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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 185: 113222, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145539

RESUMO

During routine screening of illegal adulterants in health supplements, a novel sildenafil analogue was discovered, and subsequently isolated by recrystallization. Its structure was elucidated by extensive analyses of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data. The analogue was finally determined as hydroxycarbodenafil, featuring a hydroxyethyl group instead of an ethyl group on piperazine ring in comparison with carbodenafil.

2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1613: 460674, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733897

RESUMO

To fully capture the chemo-diversity of medicinal plants is very essential for understanding of their pharmacological activities and guiding scientific quality control. Aiming to facilitate chemical characterization and novel natural products discovery, the present study proposed an integrated approach based on two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (2D LC/Q-Orbitrap MS). An offline comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) LC system was constructed to cover and separate multi-type constituents by combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and conventional reversed phase C18. A two-step mass defect filtering-induced exclusion list-data dependent acquisition was developed to increase MS/MS coverage and selectivity. Additionally, an efficient interpretation strategy, combining an automatic matching algorithm and molecular networking (MN), was introduced for rapid recognition of known compounds and efficient elucidation of unreported ones. As a case study, the integrated approach was tentatively applied for comprehensive characterization of complex multi-type components in Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), a traditional Chinese medicine. Consequently, a total of 537 compounds were characterized from LJF, including a large number of potential novel structures. It was demonstrated that the integrated approach is powerful in deep investigation on chemical diversity of medicinal plants and discovery of novel structures. Its application could also be extended for global profiling of other complicated chemical systems, such as Chinese medicinal formulas.

3.
J Sep Sci ; 43(6): 1043-1050, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858716

RESUMO

Source authentication of herbal medicines was essential for ensuring their safety, efficacy and quality consistency, especially those with multiple botanical origins. This study proposed a metabolomics strategy for species discrimination and source recognition. Uncariae Rammulus Cum Uncis, officially stipulating the stems with hooks of five Uncaria species as its origins, was taken as a case study. Firstly, an untargeted MSE method was developed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for global metabolite characterization. Subsequently, data pretreatment was conducted by using Progenesis QI software and screening rules. The obtained metabolite features were defined as variables for statistical analyses. Principal component analysis and chemical fingerprinting spectra suggested that five official species were differentiated from each other except for Uncaria hirsuta and Uncaria sinensis. Furthermore, orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis was performed to discriminate confused two species, and resulted in the discovery of nine contributing markers. Ultimately, a Support Vector Machine model was developed to recognize five species and predict origins of commercial materials. The study demonstrated that the developed strategy was effective in discrimination and recognition of confused species, and promising in tracking botanical origins of commercial materials.

4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1563: 124-134, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880214

RESUMO

Comprehensive chemical profiling is of great significance for understanding the therapeutic material basis and quality control of herbal medicines, which is challenging due to its inherent chemical diversity and complexity, as well as wide concentration range. In this study, we introduced an enhanced strategy integrating offline two-dimensional (2D) separation and the step-wise precursor ion list-based raster-mass defect filter (step-wise PIL-based raster-MDF) scan by tandem LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A comprehensive analysis of indole alkaloids in five botanical origins of Uncariae Ramulus Cum Unicis (Gou-Teng) was used as an exemplary application. A positively charged reversed phase (PR) × conventional RP LC system in different pH conditions was constructed with the orthogonality of 74%. A theoretical step-wise PIL among 310-950 Da with the step-size of 2 Da was developed to selectively trigger fragmentations and extend the coverage of potential indole alkaloids. Simultaneously, by defining parent mass width (PMW) of the step-wise PIL to ±55 mDa, a raster-MDF screening was achieved in the acquisition process. Additionally, subtype classification and structural elucidation were facilitated by a four-step interpretation strategy. As a result, a total of 1227 indole alkaloids were efficiently exposed and characterized from five botanical origins of Gou-Teng, which showed high chemical diversity. A systematic comparison among five species was first performed and only 66 indole alkaloids were common. For method validation, three new alkaloid N-oxides were isolated and unambiguously identified by NMR. The present study provides a novel data-dependent acquisition method with improved target coverage and high selectivity. The integrated strategy is practical to efficiently expose and comprehensively characterize complex components in herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Uncaria/química , Uncaria/metabolismo
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1538: 34-44, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395157

RESUMO

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) guided isolation is a favored strategy to quickly and efficiently explore the chemical diversity of herbal medicines. In this study, two methods were adopted to improve the performance of the strategy, including offline two-dimensional (2D) LC to extend the peak capacities and predicted metabolites screening (PMS) to automatically screen the targets with expanded databases. Ginsenosides in the leaves of Panax notoginseng (PNL) were taken as a case. An offline 2D LC system was constructed with an orthogonality of 0.69 and peak capacity of 8925. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (QTOF-Fast DDA) was employed for detection of the ginsenosides in the fractioned samples. Four modified groups, including glucose, xylose, rhamnose and malonyl, were adopted and markedly extended the screening coverage. The combined strategy showed about 7.5 times improvement in the screening capability. PMS is conveniently and automatically implemented in UNIFI. Using this strategy, 945 ginsenosides were discovered from PNL, including 662 potentially novel ginsenosides. Furthermore, two new ginsenosides were purified, and unambiguously identified by NMR analysis, partially demonstrating the LC-MS guided isolation. The combined strategy can also be applied in characterizing and discovering new bioactive constituents from other herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/química , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Panax notoginseng/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Sep Sci ; 41(4): 839-846, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178373

RESUMO

The geographic impact on the quality of Alismatis Rhizoma (derived from the tuber of Alisma orientale), a reputable diuretic traditional Chinese medicine, has seldom been evaluated. Here a metabolomics-driven approach targeting the bioactive protostane triterpenes was developed, by incorporating UHPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolite profiling and multiple reaction monitoring quantitative assay, to probe the triterpene differences between Alismatis Rhizoma samples collected from Sichuan, Fujian, and Jiangxi Provinces. Following the metabolomics workflows, the samples from Sichuan and Jiangxi displayed distinct differences in their triterpene profiles, whereas those from Fujian showed remarkable intra-class variation. Twenty-three triterpenes were identified to contribute most to the differentiated clustering. A sensitive, precise, repeatable, and accurate quantitative assay method was established on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer to quantify the contents of eight triterpene compounds. Taking into account the metabolomics and quantitation results, alisol B 23-acetate and alisol A are significantly different in Alismatis Rhizoma from Sichuan and Jiangxi Provinces, and they may have the potential for geographic discrimination. These results illustrate how geographic difference impacts the triterpene chemistry of Alismatis Rhizoma. Metabolomics-driven chemical comparison is suitable for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Alisma , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Alisma/química , Alisma/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo
8.
Planta Med ; 84(6-07): 449-456, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216668

RESUMO

It remains a challenge to establish new monographs for herbal drugs derived from multiple botanical sources. Specifically, the difficulty involves discriminating and quantifying these herbs with components whose levels vary markedly among different samples. Using Uncaria stem with hooks as an example, a characteristic chromatogram was proposed to discriminate its five botanical origins and to quantify its characteristic components in the chromatogram. The characteristic chromatogram with respect to the components of Uncaria stem with hooks with the five botanical origins was established using 0.02% diethylamine and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The total analysis time was 50 min and the detection wavelength was 245 nm. Using the same chromatogram parameters, the single standard to determine multicomponents method was validated to simultaneously quantify nine indole alkaloids, including vincosamide, 3α-dihydrocadambine, isocorynoxeine, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, rhynchophylline, hirsuteine, hirsutine, and geissoschizine methyl ether. The results showed that only the Uncaria stem with hooks from Uncaria rhynchophylla, the most widely used in the herbal market, showed the presence of these nine alkaloids. The conversion factors were 1.27, 2.32, 0.98, 1.04, 1.00, 1.02, 1.26, 1.33, and 1.25, respectively. The limits of quantitation were lower than 700 ng/mL. The total contents of 31 batches of Uncaria stem with hooks were in the range of 0.1 - 0.6%, except for Uncaria hirsuta Havil and Uncaria sinensis (Oliv.) Havil. The results also showed that the total content of indole alkaloids tended to decrease with an increase in the hook diameter. This showed that the characteristic chromatogram is practical for controlling the quality of traditional Chinese medicines with multiple botanical origins.


Assuntos
Caules de Planta/química , Uncaria/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Controle de Qualidade
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1516: 102-113, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838651

RESUMO

Discovery of new natural compounds is becoming increasingly challenging because of the interference from those known and abundant components. The aim of this study is to report a dereplication strategy, by integrating mass defect filtering (MDF)-oriented novelty classification and precursor ions list (PIL)-triggered high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, and to validate it by discovering new indole alkaloids from the medicinal herb Uncaria sinensis. Rapid chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex® EVO C18 column (<16min). An in-house MDF algorithm, developed based on the informed phytochemistry information and molecular design, could more exactly screen the target alkaloids and divide them into three novelty levels: Known (KN), Unknown-but-Predicted (UP), and Unexpected (UN). A hybrid data acquisition method, namely PIL-triggered collision-induced dissociation-MS2 and high-energy C-trap dissociation-MS3 with dynamic exclusion on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer, facilitated the acquisition of diverse product ions sufficient for the structural elucidation of both indole alkaloids and the N-oxides. Ultimately, 158 potentially new alkaloids, including 10 UP and 108 UN, were rapidly characterized from the stem, leaf, and flower of U. sinensis. Two new alkaloid compounds thereof were successfully isolated and identified by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The varied ring E and novel alkaloid-acylquinic acid conjugates were first reported from the whole Uncaria genus. Conclusively, it is a practical chemical dereplication strategy that can enhance the efficiency and has the potential to be a routine approach for the discovery of new natural compounds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas , Uncaria/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Íons/química , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1491: 87-97, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256254

RESUMO

Targeted identification of potentially bioactive molecules from herbal medicines is often stymied by the insufficient chromatographic separation, ubiquitous matrix interference, and pervasive isomerism. An enhanced targeted identification strategy is presented and validated by the selective identification of flavonoid O-glycosides (FOGs) from Carthamus tinctorius. It consists of four steps: (i) enhanced separation and detection by offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/LTQ-Orbitrap MS (offline 2D-LC/LTQ-Orbitrap MS) using collision-induced dissociation (CID) and high-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD); (ii) improved identification of the major aglycones by acid hydrolysis and LC-SPE-NMR; (iii) simplified spectral elucidation by high-resolution diagnostic product ions/neutral loss filtering; and (iv) more convincing structural identification by matching an in-house library. An offline 2D-LC system configuring an Acchrom XAmide column and a BEH Shield RP-18 UPLC® column enabled much better separation of the easily co-eluting components. Combined use of CID and HCD could produce complementary fragmentation information. The intensity ratios of the aglycone ion species ([Y0-H]-/Y0- and [Y0-2H]-/Y0-) in the HCD-MS2 spectra were found diagnostic for discriminating the aglycone subtypes and characterizing the glycosylation patterns. Five aglycone structures (kaempferol, 6-hydroxykaempferol, 6-methoxykaempferol, carthamidin, and isocarthamidin) were identified based on the 1H-NMR data recorded by LC-SPE-NMR. Of the 107 characterized flavonoids, 80 FOGs were first reported from C. tinctorius. Unknown aglycones, pentose, and novel acyl substituents were discovered. A new compound thereof was isolated and fully identified, which could partially validate the MS-oriented identification. This integral strategy can improve the potency, efficiency, and accuracy in the detection of new compounds from medicinal herbs and other natural sources.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/análise , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extração em Fase Sólida
11.
Fitoterapia ; 116: 85-92, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889541

RESUMO

Four new alkaloids, comprising three 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloids (hirsutanine D-F, 1-3) and one oxindole alkaloid N-oxide (uncarine B N-oxide, 4), together with four known heteroyohimbine-type oxindole alkaloids, were isolated from the stems of Uncaria hirsuta Havil. Structures of 1-4 were elucidated by extensive NMR and HR-ESIMS data analyses. Compound 3 is the first 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloid with ring B opened and degraded isolated from the Uncaria genus. Compounds 1-3 exhibited slight inhibition effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231. The positive mode collision-induced dissociation of the 3-oxo-3,7-seco-oxindole alkaloids (1-3) was featured by the ß-cleavage and α-cleavage of the amido bond, while the N-oxide (4) showed characteristic neutral eliminations of ·OH and H2O.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Indóis/química , Monoterpenos/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Oxindois , Caules de Planta/química , Uncaria/química
12.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 134: 352-360, 2017 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27843099

RESUMO

Increasing challenge arising from configurational interconversion in aqueous solvent renders it rather difficult to isolate high-purity tautomeric reference standards and thus largely hinders the holistic quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Spiro oxindole alkaloids (SOAs), as the markers for the medicinal Uncaria herbs, can easily isomerize in polar or aqueous solvent via a retro-Mannich reaction. In the present study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is utilized to separate and isolate two pairs of 7-epimeric SOAs, including rhynchophylline (R) and isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxine (C) and corynoxine B (CB), from Uncaria macrophylla. Initially, the solvent that can stabilize SOA epimers was systematically screened, and acetonitrile was used to dissolve and as the modifier in SFC. Then, key parameters of ultra-high performance SFC (ultra-performance convergence chromatography, UPC2), comprising stationary phase, additive in modifier, column temperature, ABPR pressure, and flow rate, were optimized in sequence. Two isocratic UPC2 methods were developed on the achiral Torus 1-AA and Torus Diol columns, suitable for UV and MS detection, respectively. MCI gel column chromatography fractionated the U. macrophylla extract into two mixtures (R/IR and C/CB). Preparative SFC, using a Viridis Prep Silica 2-EP OBD column and acetonitrile-0.2% diethylamine in CO2 as the mobile phase, was finally employed for compound purification. As a result, the purity of four SOA compounds was all higher than 95%. Different from reversed-phase HPLC, SFC, by use of water-free mobile phase (inert CO2 and aprotic modifier), provides a solution to rapid analysis and isolation of tautomeric reference standards for quality control of TCM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Indóis/análise , Uncaria , Alcaloides/química , Indóis/química , Oxindois
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 952: 59-70, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28010843

RESUMO

The simultaneous identification and quantification of target metabolites from herbal medicines are difficult to implement by the full-scan MS based nontargeted metabolomics approaches. Here an in-source multiple collision-neutral loss filtering (IMC-NLF) based nontargeted metabolomics approach is developed and applied to identify and quantify the variations of malonyl-ginsenosides, a common group of acyl saponins with potential anti-diabetic activity, among Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng. The key steps of the IMC-NLF strategy are the acquisition of specific high-resolution neutral loss data and the efficient filtering of target precursor ions from the full-scan spectra. Using a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer after UHPLC separation, abundant in-source product ions, [M-H-CO2]- (due to the vulnerability of the carboxyl group) and [M-H-Mal.]-, were generated at the energies of 70 V and 90 V, respectively. After spectral deconvolution, the generated peak list was screened by dual NLF using a Neutral Loss MS Finder software (NL of 43.9898 Da for CO2 and 86.0004 Da for the malonyl substituent). By combining the precursor ions list-triggered HCD-MS/MS and basic hydrolysis, a total of 101 malonyl-ginsenosides (including 69 from P. ginseng, 52 from P. quinquefolius, and 44 from P. notoginseng) were identified or tentatively characterized. The variations of 81 characterized malonyl-ginsenosides among 45 batches of Ginseng samples were statistically analyzed disclosing ten potential markers. It is the first systematic analysis of malonyl-ginsenosides. The IMC-NLF approach by a single analytical platform is promising in targeted analyses of modification-specific metabolites in metabolomics and drug metabolism.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/análise , Metabolômica , Panax/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Panax/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
J Sep Sci ; 40(4): 834-841, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935213

RESUMO

Various traditional Chinese medicine preparations developed from Notoginseng total saponins, including Xueshuantong injection and Xuesaitong injection, are extensively used in China to treat cardiocerebrovascular diseases. However, the difference of their saponin compositions remains unknown. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was developed to probe the saponin discrimination between Xueshuantong and Xuesaitong and the related factors by large sample analysis. A highly efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an HSS T3 column within 20 min with the holistic metabolites information recorded in the negative MSE mode. A six-step data pretreatment procedure mainly based on Progenesis QI and mass defect filtering was established. Pattern recognition chemometrics was used to discover the potential saponin markers. The saponin composition of Wuzhou Xueshuantong showed distinct discrimination from the other products. Wuzhou Xueshuantong contains more abundant protopanaxatriol-type noto-R1 , Rg1 , Re, and protopanaxadiol-type Rb1 , but less Rd and other low-polarity protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides. These differences could not directly correlate to the use of different parts of Panax notoginseng, but possibly to the different preparation techniques employed by different manufacturers. These results are beneficial to the establishment of pharmacopoeia standards and the assessment of the efficacy and adverse drug reactions for these homologous products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Saponinas/análise , China , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Saponinas/química
15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 128: 322-332, 2016 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318082

RESUMO

Xueshuantong Injection (XSTI), derived from Notoginseng total saponins, is a popular traditional Chinese medicine injection for the treatment of thrombus-resultant diseases. Current knowledge on its therapeutic basis is limited to five major saponins, whereas those minor ones are rarely investigated. We herein develop an offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-fast data directed analysis (offline 2D LC/QTOF-Fast DDA) approach to systematically characterize the saponins contained in XSTI. Key parameters affecting chromatographic separation in 2D LC (including stationary phase, mobile phase, column temperature, and gradient elution program) and the detection by QTOF MS (involving spray voltage, cone voltage, and ramp collision energy) were optimized in sequence. The configured offline 2D LC system showed an orthogonality of 0.84 and a theoretical peak capacity of 8976. Total saponins in XSTI were fractionated into eleven samples by the first-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography, which were further analyzed by reversed-phase UHPLC/QTOF-Fast DDA in negative ion mode. The fragmentation features evidenced from 36 saponin reference standards, high-accuracy MS and Fast-DDA-MS(2) data, elemental composition (C<80, H<120, O<50), double-bond equivalent (DBE 5-15), and searching an in-house library of Panax notoginseng, were simultaneously utilized for structural elucidation. Ultimately, 148 saponins were separated and characterized, and 80 have not been isolated from P. notoginseng. An in-depth depiction of the chemical composition of XSTI was achieved. The results obtained would benefit better understanding of the therapeutic basis and significant promotion on the quality standard of XSTI as well as other homologous products.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Saponinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indicadores e Reagentes , Injeções , Espectrometria de Massas , Panax notoginseng/química , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1409: 159-65, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209189

RESUMO

An efficient and target-oriented sample enrichment method was established to increase the content of the minor alkaloids in crude extract by using the corresponding two-phase solvent system applied in pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The enrichment and separation of seven minor indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Miq. ex Havil(UR) were selected as an example to show the advantage of this method. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:1:9, v/v) was used in this study, where triethylamine (TEA) as the retainer and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the eluter were added at the equimolar of 10mM. Crude alkaloids of UR dissolved in the corresponding upper phase (containing 10mM TEA) were extracted twice with lower phase (containing 10mM TEA) and lower phase (containing 10mM HCl), respectively, the second lower phase extract was subjected to pH-zone-refining CCC separation after alkalization and desalination. Finally, from 10g of crude alkaloids, 4g of refined alkaloids was obtained and the total content of seven target indole alkaloids was increased from 4.64% to 15.78%. Seven indole alkaloids, including 54mg isocorynoxeine, 21mg corynoxeine, 46mg isorhynchophylline, 35mg rhynchophylline, 65mg hirsutine, 51mg hirsuteine and 27mg geissoschizine methylether were all simultaneously separated from 2.5g of refined alkaloids, with the purity of 86.4%, 97.5%, 90.3%, 92.1%, 98.5%, 92.3%, and 92.8%, respectively. The total content and purities of the seven minor indole alkaloids were tested by HPLC and their chemical structures were elucidated by ESI-HRMS and (1)H NMR.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Hexanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes , Uncaria/química
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 407(20): 6057-70, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055881

RESUMO

The exploration of new chemical entities from herbal medicines may provide candidates for the in silico screening of drug leads. However, this significant work is hindered by the presence of multiple classes of plant metabolites and many re-discovered structures. This study presents an integrated strategy that uses ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/linear ion-trap quadrupole/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) coupled with in-house library data for the systematic characterization and discovery of new potentially bioactive molecules. Exploration of the indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) is presented as a model study. Initially, the primary characterization of alkaloids was achieved using mass defect filtering and neutral loss filtering. Subsequently, phytochemical isolation obtained 14 alkaloid compounds as reference standards, including a new one identified as 16,17-dihydro-O-demethylhirsuteine by NMR analyses. The direct-infusion fragmentation behaviors of these isolated alkaloids were studied to provide diagnostic structural information facilitating the rapid differentiation and characterization of four different alkaloid subtypes. Ultimately, after combining the experimental results with a survey of an in-house library containing 129 alkaloids isolated from the Uncaria genus, a total of 92 alkaloids (60 free alkaloids and 32 alkaloid O-glycosides) were identified or tentatively characterized, 56 of which are potential new alkaloids for the Uncaria genus. Hydroxylation on ring A, broad variations in the C-15 side chain, new N-oxides, and numerous O-glycosides, represent the novel features of the newly discovered indole alkaloid structures. These results greatly expand our knowledge of UR chemistry and are useful for the computational screening of potentially bioactive molecules from indole alkaloids. Graphical Abstract A four-step integrated strategy for the systematic characterization and efficient discovery of new indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Uncaria/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Caules de Planta/química
18.
J Sep Sci ; 38(9): 1552-60, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707736

RESUMO

Pearls have been widely used as a traditional medicine, in cosmetics, and as a health food supplement in China since ancient times. However, the identification and quality assessment of pearl powder have been challenging tasks because of the similar morphological features and chemical composition of its common adulterants, especially conch powders. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography was combined with pre-column derivatization to rapidly quantify 14 amino acids in pearl powder and its analogues. Based upon the quantification results, a quality criterion of a total amino acid content of not less than 1.10% was proposed for pearl powder. Principal component analysis indicated that leucine and phenylalanine were the amino acids characteristic for distinguishing between pearls and nacres. The area ratio of leucine to phenylalanine was demonstrated to be an effective diagnostic marker to discriminate freshwater cultured pearls, natural seawater pearls, and nacres. The proposed method, involving both the qualitative and quantitative aspects, was subsequently applied to quality assessment of pearl powders purchased commercially in various parts of China; eight out of 18 batches were deemed authentic and unadulterated. In the future, this analytical process should play a significant role in standardizing and providing quality control to the pearl powder market.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Exoesqueleto/química , Pinctada , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Pós
19.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 23(8): 624-5, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20860144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the advantages of conservative treatment for trauma of children,and evaluate effect of external fixation for the treatment of double fractures of forearm. METHODS: From June 2007 to June 2008, 52 patients with double fractures of forearm were treated with manipulative reduction and modified external fixation by splints. Among them, 33 males and 19 females,the age was from 4 to 15 years with an average of 8.6 years. The course of disease was from 1 hour to 7 days. All patients had a definite history of trauma, and pre-treatment X-ray film showed double fracture of ulna and radius. RESULTS: All patients were followed up from 6 to 14 months with an average of 9.4 months. All fractures healed and the healing time was from 4 to 8 weeks with an average of 6 weeks. The clinical effect was evaluated according to Berton criteria, 37 cases obtained excellent result, 15 good. CONCLUSION: Strict choose indication of conservative treatment can obtain satisfied effect in treating double fractures of forearm in children. The method has advantages of safe operation, less injury, cheap expense, which can well obtain functional rehabilitation of patients.


Assuntos
Fixadores Externos , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Contenções , Fraturas da Ulna/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manipulação Ortopédica
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