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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(16): 160503, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383895

RESUMO

Entanglement witness is of great importance in characterizing quantum systems. The imperfections in conventional entanglement witness schemes could lead to the misidentification of a separated state as an entangled state. Measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDIEW) has been proposed and demonstrated to resolve the imperfect measurement devices. So far, however, the MDIEW has been restricted to a two-party qubit entangled state. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate MDIEW for multipartite entangled states. We experimentally detect the genuine entanglement and the entanglement structure of a tripartite entangled state based on an eight-photon interferometry. Furthermore, with the verified multipartite entangled state, we demonstrate quantum randomness generation and open-destination quantum key distribution in an measurement-device-independent manner. Our research presents an important step toward building a robust and secure quantum network.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 329, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although people of all ages are susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection, which is presently named "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), there has been relatively few cases reported among children. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the differences from adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report one pediatric case of COVID-19. A 14-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a symptom of fever, and was diagnosed with a mild form of COVID-19. The child's mother and grandmother also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, the lymphocyte counts were normal. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed scattered ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe close to the pleura and resorption after the treatment. The patient continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharyngeal swabs and stool at 17 days after the disappearance of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The present pediatric case of COVID-19 was acquired through household transmission, and the symptoms were mild. Lymphocyte counts did not significantly decrease. The RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and nasopharyngeal swabs remained positive for an extended period of time after the disappearance of symptoms. This suggests that attention should be given to the potential contagiousness of pediatric COVID-19 cases after clinical recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus , Fezes/virologia , Febre/etiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(18): 180503, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441958

RESUMO

Quantum networks illustrate the use of connected nodes of quantum systems as the backbone of distributed quantum information processing. When the network nodes are entangled in graph states, such a quantum platform is indispensable to almost all the existing distributed quantum tasks. Unfortunately, real networks unavoidably suffer from noise and technical restrictions, making nodes transit from quantum to classical at worst. Here, we introduce a figure of merit in terms of the number of classical nodes for quantum networks in arbitrary graph states. Such a network property is revealed by exploiting a novel Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steerability. Experimentally, we demonstrate photonic quantum networks of n_{q} quantum nodes and n_{c} classical nodes with n_{q} up to 6 and n_{c} up to 18 using spontaneous parametric down-conversion entanglement sources. We show that the proposed method is faithful in quantifying the classical defects in prepared multiphoton quantum networks. Our results provide novel identification of generic quantum networks and nonclassical correlations in graph states.

4.
Opt Express ; 28(1): 369-378, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118965

RESUMO

High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits plays a key role in long distance quantum communication. By establishing the channel between ground and satellite, the communication distance can even exceed thousands of kilometers. Aimed to achieve the efficient uplink quantum communication, here we describe a high-fidelity polarization design of a transmitting antenna with an average polarization extinction ratio of 887:1 by a local test. We also implement a feasible polarization-compensation scheme for satellite motions with a fidelity exceeding 0.995 ± 0.001. Based on these works, we demonstrate the ground-to-satellite entanglment distribution with a violation of Bell inequality by 2.312±0.096, which is well above the classic limit 2.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(8): 080502, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167353

RESUMO

Quantum teleportation transfers and processes quantum information through quantum entanglement channels. It is one of the most versatile protocols in quantum information science and leads to many remarkable applications, particularly the one-way quantum computing. Here, we show, for the first time, that the concept of teleportation can also be used to facilitate an important classical computing task, sampling random quantum circuits, which is highly relevant to prove the near-term demonstration of quantum computational supremacy. In our method, the classical computation in the physical-qubit state space is converted to simulate teleportation in logical-qubit state space, resulting in a much smaller number of qubits involved in classical computing. We tested this new method on 1D and 2D lattices up to 1000 qubits. This Letter presents a new quantum-inspired classical computing technology and is helpful to design and optimize classically hard quantum sampling experiments.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(7): 070501, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142314

RESUMO

Twin-field (TF) quantum key distribution (QKD) promises high key rates over long distances to beat the rate-distance limit. Here, applying the sending-or-not-sending TF QKD protocol, we experimentally demonstrate a secure key distribution that breaks the absolute key-rate limit of repeaterless QKD over a 509-km-long ultralow loss optical fiber. Two independent lasers are used as sources with remote-frequency-locking technique over the 500-km fiber distance. Practical optical fibers are used as the optical path with appropriate noise filtering; and finite-key effects are considered in the key-rate analysis. The secure key rate obtained at 509 km is more than seven times higher than the relative bound of repeaterless QKD for the same detection loss. The achieved secure key rate is also higher than that of a traditional QKD protocol running with a perfect repeaterless QKD device, even for an infinite number of sent pulses. Our result shows that the protocol and technologies applied in this experiment enable TF QKD to achieve a high secure key rate over a long distribution distance, and is therefore practically useful for field implementation of intercity QKD.

7.
Nature ; 578(7794): 240-245, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051600

RESUMO

A quantum internet that connects remote quantum processors1,2 should enable a number of revolutionary applications such as distributed quantum computing. Its realization will rely on entanglement of remote quantum memories over long distances. Despite enormous progress3-12, at present the maximal physical separation achieved between two nodes is 1.3 kilometres10, and challenges for longer distances remain. Here we demonstrate entanglement of two atomic ensembles in one laboratory via photon transmission through city-scale optical fibres. The atomic ensembles function as quantum memories that store quantum states. We use cavity enhancement to efficiently create atom-photon entanglement13-15 and we use quantum frequency conversion16 to shift the atomic wavelength to telecommunications wavelengths. We realize entanglement over 22 kilometres of field-deployed fibres via two-photon interference17,18 and entanglement over 50 kilometres of coiled fibres via single-photon interference19. Our experiment could be extended to nodes physically separated by similar distances, which would thus form a functional segment of the atomic quantum network, paving the way towards establishing atomic entanglement over many nodes and over much longer distances.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 010502, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976724

RESUMO

Ensuring the nonentanglement-breaking (non-EB) property of quantum channels is crucial for the effective distribution and storage of quantum states. However, a practical method for direct and accurate certification of the non-EB feature is highly desirable. Here, we propose and verify a realistic source based measurement device independent certification of non-EB channels. Our method is resilient to repercussions on the certification from experimental conditions, such as multiphotons and imperfect state preparation, and can be implemented with an information incomplete set. We achieve good agreement between experimental outcomes and theoretical predictions, which is validated by the expected results of the ideal semiquantum signaling game, and accurately certify the non-EB channels. Furthermore, our approach is highly robust to effects from noise. Therefore, the proposed approach can be expected to play a significant role in the design and evaluation of realistic quantum channels.

9.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 152-157, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841348

RESUMO

We demonstrate fourth-order quantum beat between sunlight and single photons from a quantum dot. With a fast time-resolved detection system, we observed high-visibility quantum beat between the independent photons of different frequencies from the two astronomically separated light sources. The temporal dynamics of the beat oscillation indicate the coherent behavior of the interfering photons, and the raw visibility of two-photon interference shows violation of the classical limit with a frequency mismatch of three-times the line width.

10.
Opt Express ; 27(25): 36114-36128, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873397

RESUMO

Single-photon detectors (SPDs) play important roles in highly sensitive detection applications, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, remote sensing and ranging, deep space optical communications, elementary particle detection, and quantum communications. However, the adverse conditions in space, such as the increased radiation flux and thermal vacuum, severely limit their noise performances, reliability, and lifetime. Herein, we present the example of spaceborne, low-noise, high reliability SPDs, based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD). Based on the high noise-radiation sensitivity of silicon APD, we have developed special shielding structures, multistage cooling technologies, and configurable driver electronics that significantly improved the COTS APD reliability and mitigated the SPD noise-radiation sensitivity. This led to a reduction of the expected in-orbit radiation-induced dark count rate (DCR) increment rate from ∼219 counts per second (cps) per day to ∼0.76 cps/day. During a continuous period of continuous operations in orbit which spanned of 1029 days, the SPD DCR was maintained below 1000 cps, i.e., the actual in-orbit radiation-induced DCR increment rate was ∼0.54 cps/day, i.e., two orders of magnitude lower than those evoked by previous technologies, while its photon detection efficiency was > 45%. Our spaceborne, low-noise SPDs established a feasible satellite-based up-link quantum communication that was validated on the quantum experiment science satellite platform. Moreover, our SPDs open new windows of opportunities for space research and applications in deep-space optical communications, single-photon laser ranging, as well as for testing the fundamental principles of physics in space.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(19): 190603, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765219

RESUMO

Quantum dynamics induced in quenching a d-dimensional topological phase across a phase transition may exhibit a nontrivial dynamical topological pattern on the (d-1)D momentum subspace, called band inversion surfaces (BISs), which have a one-to-one correspondence to the bulk topology of the postquench phase. Here we report the experimental observation of such dynamical bulk-surface correspondence through measuring the topological charges in a 2D quantum anomalous Hall model realized in an optical Raman lattice. The system can be quenched with respect to every spin axis by suddenly varying the two-photon detuning or phases of the Raman couplings, in which the topological charges and BISs are measured dynamically by the time-averaged spin textures. We observe that the total charges in the region enclosed by BISs define a dynamical topological invariant, which equals the Chern number of the postquench band and also characterizes the topological pattern of a dynamical field emerging on the BISs, rendering the dynamical bulk-surface correspondence. This study opens a new avenue to explore topological phases dynamically.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(14): 140504, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702192

RESUMO

Entanglement between a single photon and a matter qubit is an indispensable resource for quantum repeater and quantum networks. With atomic ensembles, the entanglement creation probability is typically very low to inhibit high-order events. In this paper, we propose and experimentally realize a scheme that creates atom-photon entanglement with an intrinsic efficiency of 50%. We make use of Rydberg blockade to generate two collective excitations, lying in separate internal states. By introducing the momentum degree of freedom for the excitations, and interfering them via Raman coupling, we entangle the two excitations. Via retrieving one excitation, we create the entanglement between the polarization of a single photon and the momentum of the remaining atomic excitation, with a measured fidelity of 0.901(8). The retrieved optical field is verified to be genuine single photons. The realized entanglement may be employed to create entanglement between two distant nodes in a fully heralded way and with a much higher efficiency.

13.
Opt Express ; 27(22): 31913-31925, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684414

RESUMO

High power continuous-wave (CW) single-frequency 1342 nm lasers are of interest for fundamental research, particularly, for laser cooling of lithium atoms. Using the popular Nd:YVO4 laser crystal requires careful heat management, because strong thermal effects in the gain medium are the most severe limitations of output power. Here, we present a multi-segmented Nd:YVO4 crystal design that consists of three segments with successive doping concentrations, optimized using a theoretical model. In order to quantify the optimization, we measured the thermal lens power of conventional crystal designs and compare them to our multi-segmented design. The optimized design displays a two times lower thermal lens dioptric power for the same amount of absorbed pump power in the non-lasing case. Using the optimized design, we demonstrate a high power all-solid-state laser emitting 10.0 W single-frequency radiation at 1342 nm when operating the laser crystal at room temperature. Further integration of the laser allows us to operate the laser crystal below room temperature for improving output power up to 11.4 W at 8°C. This is explained by the reduction of energy-transfer upconversion and excited-state absorption effects. Stable free-running operation at the low temperature of 8 °C is achieved with the power stability of ± 0.42 % by peak-to-peak fluctuation and frequency peak-to-peak fluctuation of ± 72 MHz in three hours.

14.
Science ; 366(6461): 132-135, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604316

RESUMO

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity are two pillars of modern physics. However, a coherent unified framework of the two theories remains an open problem. Attempts to quantize general relativity have led to many rival models of quantum gravity, which, however, generally lack experimental foundations. We report a quantum optical experimental test of event formalism of quantum fields, a theory that attempts to present a coherent description of quantum fields in exotic spacetimes containing closed timelike curves and ordinary spacetime. We experimentally test a prediction of the theory with the quantum satellite Micius that a pair of time-energy-entangled particles probabilistically decorrelate passing through different regions of the gravitational potential of Earth. Our measurement results are consistent with the standard quantum theory and hence do not support the prediction of event formalism.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(10): 100503, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573287

RESUMO

Quantum computing has seen tremendous progress in past years. Due to implementation complexity and cost, the future path of quantum computation is strongly believed to delegate computational tasks to powerful quantum servers on the cloud. Universal blind quantum computing (UBQC) provides the protocol for the secure delegation of arbitrary quantum computations, and it has received significant attention. However, a great challenge in UBQC is how to transmit a quantum state over a long distance securely and reliably. Here, we solve this challenge by proposing a resource-efficient remote blind qubit preparation (RBQP) protocol, with weak coherent pulses for the client to produce, using a compact and low-cost laser. We experimentally verify a key step of RBQP-quantum nondemolition measurement-in the field test over 100 km of fiber. Our experiment uses a quantum teleportation setup in the telecom wavelength and generates 1000 secure qubits with an average fidelity of (86.9±1.5)%, which exceeds the quantum no-cloning fidelity of equatorial qubit states. The results prove the feasibility of UBQC over long distances, and thus serves as a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(10): 100505, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573314

RESUMO

Channel loss seems to be the most severe limitation on the practical application of long distance quantum key distribution. The idea of twin-field quantum key distribution can improve the key rate from the linear scale of channel loss in the traditional decoy-state method to the square root scale of the channel transmittance. However, the technical demands are rather tough because they require single photon level interference of two remote independent lasers. Here, we adopt the technology developed in the frequency and time transfer to lock two independent laser wavelengths and utilize additional phase reference light to estimate and compensate the fiber fluctuation. Further, with a single photon detector with a high detection rate, we demonstrate twin field quantum key distribution through the sending-or-not-sending protocol with a realistic phase drift over 300 km optical fiber spools. We calculate the secure key rates with the finite size effect. The secure key rate at 300 km (1.96×10^{-6}) is higher than that of the repeaterless secret key capacity (8.64×10^{-7}).

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 070505, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491117

RESUMO

Quantum teleportation allows a "disembodied" transmission of unknown quantum states between distant quantum systems. Yet, all teleportation experiments to date were limited to a two-dimensional subspace of quantized multiple levels of the quantum systems. Here, we propose a scheme for teleportation of arbitrarily high-dimensional photonic quantum states and demonstrate an example of teleporting a qutrit. Measurements over a complete set of 12 qutrit states in mutually unbiased bases yield a teleportation fidelity of 0.75(1), which is well above both the optimal single-copy qutrit state-estimation limit of 1/2 and maximal qubit-qutrit overlap of 2/3, thus confirming a genuine and nonclassical three-dimensional teleportation. Our work will enable advanced quantum technologies in high dimensions, since teleportation plays a central role in quantum repeaters and quantum networks.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(8): 080401, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491194

RESUMO

We report an experiment to test quantum interference, entanglement, and nonlocality using two dissimilar photon sources, the Sun and a semiconductor quantum dot on the Earth, which are separated by ∼150 million kilometers. By making the otherwise vastly distinct photons indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom, we observe time-resolved two-photon quantum interference with a raw visibility of 0.796(17), well above the 0.5 classical limit, providing unambiguous evidence of the quantum nature of thermal light. Further, using the photons with no common history, we demonstrate postselected two-photon entanglement with a state fidelity of 0.826(24) and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.20(6). The experiment can be further extended to a larger scale using photons from distant stars and open a new route to quantum optics experiments at an astronomical scale.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(5): 050502, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491305

RESUMO

Superconducting circuits have emerged as a powerful platform of quantum simulation, especially for emulating the dynamics of quantum many-body systems, because of their tunable interaction, long coherence time, and high-precision control. Here in experiments, we construct a Bose-Hubbard ladder with a ladder array of 20 qubits on a 24-qubit superconducting processor. We investigate theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the dynamics of single- and double-excitation states with distinct behaviors, indicating the uniqueness of the Bose-Hubbard ladder. We observe the linear propagation of photons in the single-excitation case, satisfying the Lieb-Robinson bounds. The double-excitation state, initially placed at the edge, localizes; while placed in the bulk, it splits into two single-excitation modes spreading linearly toward two boundaries, respectively. Remarkably, these phenomena, studied both theoretically and numerically as unique properties of the Bose-Hubbard ladder, are represented coherently by pairs of controllable qubits in experiments. Our results show that collective excitations, as a single mode, are not free. This work paves the way to simulation of exotic logic particles by subtly encoding physical qubits and exploration of rich physics by superconducting circuits.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(9): 090502, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524445

RESUMO

Coherence is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing, which can be certified by a coherence witness. Due to the imperfection of measurement devices, a conventional coherence witness may lead to fallacious results. We show that the conventional witness could mistake an incoherent state as a state with coherence due to the inaccurate settings of measurement bases. In order to make the witness result reliable, we propose a measurement-device-independent coherence witness scheme without any assumptions on the measurement settings. We introduce the decoy-state method to significantly increase the capability of recognizing states with coherence. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the scheme in a time-bin encoding optical system.

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