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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124860, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639385

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of peanut shell pyrolysis reaction is essential for its efficient utilization. Detailed analysis of thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction products can provide valuable information about pyrolysis reaction. In this work, pyrolytic reaction mechanism was elucidated with the analysis of thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry and the structural characterization of the derived biochar. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of three sub-stages were matched well in different model-free methods. The positive ΔH and ΔG values indicated that the pyrolysis reactions for three stages were endothermic and nonspontaneous. The reaction mechanism predicted by integral master-plots were F3 (f(α) = (1-α)3), F1 (f(α) = (1-α), and F3 (f(α) = (1-α)3) for the three sub-stages, respectively. The negative ΔS in the third stage was related to the reduced releasing of low-molecular weight gases and ordered graphite-like carbon structure. This study provides a prospective approach to understand the pyrolysis mechanism of biomass.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145555, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631563

RESUMO

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EFPRs) have recently attracted a great deal of research attention because of their significant toxicity and ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. The information is still very limited on how to estimate the intensity of EPFRs under ambient circumstances. This study is designed to specifically compare EPFRs generation during catechol degradation in dark and UV light irradiation. CuO and TiO2 were selected as model metal oxides to coat on silica at 1% CuO has a large electron exchange capacity, which may mediate catechol degradation in dark, while TiO2 possesses strong photocatalytic property and could accelerate catechol degradation under UV light. Under UV light irradiation, EPFRs were generated very quickly and reached the maximum value in 4 d, which was related to the photocatalytic property of the particle. However, these EPFRs dissipated quickly in 14 d. On the contrary, the intensities of EPFRs generated in dark were 2 times higher, and stabled for over 2 months. Therefore, the environmental impacts of EPFRs in dark may be widespread and long-lasting, which should be monitored more carefully. It should be noted that for CuO-coated silica, a significant amount of EPFRs (20% of the maximum) survived the UV-light irradiation and stabled during the experimental period (45 d). Stronger EPFRs were associated with more abundant dimer structures, suggesting the dimer structures were related to EPFRs formation during catechol degradation. Monitoring the generation of dimer structures in the degradation of organic chemicals may provide useful information to estimate EPFRs generation and risks.

3.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; : 102001, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CXCR1, a member of the seven-transmembrane chemokine receptor family, promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in many tumors. The present study was undertaken to explore the interrelation between CXCR1 expression and the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in addition to the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). METHODS: The expression of CXCR1 in NSCLC tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The relationships between CXCR1 expression and clinical-pathological factors were investigated. Concomitantly, the relationship between CXCR1 expression and EGFR-TKI treatment efficacy was investigated. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was employed for exploration of pathway enrichment, tumor immune estimation resource (TIMER) and gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA) for the inspection of the interrelationship between infiltration immune cells and CXCR1. After gain-and loss-of-function of CXCR1 in NSCLC cells, qRT-PCR and Western blot were applied to measure the levels of proteins associated with the chemokine pathway (CCL3 and CXCL2) and the JAK/STAT pathway (IL9R, PIAS4 and STAT5A). RESULTS: CXCR1 significantly correlated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. Additionally, CXCR1 limited the clinical efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in advanced LUAD (P = 0.029). In the tumor microenvironment, CXCR1 was positively associated with infiltration levels of immune markers in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and LUAD. High expression of CXCR1 was implicated in the NOD-like receptor (NLR), cytokine/cytokine receptor, JAK/STAT and chemokine signaling pathways in LUAD and LUSC. Overexpression of CXCR1 in NSCLC cell lines enhanced expressions of CCL3, CXCL2, IL9R, PIAS4 and STAT5A, while knockdown of CXCR1 lead to repressed expressions of CCL3, CXCL2, IL9R, PIAS4 and STAT5A. CONCLUSION: CXCR1 is correlated with poor prognosis of NSCLC and affects the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in LUAD.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144447, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434839

RESUMO

The slower adsorption of lower molecular weight organic molecules remains poorly understood. This study investigated the adsorption kinetics of gallic acid (GA) and tannic acid (TA) on kaolinite (Kao), montmorillonite (Mon) and hematite (Hem), with an emphasis on the role of the bound water on the minerals. The lower adsorption of TA and GA on Kao than on Mon attributed to the lower specific surface area of Kao. Because of the electrostatic attraction, the adsorption of TA and GA on Hem was higher than that on Mon, even the specific surface area of the former was much lower than that of the later. The adsorption rates of TA on the three minerals were generally two orders of magnitude higher than those of GA. The adsorption kinetics of GA was strongly diffusion dependent; however, the diffusion process had limited influence on TA adsorption kinetics. The decreased c values of the intraparticle diffusion model of GA with increasing ionic strength provided additional direct evidence for the diffusion-dependent adsorption and the reduced hindrance by bound water via hydration layer compression. However, hydration layer compression had no effect on TA adsorption kinetics. The reduced 1H NMR relaxation rate of bound water indicated that the bound water quantity on minerals decreased with increasing ionic strength, which proved the occurrence of hydration layer compression. This study highlighted the importance of bound water and the relative sizes of organic molecules in the adsorption kinetics of organic compounds on minerals, which should be carefully considered for their environmental fate studies.

5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(2): 184-191, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465007

RESUMO

Malfunction of myocardial mitochondria plays a crucial role in the development of cardiovascular disorders, especially hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is an important structural protein and essential to contraction and relaxation of cardiomyocytes. Recent studies suggest that mutated cTnIR193H could function as a regulatory molecule for other cell functions. This study was to determine whether mutated cTnI could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction of cardiomyocytes. Primary cardiomyocytes were transfected with cTnIR193H adenovirus with empty vector as control. Mitochondrial structure and function were evaluated in the cells 72 h after transfection. Transmission electron microscopy examination showed mitochondria in the cardiomyocytes with R193H mutation displayed broken cristae, vacuolation, and mitophagy. Mitochondrial function studies revealed a significant decrease in complex I activity, ATP and reactive oxygen species levels, and oxygen consumption rate compared with controls. Western blot analysis demonstrated that expressions of mitochondria-related genes, including ND5 (ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5), LRPPRC (a leucine-rich protein of pentatricopeptide repeat family), and PGC-1α (PPARG co-activator 1 alpha), were significantly downregulated in R193H mutation cardiomyocytes compared with the control. Swelling and broken cristae were observed in the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes from cTnIR193H mutation transgenic mice with decreased mitochondrial function, not from the littermate control mice. The data from the present study demonstrated that mitochondrial structure and function were significantly impaired in cardiomyocytes with cTnIR193H mutation, suggesting that cTnI might be critically involved in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of myocardial mitochondria.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 174, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420170

RESUMO

Aquaculture has become imperative to cover the demands for dietary animal protein. Simultaneously, it has to overcome prejudices from excessive use of antibiotics and environmental impacts. Natural supplements are traditionally applied orally. In this study, we demonstrated another pathway: the gills. Humic substances are immunostimulants and a natural part of every aquatic ecosystem, making them ideal to be used as bath stimulants. Five and 50 mg C/L of a fulvic acid-rich humic substance was added for 28 days to the water of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This fulvic acid is characterized by a high content of phenolic moieties with persistent free radicals and a high electron exchange capacity. The high concentration of the fulvic acid significantly increased growth and reduced the food conversion ratio and the response to a handling-stressor. Phagocytosis and potential killing activity of head kidney leukocytes were increased, as well as the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) and lysozyme activity in the gills. In conclusion, immunostimulation via gills is possible with our fulvic acid, and the high phenolic content improved overall health and stress resistance of fish.

7.
J Palliat Med ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434098

RESUMO

Background: Head and neck cancer was the fourth-most common cause of cancer death among Taiwanese men in 2018. Hospice care has been proven to reduce the use of invasive medical interventions and expenditures in caring for cancer patients. Aim: This study examined the effects of hospice care for terminal head and neck cancer patients. Design: A matched cohort study was used to compare the use of invasive interventions and expenditures among hospice care and nonhospice care patients. Setting/Participants: The investigated patients consisted of patients who died of head and neck cancer in Taiwan from 2004 to 2013 and were included in the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients in Taiwan and the Taiwan National Health Research Insurance Database. Results: A total of 45,948 terminal head and neck cancer patients were identified, and 9883 patients remained in each group after matching for comorbidities. After that matching, the rates of intensive care unit admission (23.9% vs. 38.94%, p < 0.0001), endotracheal intubation (10.05% vs. 31.32%, p < 0.0001), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (2.93% vs. 20.18%, p < 0.0001), defibrillation (0.51% vs. 4.36%. p < 0.0001), ventilator use (21.92% vs. 46.47%, p < 0.0001), blood transfusion (71.25% vs. 73.45%, p = 0.006), and hemodialysis (1.06% vs. 3.26%. p < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the hospice group than the nonhospice group, although the rates of parenteral nutrition for the two groups were similar (7.74% vs. 7.97%, p = 0.5432). The mean medical expenditure per person in the six months before death was 460,531 New Taiwan Dollar (NTD) for the nonhospice group and 389,079 NTD for those provided hospice care for more than three months, which was the lowest amount among various hospice enrollment durations. Conclusions: Hospice care can effectively reduce the use of invasive medical interventions in caring for terminal head and neck cancer patients and may improve their quality of death. Moreover, hospice care enrollment for more than three months can save on unnecessary medical expenditures for terminal head and neck cancer patients.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117372, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436204

RESUMO

A novel image segmentation methodology combined with optical microscopy observation was developed for qualifying starch swelling. Starch granules in the micrograph were successfully segmented based on high-precision edges extraction achieved by Canny edge detection together with mathematical morphology operation. Granules were automatically identified by computer vision and characterized by giving quantifiable area of these granules. The evolved swelling process could be generally divided into two phases. During the first phase, starch granules were only swollen up by 2.56 %, which is hard to be identified by conventional naked eye. During the following narrow temperature interval (60-66 ℃), these starch granules were detected to swell up significantly by 9.08 %. Through the granule area variable, swelling capacity was high-throughput characterized, which allows for the whole evaluation to be completed within a couple of minutes. The proposed methodology showed a high accuracy and potential as a novel technique for characterizing gelatinization.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 144153, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352332

RESUMO

Excess sludge production from wastewater treatment plants has significantly increased, and sludge disposal has become a serious social and environmental problem. In this study, we constructed a microbial electrochemical hybrid system (MEHS) for simultaneous electricity generation, acid and alkali production, desalination, alkali pretreatment, and degradation of sludge. The alkaline solution generated in the MEHS was used for in situ sludge pretreatment. Owing to the efficiency in alkali pretreatment, a higher sludge degradation efficiency was obtained by the MEHS (Total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 57.2%) than by the SMFC (TCOD removal efficiency of 51.7%). Moreover, the MEHS (0.165C) could recover more electricity from the sludge than a traditional single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SMFC, 0.133C). Additionally, the MEHS exhibited excellent performance in desalination (> 50%) and acid production. The system developed in this study provides a new solution for sludge degradation and multifunctional utilization.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Purificação da Água , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eletricidade , Esgotos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143807, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288254

RESUMO

With the expanding nanotechnology, nanoparticles (NPs) embedded products are used in the agricultural sector to improve soil fertility. Thus, two typical metal oxides NPs and their mixtures were applied in different doses to evaluate the impacts on soil microbes. CuO and ZnO NPs boosted soil microbial communities as reflected by the increased number of extractable bacterial or fungal groups and the enlarged values of Chao 1, ACE, and Shannon indices. Relative abundance of some susceptible taxa such as Sphingomonadales increased with increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs, while IMCC26256 decreased with increasing concentrations of CuO NPs. The mixture of CuO and ZnO NPs did not show more promotional effects on the soil bacterial community than the sum of individual effects. Increased soil organic carbon mitigated the impacts on soil bacteria for CuO NPs, but not for ZnO NPs. As micro-nutrients, the ions released from CuO and ZnO NPs had the potential to promote soil microbial community richness and diversity. However, the positive impacts of MNPs were impaired at dosage higher than 250 mg kg-1 soil (213.08 mg kg-1 soil of Cu, 162.73 mg kg-1 soil of Zn). Thus, the application dose and soil type other than the coexistence of MNPs should be considered before the wide use in increasing agricultural productivity.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300898

RESUMO

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have drawn increasing attention. It is reported that EPFR formation is dependent on the presence of transition metals; however the size of the metal particles is ignored. In this study, we hypothesized that transition metals in smaller particle sizes could more efficiently promote the generation of EPFRs and thus have higher risks. Nanosized hematite (nanoHMT) and microsized hematite (microHMT) were studied and compared. We monitored the degradation of catechol and the generation of EPFRs under both dark and ultraviolet light conditions. Catechol degradation was inhibited in the presence of hematite in the dark, with more significant inhibition by nanoHMT. However, under ultraviolet light, catechol degradation was promoted by hematite, with more significant promotion by nanoHMT. The yield of free radicals in the nanoHMT system was always higher than that in the microHMT system. More dimers were detected in the nanoHMT system, which may have played an important role in stabilizing free radicals. More trivalent Fe was converted to divalent Fe in the nanoHMT system than in the microHMT system. The relatively more active sites for the catechol interaction promoted EPFR generation. These results highlighted that size-dependent reactions should be well considered when predicting the environmental behavior and risks of organic contaminants.

13.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 533759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304865

RESUMO

Objective: Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most prevailing vasculitis among infants and young children, and has become the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood. Delayed diagnosis of KD can lead to serious cardiovascular complications. We sought to create a diagnostic model to help distinguish children with KD from children with other febrile illnesses [febrile controls (FCs)] to allow prompt treatment. Methods: Significant independent predictors were identified by applying multivariate logistic regression analyses. A new diagnostic model was constructed and compared with that from diagnostic tests created by other scholars. Results: Data from 10,367 patients were collected. Twelve independent predictors were determined: a lower percentage of monocytes (%MON), phosphorus, uric acid (UA), percentage of lymphocyte (%LYM), prealbumin, serum chloride, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase: alanine transaminase (AST: ALT) ratio, higher level of globulin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), platelet count (PLT), and younger age. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of the new model for cross-validation of the KD diagnosis was 0.906 ± 0.006, 86.0 ± 0.9%, and 80.5 ± 1.5%, respectively. An equation was presented to assess the risk of KD, which was further validated using KD (n = 5,642) and incomplete KD (n = 809) cohorts. Conclusions: Children with KD could be distinguished effectively from children with other febrile illnesses by documenting the age and measuring the level of %MON, phosphorus, UA, globulin, %LYM, prealbumin, GGT, AST:ALT ratio, serum chloride, LDH, and PLT. This new diagnostic model could be employed for the accurate diagnosis of KD.

14.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3): 219-222, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346960

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in December 2019 and has been rapidly escalating throughout the world. Clinical findings show that the patients with either symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 can be a potential source of infection. Although respiratory droplets and close contact are considered to be the main routes of transmission, there is the possibility of aerosol transmission in a relatively closed environment. The nucleic acid of the novel coronavirus can be detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, sputum and other lower respiratory tract secretions, blood, feces, urine and so on, but whether it exists in the semen has not been confirmed. It is reported that the novel coronavirus may affect the testis that highly expresses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and theoretically the semen is a possible carrier of the virus considering the fact that it is discharged from the same channel as the urine. Andrology laboratorians are exposed to most of the specimens above, including semen, and some open operations in the laboratory increase the risk of aerosol generation. Therefore, corresponding protective procedures are necessitated in andrology laboratories to reduce the risk of infection during the outbreak of COVID-19. Based on the knowledge and experience available as regards the pandemic and the characteristics of the work in the andrology laboratory, we summarize some biosafety points for andrology laboratorians to attend to during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Andrologia/organização & administração , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222446

RESUMO

Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive malignant tumor of cardiovascular system. It is usually misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism due to its atypical clinical features and similar clinical symptoms. Different from published reports, our case received both enhanced CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before the pathologic result, and lung metastases had already occurred at the time of diagnosis. we herein reported a case of 41-year-old female patient who suffered from cough and chest tightness for more than a month. Laboratory examination indicated that both blood routine and tumor markers were within the normal range, and only the D-dimer slightly elevated. contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed right pulmonary artery lesion and multiple nodular located right upper lung, the lesion was mild heterogeneous enhancement. no obvious abnormalities were found in deep vein of bilateral lower extremities on ultrasonography. In order to confirm the nature of these lesions, PET/CT scan was performed, which revealed stripe hypermetabolism in right pulmonary artery and nodular hypermetabolism in right upper lung, and the rest of the whole-body PET imaging were negative, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary artery malignancy with pulmonary metastases was made, and pulmonary thromboembolism was ruled out. biopsy of right pulmonary lesions was performed and histopathological examination indicated pulmonary artery sarcoma. She only received palliative conservative medical treatment because the disease was late stage according to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system, and did not acceptable surgical treatment, and was in good health during recent follow-up. Our study suggested that 18F-FDG PET/CT image is a good approach for the diagnosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma and could provide adjunct value for further treatment.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143375, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189376

RESUMO

The relationship between excess copper (Cu) intake and lipid metabolic disorders is not well-studied, and most studies on this topic have a cross-sectional design. Here, we investigated the relationship between Cu exposure and blood lipid metabolism in women population, as well as potential mediation effects of oxidative stress and inflammation, using a repeated-measurement study. A total of 35 women in northern China were included, and each individual was visited for five times. Blood samples were collected, and the following serum biomarkers were analyzed: heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and lipids [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a))]. A linear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the associations between Cu and the individual biomarkers in serum. The results showed that Cu was positively associated with TG (ß = 0.0007, P = 0.01), TC (ß = 0.0006, P = 0.002), LDL (ß = 0.0004, P ≤ 0.001), and Lp(a) (ß = 0.0004, P = 0.01), but not associated with HDL (ß = 0.0001, P = 0.19). Likewise, serum Cu was positively associated with HO-1 (ß = 0.0004, P = 0.03) and negatively associated with MCP-1 (ß = -0.0006, P = 0.003) and IL-8 (ß = -0.002, P = 0.03). Among the biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipids in serum, only IL-8 was negatively associated with HDL (ß = -0.0004, P = 0.009). No other associations were observed. We conclude that high Cu exposure may elevate blood lipid levels as well as disturb processes related to oxidative stress and inflammation responses.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(23): 15142-15150, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170651

RESUMO

Dehalogenation is one of the most important reactions for eliminating trace organic pollutants in natural and engineering systems. This study investigated the dehalogenation of a model organohalogen compound, triclosan (TCS), by aqueous biochars (a-BCs) (<450 nm). We found that TCS can be anaerobically degraded by reduced a-BCs with a pseudo first-order degradation rate constant of 0.0011-0.011 h-1. The 288 h degradation fraction of TCS correlated significantly with the amount of a-BC-bound electrons (0.055 ± 0.00024 to 0.11 ± 0.0016 mol e-/mol C) available for donation after 24 h of pre-reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. Within the reduction period, the recovery of chlorine based on residual TCS and generated Cl- ranged from 73.6 to 85.2%, implying that a major fraction of TCS was fully dechlorinated, together with mass spectroscopic analysis of possible degradation byproducts. Least-squares numerical fitting, accounting for the reactions of hydroquinones/semiquinones in a-BCs with TCS and byproducts, can simulate the reaction kinetics well (R2 > 0.76) and suggest the first-step dechlorination as the rate-limiting step among the possible pathways. These results showcased that the reduced a-BCs can reductively degrade organohalogens with potential applications for wastewater treatment and groundwater remediation. While TCS was used as a model compound in this study, a-BC-based degradation can be likely applied to a range of redox-sensitive trace organic compounds.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19481, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173112

RESUMO

To verify whether omitting radiotherapy from breast cancer treatment for patients ≥ 70 years old following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) without axillary lymph node dissection is safe. Previous studies have shown that omitting breast radiotherapy after BCS and axillary lymph node dissection is safe for elderly breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate the safety of BCS without axillary surgery or breast radiotherapy (BCSNR) in elderly patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. We performed a retrospective analysis of 481 patients with breast cancer, aged ≥ 70 years, between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 302 patients underwent BCSNR and 179 underwent other, larger scope operations. Local recurrence rate, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rate, distant metastasis rate, breast-related death, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. After a median follow-up of 60 months, no significant differences in local recurrence, distant metastasis rate, breast-related death, and DFS were noted. The OS was similar (P = 0.56) between the BCSNR group (91.7%) and other operations group (93.0%). The IBTR rate was considered low in both groups, however resulted greater (P = 0.005) in the BCSNR group (5.3%) than in other operations group (1.6%). BCSNR did not affect the survival of elderly patients with breast cancer with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. IBTR was infrequent in both groups; however, there was a significant difference between the two groups. BCSNR is a feasible treatment modality for patients with breast cancer ≥ 70 years old with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes.

19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 139: 110488, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Microtia is defined as a congenital malformation characterized by a small, abnormally shaped auricle, with atresia or stenosis of the auditory canal. This study investigated a mutation of the cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily A, polypeptide 1(CYP26A1) gene, which is considered important in craniofacial development, in a family affected with microtia. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the proband and his family members to identify disease-associated variants. Computational predictions of the altered protein were analyzed using several bioinformatics tools. The wild-type (WT) and mutant forms of CYP26A1 cDNA were transfected into human embryonic kidney cells, and the mRNA and protein levels were compared using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: In this two-generation family, the proband and his mother were diagnosed with unilateral microtia. Unilateral microtia and ipsilateral accessory ear were observed in one of the twins, who were sisters of the proband. The father and the other twin showed no abnormal clinical features. A heterozygous mutation of a C to T in the CYP26A1 gene, which leads to truncation of the CYP26A1 protein, was identified in this family. The nonsense mutation cosegregated with patients and was absent in normal members of the family. The prediction software indicated that it was a possibly pathogenic mutation. The structure of the protein varied significantly between the WT and mutant proteins. Functional analysis showed that this mutation caused a significant decrease in both the mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that this mutation of CYP26A1 may be a pathogenic factor leading to the phenotypes of microtia and accessory ear in this family. Further studies are needed to prove the function of this mutation and to explore the possible mechanism by which this variant is involved in the occurrence of microtia.

20.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-4, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to delineate the characteristics and incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in patients with isolated microtia and to determine whether the prevalence of CHD among patients with isolated microtia increases with the severity of microtia. METHODS: A total of 804 consecutive patients had a pre-operative colour Doppler echocardiographic examination. A retrospective study was performed with the clinical and imaging data from November, 2017 to January, 2019. The χ2 test was performed to analyse the interaction between isolated microtia and CHD. RESULTS: With the colour Doppler echocardiographic examination's data from 804 consecutive isolated microtia patients, we found CHD, including atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, patent ductus arteriosus, and others, occurred in 52 of 804 patients (6.5%). Atrial septal defect prevalence in patients with isolated microtia was significantly higher than ventricular septal defect (24/804 versus 11/804, p < 0.05) and patent ductus arteriosus (24/804 versus 2/804, p < 0.001). Ventricular septal defect prevalence in patients with isolated microtia was significantly higher than patent ductus arteriosus (11/804 versus 2/804, p < 0.05). All four types of microtia (concha-type microtia, small concha-type microtia, lobule-type microtia, and anotia) had similar incidences of CHD with no difference in the incidences among these types (p > 0.05 respectively). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the atrial septal defect among the four subtypes (p > 0.05 respectively). Similarly, ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus also showed no differences (p > 0.05 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidences of CHD and three most common CHD subtypes (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus) in patients with isolated microtia are higher than general population. The prevalence of CHD among patients with isolated microtia does not increase with the severity of microtia. According to our experience in this study, we suggest colour Doppler echocardiographic imaging should be performed for isolated microtia patients soon after birth if possible. Furthermore, for the plastic surgeon and anaesthesiologist, it is important to take pre-operative colour Doppler echocardiographic images which can help evaluate heart function to ensure the safety of the peri-operative period. Future studies when investigating CHDs associated with isolated microtia could focus on genetic and molecular mechanisms.

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