protective association against cognitive impairment that may not be attributed to its calcium content alone, while soy or isoflavone intake was not associated with the cognition of elderly in our study.

17.
BMJ ; 365: l2110, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of changes in red meat consumption with total and cause specific mortality in women and men. DESIGN: Two prospective cohort studies with repeated measures of diet and lifestyle factors. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, United States. PARTICIPANTS: 53 553 women and 27 916 men without cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Death confirmed by state vital statistics records, the national death index, or reported by families and the postal system. RESULTS: 14 019 deaths occurred during 1.2 million person years of follow-up. Increases in red meat consumption over eight years were associated with a higher mortality risk in the subsequent eight years among women and men (both P for trend<0.05, P for heterogeneity=0.97). An increase in total red meat consumption of at least half a serving per day was associated with a 10% higher mortality risk (pooled hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.17). For processed and unprocessed red meat consumption, an increase of at least half a serving per day was associated with a 13% higher mortality risk (1.13, 1.04 to 1.23) and a 9% higher mortality risk (1.09, 1.02 to 1.17), respectively. A decrease in consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat of at least half a serving per day was not associated with mortality risk. The association between increased red meat consumption and mortality risk was consistent across subgroups defined by age, physical activity, dietary quality, smoking status, or alcohol consumption. CONCLUSION: Increases in red meat consumption, especially processed meat, were associated with higher overall mortality rates.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 168, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) have been widely used as a valid indicator of health status at the population and individual level. We aimed to investigate the distribution and correlates of global SRH and age-comparative SRH in elderly Chinese. METHODS: Survey of 57,693 men and 67,089 women aged 60 years and above was conducted in five rural (Gansu, Sichuan, Hunan, Henan, Zhejiang) and five urban areas (Heilongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangxi, Hainan) in China between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the relations of different factors with global SRH and age-comparative SRH. RESULTS: Among the participants, 38.33% reported their global SRH as good or excellent while 61.67% as fair or poor, and 17.70% reported better age-comparative SRH while 17.99% as worse. In the multivariate model, compared to women, men tended to report a good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH, urban residents tend to report good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH. The socioeconomic and health behavior factors that were associated with good global SRH and better age-comparative SRH (with varying strengths of association) included: high educational level, high household income, house ownership, quitting smoking by own choices, occasional and current alcohol drinking, overweight, and high physical activity level. The factors that were associated with poor global SRH and worse age-comparative SRH included: quitting smoking by illness, former drinking, underweight, and weight lost ≥2.5 kg in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: We found a moderate level of good global SRH and a low level of better age-comparative SRH among elderly Chinese. We identified a number of demographic, socioeconomic and health behavior factors that were related to SRH measures. Our study emphasizes the importance of incorporating both global and age-comparative SRH measures in future studies, and considering gender inequalities and urban/rural disparity, as well as socioeconomic status and health behaviors as important modifiers of health.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2191-2205, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically assess the prospective association between vitamin K and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE through January 2019 for prospective studies that reported the association of vitamin K (assessed by dietary intake or circulating concentration) with CVD events [including total CVD, CVD mortality, total coronary heart disease (CHD), fatal CHD, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke] and all-cause mortality. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing top versus bottom tertiles of vitamin K were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included with 222,592 participants. A significant association was found between dietary phylloquinone and total CHD (pooled HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.84, 0.99; I2 = 0%; four studies), as well as menaquinone and total CHD (0.70; 95% CI 0.53, 0.93; I2 = 32.1%; two studies). No significant association was observed between dietary vitamin K and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, or stroke. Elevated plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), a marker of vitamin K deficiency, was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (1.84; 95% CI 1.48, 2.28; I2 = 16.8%; five studies) and CVD mortality (1.96; 95% CI 1.47, 2.61; I2 = 0%; two studies). No significant association was observed between circulating total osteocalcin and all-cause mortality or total CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that higher dietary vitamin K consumption was associated with a moderately lower risk of CHD, and higher plasma dp-ucMGP concentration, but not total circulating osteocalcin, was associated with increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. However, causal relations cannot be established because of limited number of available studies, and larger prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the findings.

20.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(4): 787-801, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091973

RESUMO

American ginseng and Asian ginseng, which occupy prominent positions in the list of best-selling natural products in the West and East, are suitable for different indications in the traditional pharmacological uses. Currently, the effects of American ginseng and Asian ginseng in the protection against metabolic dysfunction and the differences between them are still unknown. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was determined. The serum metabolomics and dynamic feces metabolomics revealed significant metabolic distinction between American ginseng and Asian ginseng in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The results show that American ginseng and Asian ginseng alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in DIO mice. A total of 45 differential metabolites were confirmed between the drug-naïve and American ginseng group, and 32 metabolites were confirmed between the drug-naïve and Asian ginseng group. Metabolic pathways analysis shows that these two ginsengs treatment dynamic rectifies metabolic disorder in DIO mice mainly via regulating linoleic acids metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, American ginseng's specific function in monitoring the carnitines and taurine/hypotaurine metabolism might make it more effective in meliorating lipids metabolism disorder than Asian ginseng.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Panax/química , Panax/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Carnitina/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cisteína/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metionina/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Taurina/metabolismo
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