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1.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine (i) associations between levels of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixture with 16 targeted PAH compounds in the personal breathing zone area and sperm oxidative DNA damage, (ii) associations between levels of individual PAH compounds and sperm oxidative DNA damage, (iii) oxidative stress as the mode of action for the genotoxic effects on sperm, and (iv) any dose-response relationship between exposure to the PAH mixture and/or individual PAH compounds and sperm oxidative DNA damage. METHODS: Sixteen targeted PAH compounds in the personal breathing zone area of 38 coke-oven workers and 24 control subjects were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sperm oxidative damage and status were evaluated by measuring levels of sperm 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanie (8-oxodGuo), seminal malondialdehyde (MDA) and seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bayesian kernel machine regression with hierarchical variable selection process was employed to determine associations of the PAH mixture and the biomarkers of sperm oxidative damage. A novel grouping approach needed for the hierarchical variable selection process was developed based on PAH bay region and molecular weight. RESULTS: The PAH mixture exhibited a positive trend with increased sperm 8-oxodGuo levels at their lower percentiles (25th-50th). The exposure of the PAH mixture was associated with increased MDA levels in sperm. Bay and bay-like regions of the PAH mixture were the most important group for estimating the associations between the PAH mixture and sperm oxidative stress status. Benzo[a]anthracene was the main individual PAH compound that was associated with increased MDA levels. CONCLUSION: Sperm oxidative DNA damage induced by occupational exposure to the PAH mixture had a suggestive association with increased MDA levels in coke-oven workers. Finally, the study identified that the individual PAH compound, benzo[a]anthracene, was the primary driver for the suggestive association between the PAH mixture and sperm oxidative damage.

2.
Am J Prev Med ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384653

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Previous studies have found a higher risk in nurses but no clear relationship among other health professionals. This study aims to investigate the risks of incident breast cancer among female health professionals compared with that among nonhealth professionals in Taiwan. METHODS: This longitudinal observational cohort study included >35 years (1979-2016) of data from 4 nationwide population-based databases in Taiwan and identified matched cohorts with 1-to-2 propensity score matching between 277,543 health professionals and 555,086 nonhealth professionals. This study calculated total person-years for study subjects and compared breast cancer incidence between matched health and nonhealth professionals. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and competing risk analyses were used, stratified by birth age, job tenure categories, and types of health professional license. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2019-2020. RESULTS: Health professionals had a significantly higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.28-1.41; subdistribution hazard ratio=1.36, 95% CI=1.30, 1.42). Elevated risk of breast cancer incidence was associated with birth age, job tenure, and several health professional license types, including physician, pharmacist, registered nurse, midwife, medical technologist, and psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated breast cancer risk was found overall in female health professionals. Regular ultrasonography for younger women and mammography for those aged >45 years may be necessary in the annual labor physical examination for female health professionals.

3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439570

RESUMO

Many studies have reported various cardiovascular autonomic responses to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution, but few have reported such responses to occupational PM exposures. Even fewer have demonstrated a relationship between PM pollution and oxidative stress in humans. This panel study evaluates the association between occupational exposure to PM in cooking oil fumes (COFs), and changes in both heart rate variability (HRV) and oxidative stress responses in 54 male Chinese cooks. Linear mixed-effects regression models were adopted to estimate the strength of the association between PM and HRV. Participants' pre- and post-workshift urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Exposure to PM in COFs from 15 min to 2 h were associated with a decrease in HRV and an increase in heart rate among cooks. The urinary 8-OHdG levels of cooks were significantly elevated after workshift exposure to COFs. The levels of PM2.5, PM1.0, and particulate benzo(a)pyrene in COFs were all positively correlated with cross-workshift urinary 8-OHdG levels. Furthermore, the levels of benzo(a)pyrene in COFs were positively correlated with cross-workshift urinary MDA levels. The effects of COFs on HRV were independent of cross-workshift urinary 8-OHdG levels. Exposure to COFs leads to disturbed autonomic function and an increased risk of oxidative DNA injury among cooks in Chinese restaurants.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299971

RESUMO

Asbestos has been recognized as a human carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma, cancers of lung, larynx, and ovary. However, a putative association between gastric cancer and asbestos exposure remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore gastric cancer risk of workers potentially exposed to asbestos in Taiwan. The asbestos occupational cohort was established from 1950 to 2015 based on the Taiwan Labor Insurance Database, and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulatory datasets, followed by the Taiwan Cancer Registry for the period 1980-2015. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer were computed for the whole cohort using reference rates of the general population, and also reference labor population. Compared with the general population, SIR of the asbestos occupational cohort for the gastric cancer increased both in males (1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.09) and females (1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). A total of 123 worksites were identified to have cases of malignant mesothelioma, where increased risk for gastric cancer was found with a relative risk of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.63-1.90). This 35-year retrospective cohort study of asbestos-exposed workers in Taiwan may provide support for an association between occupational exposure to asbestos and gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Gástricas , Asbestos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(6): 1363-1373, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain many carcinogens. We investigated the association between COFs and incidence risk of colorectal cancer and female breast in chefs. METHODS: We identified Chinese food chefs and non-Chinese food chefs from Taiwan's national database of certified chefs in 1984-2007. In total, 379,275 overall and 259,450 females had not been diagnosed as having any cancer before chef certification. We followed these chefs in Taiwan's Cancer Registry Database (1979-2010) and Taiwan's National Death Statistics Database (1985-2011) for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and female breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of 4,218,135 and 2,873,515 person-years were included in our analysis of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer incidence, respectively. Compared to non-Chinese food chefs, the Chinese food chefs had an adjusted IRR for colorectal cancer of 1.65 (95% CI 1.17-2.33). The risk of colorectal cancer was even higher among female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted incident rate ratio (IRR) = 2.39, 95% CI 1.38-4.12). For female breast cancer, the risk was also significant (adjusted IRR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.78) and the risks were even higher in female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted IRR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.37-2.22). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that Chinese food chefs had an increased risk of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer, particularly female chefs who had worked for more than 5 years. Future human and animal studies are necessary to re-confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Culinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fumaça , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112144, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743405

RESUMO

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been linked to adverse health outcomes in welding workers. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 in shipyard workers with health outcomes. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effects of metal fume PM2.5 on FeNO, urinary metals, urinary oxidative stress, inflammation, and stress hormones in workers. There were 20 office workers and 49 welding workers enrolled in this study who were followed-up for a second year. We observed that Fe, Zn, and Mn were abundant in PM2.5 to which welding workers were personally exposed, whereas PM2.5 to which office workers were personally exposed was dominated by Pb, Cu, and Zn. We observed in the first and/or second visits that urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were significantly increased by exposure. An increase in urinary interleukin (IL)-6 and decreases in urinary serotonin and cortisol were observed in the first and/or second visits after exposure. PM2.5 was associated with decreases in urinary 8-OHdG and cortisol among workers. Next, we observed that urinary Ni, Co, and Fe had significantly increased among workers after a year of exposure. Urinary metals were associated with decreases in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and cortisol among workers. Urinary Ni, Cu, and Fe levels were associated with an increase in urinary IL-6 and a decrease in urinary cortisol among workers. In conclusion, chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 was associated with inflammation and a cortisol deficiency in shipyard workers, which could associate with adrenal glands dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Metais , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Gases , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Soldagem
8.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12214, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational characteristics in the food and beverage service industry (FBSI) have been found to be associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study aimed to examine gender and site-specific incident risks of MSDs among FBSI workers in Taiwan using a national population-based database. METHODS: We conducted a 15-year population-based cohort study among 224 506 FBSI workers in Taiwan using data from five large nationwide databases to estimate direct standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for identifying specific MSDs related to overexertion and repetitiveness during work. Overall, MSDs risks were also investigated by gender, sub-industrial categories, and certificate types. RESULTS: We found SIRs for overall MSDs for male and female workers of 1.706 (95% CI, 1.688-1.724) and 2.198 (95% CI, 2.177-2.219), respectively. Our findings indicate significantly increased WMSD risk for both men and women, including median/ulnar nerve disorders (ICD-9 354.0-354.2); spondylosis and allied disorders (ICD-9 721); intervertebral disc disorders (ICD-9 722); disorders of the back (ICD-9 724); peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes (ICD-9 726); synovium, tendon, and bursa disorders (ICD-9 727); and soft tissues of the peripheral system disorders (ICD-9 729). Food stall workers and workers with Chinese cuisine or baking licenses were at higher risk among sub-industrial categories and certificate types. CONCLUSION: This large-scale study revealed that FBSI workers were at higher risk for several MSDs than the general population. This information could help prioritize MSD problems and identify a high-risk population. Relevant policy and ergonomic improvements and interventions could be implemented for health promotion in this industry.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Res ; 195: 110815, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524332

RESUMO

Uncontrolled cooking emissions from commercial kitchens are problematic due to their corresponding health effects and malodors. To reduce cooking emissions, medium and large commercial kitchens install air pollution control devices, such as electrostatic precipitators and wet scrubbers, while small-scale commercial cooking workplaces, such as street-food stalls, use smaller, simpler, and less costly filtration and absorption devices. However, these smaller devices may be poorly designed and recirculate cooking emissions in the workplace. The objectives of this study were to design and implement a novel fume collector and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing aldehydes and the corresponding environmental burden emitted by food stalls. Two stalls, which had malodor problems despite the use of fume collectors, volunteered to participate in the study. To increase the efficiency of the existing fume collectors, a new collector was designed comprising two buckets connected in series, each with pollutant absorption (NaClO-surfactant mixed solution) and particulate filtration (activated-carbon filters) components. Total aldehyde concentrations measured at the exhaust outlets of the original and new collectors were 342.2 and 80.8 µg/m3 for stall A, and 622.7 and 283.1 µg/m3 for stall B, respectively. The corresponding concentration reductions for stall A and B were 76% and 55%, and the emission rate reductions were 91% (from 749 to 71 g/yr) and 76% (from 1040 g/yr to 248 g/h), respectively. These results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the novel collector at removing cooking fumes was significantly improved. The high efficiency and low-cost nature of the collector make it highly applicable in small-scale commercial kitchens and street-food stalls.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aldeídos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Filtração , Gases , Emissões de Veículos
10.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 164: 99-106, 2021 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418114

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease characterized by chronic inflammation and irreversible airway obstruction. Cigarette smoking is the predominant risk factor for developing COPD. It is well-known that the COPD is also strongly associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Cigarette smoke contains elevated concentrations of oxidants and various carcinogens (e.g., tobacco-derived nitrosamines) that can cause oxidative and alkylating stresses, which can also arise from inflammation. However, it is surprising that, except for oxidative stress, little information is available on the burden of alkylating stress and the detoxification efficiency of tobacco-derived carcinogens in COPD patients. In this study, we used LC-MS/MS to measure the archetypical tobacco-specific carcinogenic 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), its major metabolite, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), three biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, 8-oxoGua; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxodGuo; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine, 8-oxoGuo) and two biomarkers of alkylating stress (N7-methylguanine, N7-MeGua and N3-methyladenine, N3-MeAde), in the urine of smoking and non-smoking COPD patients and healthy controls. Our results showed that not only was oxidative stress significantly elevated in the COPD patients compared to the controls, but also alkylating stress. Significantly, levels of alkylating stress (i.e., N7-MeGua) were highly correlated with the COPD severity and not affected by age and smoking status. Furthermore, COPD smokers had significantly higher ratios of free NNAL to the total NNAL than control smokers, implying a lower detoxification efficiency of NNK in COPD smokers. This ratio was even higher in COPD smokers with stages 3-4 than in COPD smokers with stages 1-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the detoxification efficiency of tobacco-derived carcinogens (e.g., NNK) was associated with the pathogenesis and possibly the progression of COPD. In addition to oxidative stress, alkylating stress derived from chronic inflammation appears to be also dominant in COPD patients.


Assuntos
Nitrosaminas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Pulmão , Nitrosaminas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(1): 62-69, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940339

RESUMO

Objectives Fiberglass-reinforced plastics (FRP) manufacturing has been related to cases of severe airway obstruction and elevated risk of respiratory mortality. But the specific job content risk is not clear. This study evaluated the respiratory health effects of the FRP lamination process. Methods A questionnaire was used to evaluate respiratory symptoms of workers in two yacht-building plants. Pre-shift (07:30-08:30 hours) and post-shift (17:00-18:00 hours) lung function was measured, while post-shift induced sputum was collected on the first day of the week. The participants were grouped into FRP laminators and non-laminators. Linear and logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of the lamination process on lung function. Results Laminators had a higher prevalence of chronic cough, lower pre-shift forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and FEV1/force vital capacity (FVC) (-3.3% and -1.5%), lower post-shift FVC and FEV1 (-3.6% and -4.9%), and larger post-shift reduction of FVC (-2.1%) compared to non-laminators. The laminators also had higher risk of early obstructive and overall (obstructive plus restrictive) lung function impairment, and post-shift reduction of FVC >10% [odds ratio (OR) 5.98, 4.98, and 3.87, respectively). They also had higher percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the induced sputum. Conclusion Laminators should undergo regular check-ups of respiratory symptoms and lung function. Further toxicologic studies are warranted to identify the specific causal agent in the FRP lamination process.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110920, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800255

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) have been found to be pivotal biomarkers to predict the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress. Limited evidence focuses on the influence of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal fumes on AGE and RAGE in shipyard welders. Our aim was to determine the relationships among PAH, metal exposure, and inflammatory biomarkers. From September 1 to December 31, 2017, 53 welding workers (exposed group) and 29 office workers (control group) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive workups included demographic characteristics, laboratory data, AGE, RAGE, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α, PAH, and urinary metal concentrations. RAGE levels were measured by flow cytometric analysis. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as a biomarker of exposure to PAH. Several metals were elevated in the personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples, including Mn, Fe, V, Co, Zn, and Cu. The exposed group had significantly higher exposure to PM2.5 (p = 0.015), RAGE (p = 0.020), IL-6 (p = 0.008) than the control group. After adjusting for pertinent variables, there was still a significant and positive association between Ni level and AGE (ß = 0.101; 95% CI, 0.031-0.172). Significant relationship between Cr and Cd levels and RAGE was observed (ß = 0.173; 95% CI, 0.017-0.329; ß = 0.084; 95% CI, 0.011-0.157, respectively). Participants with elevated 1-OHP level had higher odds of high RAGE level in the model 1 (OR = 3.466, 95% CI, 1.053-11.412) and model 2 (OR = 3.454, 95% CI, 1.034-11.536). The RAGE expression of participants was significantly associated with IL-6 levels in the fully adjusted model (ß = 0.294; 95% CI, 0.083-0.732). Our findings highlighted that urinary metal levels and PAH were associated with increased AGE and RAGE formation in shipyard workers. Elevated serum RAGE might induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines and trigger ensuing inflammatory cascades.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Metais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Gases/análise , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Metais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Soldagem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795521

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of diseases induced by welding fumes. To our knowledge, little information is available on the relationship between multiple heavy metal exposure and oxidative stress in welders. We assessed the relationship between multiple heavy metal exposure and oxidative damage by analyzing 174 nonsmoking male welders in a shipyard. Urinary metals were used as the internal dose of exposure to metals in welding fumes, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as an oxidative DNA damage marker. The relationship between workers' metal levels and 8-OHdG was estimated using a multiple linear regression model. The geometric mean levels of urinary chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were considerably higher in welders than in controls. Urinary Cr and Ni were determined as effective predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjusting for covariates. Oxidative DNA damage was associated with both Cr and Ni of welding fume exposure in shipyard welders (Ln Cr: ß = 0.33, 95%C.I. = 0.16-0.49; Ln Ni: ß = 0.27, 95%C.I. = 0.12-0.43). In this study, we investigated the significantly positive relationship between urinary metals (especially Cr and Ni) and 8-OHdG in nonsmoking shipyard welders. Moreover, the use of particulate respirators did not reduce metal exposure and oxidative damage. Therefore, we infer that hazard identification for welders should be conducted.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Soldagem , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores/urina , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1661, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733493

RESUMO

Cooking-related emissions are associated with environmental pollution and adverse health effects. Of the various chemical species emitted during cooking, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aldehydes are two chemical species with carcinogenic or tumor promoting characteristics. Although PAH exposure has been studied in commercial kitchen workers, few studies have investigated simultaneous exposure to PAHs and aldehydes in these workers. The aims of this study were to compare personal concentrations of PAH and aldehyde in three commercial cooking workplaces and to estimate their corresponding cancer risks. The three cooking workplaces included western fast food restaurant kitchens, Chinese cafeteria kitchens, and street food carts. Comparisons showed that workers in western fast food restaurant kitchens and Chinese cafeteria kitchens tended to have lower personal concentrations of these pollutants compared to workers in street food carts. The geometric mean (95% CI) cancer risks in the three workplaces were, from lowest to highest, 1.36 (1.12-1.67) × 10-5 for western fast food restaurant kitchens, 1.52 (1.01-2.28) × 10-5 for Chinese cafeteria kitchens, and 3.14 (2.45-4.01) × 10-5 for street food carts. The percentage contributions of aldehyde species to cancer risk were very high (74.9-99.7%). Street food cart workers had high personal exposure to aldehyde probably due to lack of effective exhaust systems. Thus, their cancer risk was significantly higher than those of workers in western fast food restaurant kitchens (p < 0.001) and Chinese cafeteria kitchens (p = 0.013).


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Restaurantes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(1): 101-109, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain many carcinogens. We investigated the association between COFs and incidence risk of any cancer and lung cancer in chefs. METHODS: We identified Chinese food chefs and non-Chinese food chefs from Taiwan's national database of certified chefs in 1984-2007. Of them, 379,275 had not been diagnosed as having any cancer before chef certification. We followed them in Taiwan's Cancer Registry Database (1979-2010) and Taiwan's National Death Statistics Database (1985-2011) for any newly diagnosed cancer or lung cancer. RESULTS: 378,126 and 379,215 chefs were included for risk analysis of cancer and lung cancer, respectively. 6099 chefs developed cancer and 339 developed lung cancer over the follow-up periods of 4,183,550 and 4,220,163 person-years, respectively. Compared to non-Chinese food chefs, the adjusted IRR of cancer for Chinese food chefs was 1.69 (95% CI 1.51-1.89). For lung cancer, the risk was significantly higher among Chinese food chefs who had been certified for more than 5 years (adjusted IRR 2.12, 95% CI 1.32-3.40). This increased risk was pronounced in female chefs (adjusted IRR 4.73, 95% CI 1.74-12.86). CONCLUSIONS: Chinese food chefs had an increased risk of cancer and lung cancer, particularly in females.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Óleos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinógenos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Redox Biol ; 20: 556-565, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508700

RESUMO

A reliable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three oxidized nucleic acid damage products in urine, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo). We applied this method to assess the effect of various urine workup procedures on the urinary concentrations of the oxidized nucleic acid products. Our results showed that frozen urine samples must be warmed (i.e., to 37 °C) to re-dissolve any precipitates prior to analysis. We showed that common workup procedures, such as thawing at room temperature or dilution with deionized water, are not capable of releasing fully the oxidized nucleic acid products from the precipitates, and result in significant underestimation (up to ~ 100% for 8-oxoGua, ~ 86% for both 8-oxodGuo and 8-oxoGuo). With this method, we further assessed and compared the ability of the three oxidized nucleic acid products, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA, a product of lipid peroxidation), to biomonitor oxidative stress in vivo. We measured a total of 315 urine samples from subjects with burdens of oxidative stress from low to high, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and patients on mechanical ventilation (MV). The results showed that both the MV and COPD patients had significantly higher urinary levels of 8-oxoGua, 8-oxodGuo, and 8-oxoGuo (P < 0.001), but lower MDA levels, compared to healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that urinary 8-oxoGuo is the most sensitive biomarker for oxidative stress with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91, followed by 8-oxodGuo (AUC: 0.80) and 8-oxoGua (AUC: 0.76). Interestingly, MDA with AUC of 0.34 failed to discriminate the patients from healthy controls. Emerging evidence suggests a potential clinical utility for the measurement of urinary 8-oxoGuo, and to a lesser extent 8-oxodGuo, which is strongly supported by our findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Guanina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Feminino , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/urina , Guanosina/análogos & derivados , Guanosina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/urina , Curva ROC , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
17.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e021063, 2018 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to asbestos is the major cause for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the causal link of individual cases is difficult to establish for lack of exposure information and long disease latency. METHODS: We established a retrospective cohort of workers employed in asbestos industries during the period of 1950-1989 and the occurrence of MPM during the period of 1980-2009 was examined with the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Estimated rate ratios (eRRs) were computed for each factory where any case of MPM was diagnosed by assuming Poisson distribution with a minimal latency of 20 years. RESULTS: A total of 18 MPM (17 males, 1 female) in eight factories were found. The incidence rate of MPM for the eight factories was 18.0 per million, ranging from 6.2 per million (military factory) to 268.2 per million (asbestos cement). We observed significantly increased risks for MPM in asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, with eRR (genders combined) of 113.6, 87.5 and 15.8, respectively. The sensitivity analyses considering latency showed similar findings in latency ≥30 years, and the shipbuilding industry presented a significant eRR given a latency ≥40 years. The gender-specific eRR showed similar results in men, but high eRR of 729.6 was observed in an asbestos cement factory where a female MPM was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study in Taiwan comprehensively shows that different asbestos manufacturing processes, including asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, were at significantly increased risks for MPM. We recommend to establish a medical screening programme for workers previously exposed to asbestos to identify MPM and other asbestos-related diseases at an earlier stage.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Taiwan
18.
Environ Int ; 120: 238-245, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking is a major public health problem, with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affecting both smokers, and passive smokers, including children. Despite ETS also describing secondhand, and thirdhand smoke (SHS, and THS respectively), the health effects of exposure to passive smoking via these sources are not fully understood, particularly in children. Although cotinine, the primary proximate metabolite of nicotine, has been widely used as a biomarker of ETS exposure, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), the metabolite of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), provides a uniquely important contribution, both as a biomarker of exposure, and as a specific risk indicator for pulmonary carcinogenesis. METHODS: We used LC-MS/MS to study NNK metabolites, cotinine, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker of oxidative stress), in the urine of 110 non-smoking adults (age range: 23-62) and 101 children (age range: 9-11), exposed to ETS. RESULTS: In our study of passive smoking adults, and children exposed to ETS, we showed that although the children had a similar urinary level of cotinine compared to the adults, the children had approximately two times higher levels of urinary total NNAL (P = 0.002), and free NNAL (P = 0.01), than adults. The children also had three times lower ability to detoxify NNK than adults (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the children showed 1.5 times higher ratio of total NNAL/cotinine than adults (P = 0.01), implying that THS is another important source of ETS in this population. Furthermore, ETS exposure in children appeared to lead to an increase in levels of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in children, THS may play an important role in the ETS exposure, and that children are at particular risk of ETS-induced health effects.


Assuntos
Nitrosaminas/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Cotinina/urina , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nanomedicine ; 14(7): 2329-2339, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074311

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) on the pulmonary inflammopathology. NiONPs were intratracheally installed into mice, and lung injury and inflammation were evaluated between 1 and 28 days. NiONPs caused significant increases in LDH, total protein, and IL-6 and a decrease in IL-10 in the BALF and increases in 8-OHdG and caspase-3 in lung tissues at 24 h. Airway inflammation was present in a dose-dependent manner from the upper to lower airways at 24 h of exposure as analyzed by SPECT. Lung parenchyma inflammation and small airway inflammation were observed by CT after NiONP exposure. 8-OHdG in lung tissues had increased with formation of fibrosis at 28 days. Focal adhesion was the most important pathways identified at 24 h as determined by protemics, whereas glutathione metabolism was the most important identified at 28 days. Our results demonstrated the pulmonary inflammopathology caused by NiONPs based on image-to-biochemical approaches.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Pneumonia/patologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Feminino , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Níquel/administração & dosagem , Níquel/química , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
20.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 28(1): 76-83, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120834

RESUMO

This study evaluates levels of biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in 105 male workers at 16 electroplating companies who had been exposed to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The study participants were 230 non-smoking male workers, comprising 105 electroplating workers who had been exposed to chromium and 125 control subjects who performed office tasks. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, hair samples, fingernail samples and questionnaires were used to quantify exposure to Cr(VI), oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and environmental pollutants. Both the geometric mean personal concentrations of Cr(VI) of the Cr-exposed workers and the total Cr concentrations in the air to which they were exposed significantly exceeded those for the control subjects. The geometric mean concentrations of Cr in urine, hair and fingernails, and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the Cr(VI) exposed workers exceeded those in the control subjects. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr were significantly correlated with urinary 8-OHdG levels following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr level was associated with a 1.73-fold increase in urinary 8-OHdG level. Daily cumulative Cr(VI) exposure and urinary Cr level were significantly correlated with urinary MDA level following adjustments for covariates. A ten-fold increase in urinary Cr was associated with a 1.45-fold increase in urinary MDA. Exposure to Cr(VI) increased oxidative DNA injury and the oxidative deterioration of lipids in electroplating workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromo/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Galvanoplastia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Inquéritos e Questionários
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