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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(24): 24768-24780, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658405


One hundred and eleven riverbed surface sediment (RSS) samples were collected to determine the heavy metal concentration throughout the Inner Mongolia reach of the Yellow River (IMYR), which has been subjected to rapid economic and industrial development over the past several decades. Comprehensive analysis of heavy metal contamination, including the enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index, contamination factor, pollution load index, risk index, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and Pearson correlation analysis, was performed. The results demonstrated that a low ecological risk with a moderate level of heavy metal contamination was present in the IMYR due to the risk index (RI) being less than 150 and the pollution load index (PLI) being above 1, and the averaged concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, and Zn in the RSS, with standard deviations, were 144 ± 69, 77.91 ± 39.28, 22.95 ± 7.67, 596 ± 151, 28.50 ± 8.01, 3793 ± 487, 69.11 ± 18.44, and 50.19 ± 19.26 mg kg-1, respectively. PCA, HCA, and Pearson correlation analysis revealed that most of the RSS was heavily contaminated with Zn, Ni, and Cu, due to the influence of anthropogenic activities; moderately contaminated with Ti, Mn, V and Cr because of the dual influence of anthropogenic activities and nature; and slightly to not contaminated with Co because it occurs mainly in the bordering desert areas. Graphic abstract ᅟ.

Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Componente Principal , Poluição Química da Água
Sci Total Environ ; 572: 660-670, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27507086


Surface sediment samples concurrently collected in the catchment of the Ningxia-Inner Mongolian reach of Yellow River (NIMYR) were analyzed to determine the phosphorus and correlated physiochemical properties of sediments. Samples were obtained from three main areas: the riverbed surface sediment (RSS), the floodplain surface sediment (FSS) and the desert surface sediment (DSS). The sequence of phosphorus-contamination level in this catchment, determined by a cumulative distribution function and multivariate statistical analysis, were FSS>RSS>DSS. Moreover, because of the impacts of anthropogenic activities, the sampling site with the highest and lowest phosphorus concentration (mgkg-1) of this catchment appeared in RSS (749.40) and DSS (200.10) respectively. In addition, this is the first study to present a qualification of the effect of the sediment's physicochemical properties on phosphorus by the multivariate regression tree analysis. Co-precipitation of phosphate with calcite [i], phosphate absorbed onto ferric hydroxides [ii] and grain-size effect [iii] were the three main mechanisms for phosphorus distribution in the sediment of NIMYR. The contributions of these three mechanisms to RSS and FSS were, respectively, [i]>[iii]>[ii] and [i]>[ii]>[iii]. The heaviest phosphorus-contaminated group of RSS was primarily controlled by [i], whereas the heaviest phosphorus-contaminated group of FSS was controlled by [i] and [ii], indicating that the FSS had a higher potential risk of releasing phosphorus from the sediment to overlying water.

Chemosphere ; 144: 29-42, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26344146


Fifty-six riverbed surface sediment (RSS) samples were collected along the Ningxia-Inner Mongolian reaches of the Yellow River (NIMYR). These samples were analyzed to determine their heavy metal concentrations (Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, V and Zn), grain sizes, sediment sources and the causes of their heavy metal contamination. The cumulative distribution functions of the heavy metals in RSS of these reaches are plotted to identify the geochemical baseline level (GBL) of each element and determine the average background concentration of each heavy metal. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis are conducted based on the grain sizes of RSS, and the samples are classified into two groups: coarse grained samples (CGS) and fine grained samples (FGS). The degree of heavy metal contamination for each sample is identified by its enrichment factor (EF). The results reveal that the coarse particle component (medium sand and coarse sand) in the bed materials is chiefly from the bordering deserts along the Yellow River. The clay and silt in the bed materials chiefly originate from the upper reaches of the Yellow River, and the fine sand is identified as a hybrid sediment derived from the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the bordering deserts. The CGS primarily appear in the reaches bordering deserts, and the sites are near the confluence of gullies and the Yellow River. The FGS are located adjacent to cities with especially strong industrial activity such as Wuhai, Bayan Nur, Baotou and Togtoh. The Cr, Ni, Cu, V and Zn concentrations (mg kg(-1)) are 84.34 ± 49.46, 30.21 ± 7.90, 25.01 ± 7.61, 73.17 ± 18.92 and 55.62 ± 18.93 in the FGS and 65.07 ± 19.51, 23.86 ± 6.84, 18.04 ± 3.8, 53.47 ± 10.57 and 34.89 ± 9.19 in the CGS respectively, and the concentrations of Co in the CGS (213.40 ± 69.71) are notably higher than in the FGS (112.02 ± 48.87) and greater than the Co GBL (210). The most contaminated samples in the NIMYR are adjacent to the cities of Wuhai (EF(Cr) = 5.19; EF(Ni) = 1.96), Bayan Nur (EF(Cr) = 5.88; EF(Ni )= 2.08) and Baotou (EF(Cu) = 1.55; EF(Zn) = 1.68) where the Cr, Ni, Cu, V and Zn concentrations are above the correlated GBLs (85, 34, 27, 75 and 62 mg kg(-1), respectively), which are mostly affected by industrial processes, and samples that are only moderately contaminated by heavy metals are found in the reaches bordering desert (Wuhai-Baotou) because contaminated sediments are diluted by uncontaminated desert sand. In contrast, all of the Cu, Cr, Ni, V and Zn concentrations in RSS of the Qingtongxia-Wuhai reach are lower than the correlated GBLs of elements.

Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Análise de Componente Principal , Rios
Nat Commun ; 6: 8511, 2015 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26449321


Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records.