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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680811

RESUMO

Diarrhea, often caused by microorganisms, has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in Africa. Increased rates of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have reignited the quest for alternative therapies. This review aimed at identifying medicinal plants used in the treatment of human diarrheal cases in Rwanda and analyzing their ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, and phytochemistry. We searched PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and the Web of Science for published articles on medicinal plants used to treat diarrhea in Rwanda. Additionally, specialized herbarium documents of different institutes were reviewed. Articles were assessed for relevance, quality, and taxonomical accuracy before being included in this review. Overall, 63 species of medicinal plants belonging to 35 families were recorded. Asteraceae was the predominant family with six species, followed by Fabaceae and Lamiaceae, with five species each. The most reported species with anti-diarrheal properties were Vernonia amygdalina Delile, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd, Clerodendrum myricoides R. Br. and Chenopodium ugandae (Aellen) Aellen. Leaves (66.7%) and roots (17.5%) were the commonly used plant parts in the preparation of medicine. Phytochemicals from medicinal plants with antidiarrheic activities were sesquiterpene lactones (V. amygdalina); terpene, sterols, saponosides, and flavonoids (C. ugandae); saponins and tannins (T. riparia); and tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids (C. myricoides). Six studies tested the antimicrobial activities of the plants against bacteria and viruses known to cause diarrhea. Erythrina abyssinica, Euphorbia tirucalli, Dracaena afromontana, and Ficus thonningii are socio-culturally important. Further research on toxicity and posology is needed to ensure the safety of medicinal plants.

2.
Microbiologyopen ; 10(5): e1239, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713604

RESUMO

Although diatoms have been utilized as a cellular factory to produce biopharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins, and biofuels, only a few numbers of gene promoters are available. Therefore, the development of novel endogenous promoters is essential for the production of a range of bioactive substances. Here, we characterized the activities of endogenous promoters glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapC1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) of Phaeodactylum tricornutum using green fluorescent protein (GFP) under different culture conditions. Compared with the widely used fucoxanthin chlorophyll-binding protein A (fcpA) promoter, the GS promoter constitutively drove the expression of GFP throughout all growth phases of P. tricornutum, regardless of culture conditions. Additionally, the GFP level driven by the GapC1 promoter was the highest at the log phase, similar to the fcpA promoter, and increased light and nitrogen-starvation conditions reduced GFP levels by inhibiting promoter activity. These results suggested that the GS promoter could be utilized as a strong endogenous promoter for the genetic engineering of P. tricornutum.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 117: 105445, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717238

RESUMO

During an attempt to discover insulin mimetics, thirteen new triterpenoid saponins (1-13), including three phytolaccagenic acids (1, 2, and 12) and ten serjanic acids (3-11 and 13), as aglycones were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of leaves and stems from Pericampylus glaucus. The chemical structures of compounds 1-13 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR, IR, and HRESIMS. All isolated compounds (1-13) were evaluated using 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-d-glucose (2-NBDG) as a fluorescent-tagged glucose probe to determine their stimulatory effects on glucose uptake in differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Consequently, four compounds (4, 7, 11, and 12) exhibited stimulatory effects on glucose uptake.

4.
J Microbiol Methods ; 191: 106351, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710513

RESUMO

Human gut surface-attached mucosal microbiota plays significant roles in human health and diseases. This study sought to simulate the mucosal environment using mucin-agar gel and synthetic mucosal microbial community in vitro. To select suitable culture media, microbial communities were assembled and cultured in seven different media at 37 °C for 36 h. Among the seven media, Bryant & Burkey (BB) and Gifu Anaerobic Media (GAM) were selected considering their microbial biomass and bacterial composition. The communities were again assembled and cultured in these two media with mucin-agar. The results showed that some bacterial genus such as Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Roseburia could efficiently colonize in the solid mucin-agar part while Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Veilonella dominated in the liquid part. Metabolic functional prediction for the microbial community in each medium part showed that the gene expression involved in metabolism and cell motility pathways were distinctively differentiated between the liquid and solid medium part, and the functional potential was highly related to the microbial composition. The current results demonstrate that the simulation of the gut microbial ecosystem in vitro can be beneficial to the mucosal environment mimicking and the study on the mechanistic potential of the human gut microbiota for easy translation of microbiome research to therapies.

5.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577611

RESUMO

The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aß) peptides is common in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, who are characterized by neurological cognitive impairment. In the search for materials with inhibitory activity against the accumulation of the Aß peptide, seven undescribed flavanonol glycosides (1-7) and five known compounds (8-12) were isolated from stems of Myrsine seguinii by HPLC-qTOF MS/MS-based molecular networking. Interestingly, this plant has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds (1-12) were elucidated based on spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 2, 6 and 7 showed neuroprotective activity against Aß-induced cytotoxicity in Aß42-transfected HT22 cells.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440305

RESUMO

Thermophilic Campylobacter species of poultry origin have been associated with up to 80% of human campylobacteriosis cases. Layer chickens have received less attention as possible reservoirs of Campylobacter species. Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of two archived Campylobacter isolates (Campylobacter jejuni strain 200605 and Campylobacter coli strain 200606) from layer chickens to five antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin) were determined using broth microdilution while the presence of selected antimicrobial resistance genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed by the Illumina HiSeq X platform. The analysis involved antimicrobial resistance genes, virulome, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and phylogeny. Both isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC: 32 vs. 32 µg/mL), nalidixic acid (MIC: 128 vs. 64 µg/mL), and tetracycline (MIC: 64 vs. 64 µg/mL), but sensitive to erythromycin (MIC: 1 vs. 2 µg/mL) and gentamicin (MIC: 0.25 vs. 1 µg/mL) for C. jejuni strain 200605 and C. coli strain 200606, respectively. WGS confirmed C257T mutation in the gyrA gene and the presence of cmeABC complex conferring resistance to FQs in both strains. Both strains also exhibited tet(O) genes associated with tetracycline resistance. Various virulence genes associated with motility, chemotaxis, and capsule formation were found in both isolates. However, the analysis of virulence genes showed that C. jejuni strain 200605 is more virulent than C. coli strain 200606. The MLST showed that C. jejuni strain 200605 belongs to sequence type ST-5229 while C. coli strain 200606 belongs to ST-5935, and both STs are less common. The phylogenetic analysis clustered C. jejuni strain 200605 along with other strains reported in Korea (CP028933 from chicken and CP014344 from human) while C. coli strain 200606 formed a separate cluster with C. coli (CP007181) from turkey. The WGS confirmed FQ-resistance in both strains and showed potential virulence of both strains. Further studies are recommended to understand the reasons behind the regional distribution (Korea, China, and Vietnam) of such rare STs.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329170

RESUMO

As the microbiome is composed of a variety of microbial interactions, it is imperative in microbiome research to identify a microbial sub-community that collectively conducts a specific function. However, current methodologies have been highly limited to analyzing conditional abundance changes of individual microorganisms without considering group-wise collective microbial features. To overcome this limitation, we developed a network-based method using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to identify functional meta-microbial features (MMFs) that, as a group, better discriminate specific environmental conditions of samples using microbiome data. As proof of concept, large-scale human microbiome data collected from different body sites were used to identify body site-specific MMFs by applying NMF. The statistical test for MMFs led us to identify highly discriminative MMFs on sample classes, called synergistic MMFs (SYMMFs). Finally, we constructed a SYMMF-based microbial interaction network (SYMMF-net) by integrating all of the SYMMF information. Network analysis revealed core microbial modules closely related to critical sample properties. Similar results were also found when the method was applied to various disease-associated microbiome data. The developed method interprets high-dimensional microbiome data by identifying functional microbial modules on sample properties and intuitively representing their systematic relationships via a microbial network.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 622275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859624

RESUMO

Thermophilic Campylobacter species are among the major etiologies of bacterial enteritis globally. This study aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, virulence genes, and genetic diversity of thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from a layer poultry farm in South Korea. One hundred fifty-three chicken feces were collected from two layer poultry farms in Gangneung, South Korea. The Campylobacter species were isolated by cultural techniques, while PCR and sequencing were used for species confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for six antimicrobials [ciprofloxacin (CIP), nalidixic acid (NAL), sitafloxacin (SIT), erythromycin (ERY), tetracycline (TET), and gentamicin (GEN)] was carried out by broth microdilution. Three AMR and nine virulence genes were screened by PCR. Genotyping was performed by flaA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of the 153 samples, Campylobacter spp. were detected in 55 (35.9%), with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli being 49 (89.1%) and six (10.9%), respectively. High-level resistance was observed for CIP (100%), NAL (100%), and TET (C. jejuni, 93.9%; C. coli: 83.3%). No resistance was observed for SIT. The missense mutation (C257T) in gyrA gene was confirmed by sequencing, while the tet(O) gene was similar to known sequences in GenBank. The rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains was 8.2%, and they all belonged to C. jejuni. All Campylobacter isolates possessed five virulence genes (cdtB, cstII, flaA, cadF, and dnaJ), but none possessed ggt, while the rates for other genes (csrA, ciaB, and pldA) ranged between 33.3 and 95.9%. The flaA-RFLP yielded 26 flaA types (C. jejuni: 21 and C. coli: five), while the MLST showed 10 sequence types (STs) for C. jejuni and three STs for C. coli, with CC-607 (STs 3611) and CC-460 (ST-460) being predominant. Among the 10 STs of C. jejuni, three were newly assigned. The findings of this study highlight the increased resistance to quinolones and TET, the virulence potential, and the diverse genotypes among Campylobacter strains isolated from the layer poultry farm.

9.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800441

RESUMO

Schisandrol A possesses pharmacological properties and is used to treat various diseases; however, its effects on osteoarthritis (OA) progression remain unclear. Here, we investigated Schisandrol A as a potential therapeutic agent for OA. In vitro, Schisandrol A effects were confirmed based on the levels of expression of catabolic factors (MMPs, ADAMTS5, and Cox2) induced by IL-1ß or Schisandrol A treatment in chondrocytes. In vivo, experimental OA in mice was induced using a destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgical model or oral gavage of Schisandrol A in a dose-dependent manner, and demonstrated using histological analysis. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that Schisandrol A inhibition attenuated osteoarthritic cartilage destruction via the regulation of Mmp3, Mmp13, Adamts5, and Cox2 expression. In the NF-κB signaling pathway, Schisandrol A suppressed the degradation of IκB and the phosphorylation of p65 induced by IL-1ß. Overall, and Schisandrol A reduced the expression of catabolic factors by blocking NF-κB signaling and prevented cartilage destruction. Therefore, Schisandrol A attenuated OA progression, and can be used to develop novel OA drug therapies.

10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802005

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related degenerative disease that causes cartilage dysfunction and inflammation. Obtusifolin, an anthraquinone extracted from Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby seeds, has anti-inflammatory functions; it could be used as a drug component to relieve OA symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of obtusifolin on OA inflammation. In vitro, interleukin (IL)-1ß (1 ng/mL)-treated mouse chondrocytes were co-treated with obtusifolin at different concentrations. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp) 3, Mmp13, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2), and signaling proteins was measured by polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting; collagenase activity and the PGE2 level were also determined. In vivo, OA-induced C57BL/6 mice were administered obtusifolin, and their cartilage was stained with Safranin O to observe damage. Obtusifolin inhibited Mmp3, Mmp13, and Cox2 expression to levels similar to or more than those after treatment with celecoxib. Additionally, obtusifolin decreased collagenase activity and the PGE2 level. Furthermore, obtusifolin regulated OA via the NF-κB signaling pathway. In surgically induced OA mouse models, the cartilage destruction decreased when obtusifolin was administered orally. Taken together, our results show that obtusifolin effectively reduces cartilage damage via the regulation of MMPs and Cox2 expression. Hence, we suggest that obtusifolin could be a component of another OA symptom reliever.

11.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499015

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the melanogenesis of humans and the browning of food products. Thus, tyrosinase inhibitors that are useful to the cosmetic and food industries are required. In this study, we have used evolutionary chemical binding similarity (ECBS) to screen a virtual chemical database for human tyrosinase, which resulted in seven potential tyrosinase inhibitors confirmed through the tyrosinase inhibition assay. The tyrosinase inhibition percentage for three of the new actives was over 90% compared to 61.9% of kojic acid. From the structural analysis through pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking with the human tyrosinase model, the pi-pi interaction of tyrosinase inhibitors with conserved His367 and the polar interactions with Asn364, Glu345, and Glu203 were found to be essential for tyrosinase-ligand interactions. The pharmacophore features and the docking models showed high consistency, revealing the possible essential binding interactions of inhibitors to human tyrosinase. We have also presented the activity cliff analysis that successfully revealed the chemical features related to substantial activity changes found in the new tyrosinase inhibitors. The newly identified inhibitors and their structure-activity relationships presented here will help to identify or design new human tyrosinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Desenho de Fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Pironas/química , Pironas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Interface Usuário-Computador
12.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 363-371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33489006

RESUMO

An exponential rise in studies regarding the association among human gut microbial communities, human health, and diseases is currently attracting the attention of researchers to focus on human gut microbiome research. However, even with the ever-growing number of studies on the human gut microbiome, translation into improved health is progressing slowly. This hampering is due to the complexities of the human gut microbiome, which is composed of >1,000 species of microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi. To overcome this complexity, it is necessary to reduce the gut microbiome, which can help simplify experimental variables to an extent, such that they can be deliberately manipulated and controlled. Reconstruction of synthetic or established gut microbial communities would make it easier to understand the structure, stability, and functional activities of the complex microbial community of the human gut. Here, we provide an overview of the developments and challenges of the synthetic human gut microbiome, and propose the incorporation of multi-omics and mathematical methods in a better synthetic gut ecosystem design, for easy translation of microbiome information to therapies.

13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182474

RESUMO

Campylobacter species have developed resistance to existing antibiotics. The development of alternative therapies is, therefore, a necessity. This study evaluates the susceptibility of Campylobacter strains to selected natural products (NPs) and frontline antibiotics. Two C. jejuni strains (ATCC® 33560TM and MT947450) and two C. coli strains (ATCC® 33559TM and MT947451) were used. The antimicrobial potential of the NPs, including plant extracts, essential oils, and pure phytochemicals, was evaluated by broth microdilution. The growth was measured by spectrophotometry and iodonitrotetrazolium chloride. Antibiotic resistance genes (tet(O) and gyrA) were characterized at the molecular level. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged from 25 to 1600 µg/mL. Cinnamon oil, (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, clove oil, eugenol, and baicalein had the lowest MIC and MBC values (25-100 µg/mL). MT947450 and MT947451 were sensitive to erythromycin and gentamicin but resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. Mutations in gyrA and tet(O) genes from resistant strains were confirmed by sequencing. The findings show that NPs are effective against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Campylobacter strains. The resistance to antibiotics was confirmed at phenotypic and genotypic levels. This merits further studies to decipher the action mechanisms and synergistic activities of NPs.

14.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109495, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846576

RESUMO

Despite the previously reported health benefits of calcium intake for the attenuation of metabolic disease, few studies have investigated the relationships among calcium intake, gut microbiota, and host metabolism. In this study, we assessed the effects of calcium supplementation on host microbial community composition and metabolic homeostasis. Mice were fed a high-fat diet with different calcium concentrations (4 and 12 g/kg) of 2 calcium supplements, calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Supplementation with the higher concentration of calcium citrate significantly prevented body weight gain and decreased plasma biomarkers for metabolic disorder compared to calcium carbonate supplementation. Both calcium supplementation led to changes in microbial composition, increased propionate production and increased anorexigenic GLP-1 gene expression. The calcium citrate groups also experienced less metabolic endotoxemia. Our findings suggested that calcium supplementation could ameliorate host metabolic disorder caused by a high-fat diet, due to gut microbiota changes as well as decreased intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Cálcio , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 309, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite continued efforts using chemical similarity methods in virtual screening, currently developed approaches suffer from time-consuming multistep procedures and low success rates. We recently developed a machine learning-based chemical binding similarity model considering common structural features from molecules binding to the same, or evolutionarily related targets. The chemical binding similarity measures the resemblance of chemical compounds in terms of binding site similarity to better describe functional similarities that arise from target binding. In this study, we have shown how the chemical binding similarity could be used in virtual screening together with the conventional structure-based methods. RESULTS: The chemical binding similarity, receptor-based pharmacophore, chemical structure similarity, and molecular docking methods were evaluated to identify an effective virtual screening procedure for desired target proteins. When we tested the chemical binding similarity method with test sets of 51 kinases, it outperformed the traditional structural similarity-based methods as well as structure-based methods, such as molecular docking and receptor-based pharmacophore modeling, in terms of finding active compounds. We further validated the results by performing virtual screening (using the chemical binding similarity and receptor-based pharmacophore methods) against a completely blind dataset for mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4) and wee1-like protein kinase (WEE1). The in vitro kinase binding assay confirmed that 6 out of 13 (46.2%) for MEK1 and 2 out of 12 (16.7%) for EPHB4 were newly identified only by the chemical binding similarity model. CONCLUSIONS: We report that the virtual screening results could further be improved by combining the chemical binding similarity model with 3D-QSAR pharmacophore and molecular docking models. Not only the new inhibitors are identified in this study, but also many of the identified molecules have low structural similarity scores against already reported inhibitors and that show the revelation of novel scaffolds.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Área Sob a Curva , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Curva ROC
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 161: 1086-1098, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561284

RESUMO

Hsp90 chaperone is an encouraging target for the development of novel anticancer agents. The failure of Hsp90 inhibitors to get regulatory approval for the treatment of cancer is hindered due to toxicity, cost involved in their development and formulation issues. The inhibitors against this chaperone are also being evaluated in pre-clinical models for the treatment of diseases other than cancer (Alzheimer, malaria, AIDS, etc.). Recently, Hsp90 inhibitors have shown promising senolytic effect that is helpful in increasing the health and life span of mice. The senolytic property of Hsp90 inhibitors will make them less toxic for use in humans. The review focuses on Hsp90 inhibitors discovered till date as senolytic agents along with their future prospects. Further, the various models used for the evaluation of senolytic effect are also discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/genética , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Desenho de Fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Isoformas de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(7): 2938-2945, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota are major contributors to host metabolism and are considered as potential targets of novel therapeutics. Microalgae have a strong potential for use as prebiotics because they are a rich source of proteins, fatty acids, fiber, and minerals for nutritional supplementation in humans. Nevertheless, there has been insufficient research into the effect of microalgae on gut microbiota. To investigate the effects of three edible microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella protothecoides, and Schizochytrium sp.) on gut microbiota, simulated digestion and colonic fermentation were examined. RESULTS: Following in vitro digestion, the microalgae displayed different levels of bioaccessibility and the nutrient analysis revealed that unabsorbed nutrients during the digestion process could be used for colonic fermentation. Following colonic fermentation, the control, inulin, and microalgae groups displayed different metabolite tendencies when investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. In particular, microalgae supplementation increased the proportion of propionate in the colonic culture (control: 19.14%, Inulin: 18.38%, C. vulgaris: 25.80%, C. protothecoides: 25.46%, and Schizochytrium sp.: 25.56%). Microbial profiling analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing also disclosed that the relative abundance of Bacteroides (control: 1.91%, inulin: 2.61%, C. vulgaris: 14.77%, C. protothecoides: 11.17%, and Schizochytrium sp.: 5.51%) and Dialister (control: 0.08%, inulin: 2.06%, C. vulgaris: 6.79%, C. protothecoides: 4.45%, and Schizochytrium sp.: 4.48%), involved in propionate metabolism increased more than in the inulin group. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest the potential use of microalgae as a functional food to increase propionate generation because propionate has been reported to be effective in weight loss and the inhibition of pathogen infection. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microalgas , Prebióticos , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Chlorella , Chlorella vulgaris , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Inulina/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estramenópilas
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 676, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959801

RESUMO

Like other halophilic cyanobacterial genomes, the de novo-assembled genome of Euhalothece sp. Z-M001 lacks genes encoding keto-carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, despite the presence of genes encoding carotenoid-binding proteins (CBPs). Consistent with this, HPLC analysis of carotenoids identified ß-carotene and zeaxanthin as the dominant carotenoids. CBPs coexpressed with the zeaxanthin biosynthesis gene increased the survival rates of Escherichia coli strains by preventing antibiotic-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). RNA-seq analysis of Euhalothece revealed that among various salt resistance-related genes, those encoding the Na+ transporting multiple resistance and pH adaptation (Mrp) systems, glycine betaine biosynthesis enzymes, exopolysaccharide metabolic enzymes, and CBPs were highly upregulated, suggesting their importance in hypersaline habitats. During the early phase of salt deprivation, the amounts of ß-carotene and zeaxanthin showed a negative correlation with ROS content. Overall, we propose that in some halophilic cyanobacteria, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin, rather than keto-carotenoids, serve as the major chromophores for CBPs, which in turn act as effective antioxidants.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Sais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Zeaxantinas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
19.
J Control Release ; 320: 328-336, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981658

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is an excessive wound healing process that occurs in response to liver damage depending on underlying aetiologies. Currently, there are no effective therapies and FDA-approved therapeutics for the treatment of liver fibrosis except liver transplantation. Multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have received significant attention as regenerative medicine for liver fibrosis owing to their advantages over stem cells with other origins. However, intrinsic limitations of stem cell therapies, such as cellular rejection and tumor formation, have impeded clinical applications of the ADSC-based liver therapeutics. To overcome these problems, the extracellular nanovesicles (ENVs) responsible for the therapeutic effect of ADSCs (A-ENVs) have shown considerable promise as cell-free therapeutics for liver diseases. However, A-ENVs have not been used for the treatment of intractable chronic liver diseases including liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antifibrotic efficacy of A-ENVs in thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis models. A-ENVs significantly downregulated the expression of fibrogenic markers, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2, collagen-1, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The systemic administration of A-ENVs led to high accumulation in fibrotic liver tissue and the restoration of liver functionality in liver fibrosis models through a marked reduction in α-SMA and collagen deposition. These results demonstrate the significant potential of A-ENVs for use as extracellular nanovesicles-based therapeutics in the treatment of liver fibrosis and possibly other intractable chronic liver diseases.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo , Fibrose , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia
20.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(4): 519-528, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus casei HY2782 on toxicity induced by particulate matter (PM, inhalable particles less than 10 µm in diameter) in human intestinal CCD-18Co cells and a model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. RESULTS: L. casei HY2782 treatment prevented PM-induced intestinal cell death via cellular reactive oxygen species production and membrane disruption attenuation. PM significantly decreased the total number of eggs laid and the body bending activity of C. elegans, demonstrating PM toxicity. L. casei HY2782 treatment restored the reproductive toxicity and decline in locomotion activity induced by PM in C. elegans. Overall, L. casei HY2782 attenuated PM toxicity in vitro in cultured intestinal cells and in vivo in the model nematode. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a potential clue for developing L. casei HY2782 probiotics that attenuate PM-induced cellular and physiological toxicity; however, further in-depth preclinical trials using mammalian animal models and clinical trials are required.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Intestinos/citologia , Lactobacillus casei/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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