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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(14): 140501, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891463

RESUMO

Heralded entangling quantum gates are an essential element for the implementation of large-scale optical quantum computation. Yet, the experimental demonstration of genuine heralded entangling gates with free-flying output photons in linear optical system, was hindered by the intrinsically probabilistic source and double-pair emission in parametric down-conversion. Here, by using an on-demand single-photon source based on a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a micropillar cavity, we demonstrate a heralded controlled-NOT (CNOT) operation between two single photons for the first time. To characterize the performance of the CNOT gate, we estimate its average quantum gate fidelity of (87.8±1.2)%. As an application, we generated event-ready Bell states with a fidelity of (83.4±2.4)%. Our results are an important step towards the development of photon-photon quantum logic gates.

2.
Science ; 372(6539): 271-276, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859030

RESUMO

Weyl semimetals are three-dimensional (3D) gapless topological phases with Weyl cones in the bulk band. According to lattice theory, Weyl cones must come in pairs, with the minimum number of cones being two. A semimetal with only two Weyl cones is an ideal Weyl semimetal (IWSM). Here we report the experimental realization of an IWSM band by engineering 3D spin-orbit coupling for ultracold atoms. The topological Weyl points are clearly measured via the virtual slicing imaging technique in equilibrium and are further resolved in the quench dynamics. The realization of an IWSM band opens an avenue to investigate various exotic phenomena that are difficult to access in solids.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(10): 100501, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784137

RESUMO

The security of real-world quantum key distribution (QKD) critically depends on the number of data points the system can collect in a finite time interval. To date, state-of-the-art finite-key security analyses require block lengths in the order of 10^{4} bits to obtain positive secret keys. This requirement, however, can be very difficult to achieve in practice, especially in the case of entanglement-based satellite QKD, where the overall channel loss can go up to 70 dB or more. Here, we provide an improved finite-key security analysis which reduces the block length requirement by 14% to 17% for standard channel and protocol settings. In practical terms, this reduction could save entanglement-based satellite QKD weeks of measurement time and resources, thereby bringing space-based QKD technology closer to reality. As an application, we use the improved analysis to show that the recently reported Micius QKD satellite is capable of generating positive secret keys with a 10^{-5} security level.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658383

RESUMO

Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging has the ability to reconstruct hidden objects from indirect light paths that scatter multiple times in the surrounding environment, which is of considerable interest in a wide range of applications. Whereas conventional imaging involves direct line-of-sight light transport to recover the visible objects, NLOS imaging aims to reconstruct the hidden objects from the indirect light paths that scatter multiple times, typically using the information encoded in the time-of-flight of scattered photons. Despite recent advances, NLOS imaging has remained at short-range realizations, limited by the heavy loss and the spatial mixing due to the multiple diffuse reflections. Here, both experimental and conceptual innovations yield hardware and software solutions to increase the standoff distance of NLOS imaging from meter to kilometer range, which is about three orders of magnitude longer than previous experiments. In hardware, we develop a high-efficiency, low-noise NLOS imaging system at near-infrared wavelength based on a dual-telescope confocal optical design. In software, we adopt a convex optimizer, equipped with a tailored spatial-temporal kernel expressed using three-dimensional matrix, to mitigate the effect of the spatial-temporal broadening over long standoffs. Together, these enable our demonstration of NLOS imaging and real-time tracking of hidden objects over a distance of 1.43 km. The results will open venues for the development of NLOS imaging techniques and relevant applications to real-world conditions.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(5): 050503, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605771

RESUMO

Randomness expansion where one generates a longer sequence of random numbers from a short one is viable in quantum mechanics but not allowed classically. Device-independent quantum randomness expansion provides a randomness resource of the highest security level. Here, we report the first experimental realization of device-independent quantum randomness expansion secure against quantum side information established through quantum probability estimation. We generate 5.47×10^{8} quantum-proof random bits while consuming 4.39×10^{8} bits of entropy, expanding our store of randomness by 1.08×10^{8} bits at a latency of about 13.1 h, with a total soundness error 4.6×10^{-10}. Device-independent quantum randomness expansion not only enriches our understanding of randomness but also sets a solid base to bring quantum-certifiable random bits into realistic applications.

6.
Nature ; 589(7841): 214-219, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408416

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD)1,2 has the potential to enable secure communication and information transfer3. In the laboratory, the feasibility of point-to-point QKD is evident from the early proof-of-concept demonstration in the laboratory over 32 centimetres4; this distance was later extended to the 100-kilometre scale5,6 with decoy-state QKD and more recently to the 500-kilometre scale7-10 with measurement-device-independent QKD. Several small-scale QKD networks have also been tested outside the laboratory11-14. However, a global QKD network requires a practically (not just theoretically) secure and reliable QKD network that can be used by a large number of users distributed over a wide area15. Quantum repeaters16,17 could in principle provide a viable option for such a global network, but they cannot be deployed using current technology18. Here we demonstrate an integrated space-to-ground quantum communication network that combines a large-scale fibre network of more than 700 fibre QKD links and two high-speed satellite-to-ground free-space QKD links. Using a trusted relay structure, the fibre network on the ground covers more than 2,000 kilometres, provides practical security against the imperfections of realistic devices, and maintains long-term reliability and stability. The satellite-to-ground QKD achieves an average secret-key rate of 47.8 kilobits per second for a typical satellite pass-more than 40 times higher than achieved previously. Moreover, its channel loss is comparable to that between a geostationary satellite and the ground, making the construction of more versatile and ultralong quantum links via geosynchronous satellites feasible. Finally, by integrating the fibre and free-space QKD links, the QKD network is extended to a remote node more than 2,600 kilometres away, enabling any user in the network to communicate with any other, up to a total distance of 4,600 kilometres.

7.
Science ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273064

RESUMO

Quantum computers promises to perform certain tasks that are believed to be intractable to classical computers. Boson sampling is such a task and is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational advantage. We perform Gaussian boson sampling by sending 50 indistinguishable single-mode squeezed states into a 100-mode ultralow-loss interferometer with full connectivity and random matrix-the whole optical setup is phase-locked-and sampling the output using 100 high-efficiency single-photon detectors. The obtained samples are validated against plausible hypotheses exploiting thermal states, distinguishable photons, and uniform distribution. The photonic quantum computer generates up to 76 output photon clicks, which yields an output state-space dimension of 1030 and a sampling rate that is ~1014 faster than using the state-of-the-art simulation strategy and supercomputers.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(21): 210502, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274970

RESUMO

Quantum no-cloning, the impossibility of perfectly cloning an arbitrary unknown quantum state, is one of the most fundamental limitations due to the laws of quantum mechanics, which underpin the physical security of quantum key distribution. Quantum physics does allow, however, approximate cloning with either imperfect state fidelity and/or probabilistic success. Whereas approximate quantum cloning of single-particle states has been tested previously, experimental cloning of quantum entanglement-a highly nonclassical correlation-remained unexplored. Based on a multiphoton linear optics platform, we demonstrate quantum cloning of two-photon entangled states for the first time. Remarkably our results show that one maximally entangled photon pair can be broadcast into two entangled pairs, both with state fidelities above 50%. Our results are a key step towards cloning of complex quantum systems, and are likely to provide new insights into quantum entanglement.

9.
Nature ; 587(7834): 392-396, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208959

RESUMO

The modern description of elementary particles, as formulated in the standard model of particle physics, is built on gauge theories1. Gauge theories implement fundamental laws of physics by local symmetry constraints. For example, in quantum electrodynamics Gauss's law introduces an intrinsic local relation between charged matter and electromagnetic fields, which protects many salient physical properties, including massless photons and a long-ranged Coulomb law. Solving gauge theories using classical computers is an extremely arduous task2, which has stimulated an effort to simulate gauge-theory dynamics in microscopically engineered quantum devices3-6. Previous achievements implemented density-dependent Peierls phases without defining a local symmetry7,8, realized mappings onto effective models to integrate out either matter or electric fields9-12, or were limited to very small systems13-16. However, the essential gauge symmetry has not been observed experimentally. Here we report the quantum simulation of an extended U(1) lattice gauge theory, and experimentally quantify the gauge invariance in a many-body system comprising matter and gauge fields. These fields are realized in defect-free arrays of bosonic atoms in an optical superlattice of 71 sites. We demonstrate full tunability of the model parameters and benchmark the matter-gauge interactions by sweeping across a quantum phase transition. Using high-fidelity manipulation techniques, we measure the degree to which Gauss's law is violated by extracting probabilities of locally gauge-invariant states from correlated atom occupations. Our work provides a way to explore gauge symmetry in the interplay of fundamental particles using controllable large-scale quantum simulators.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 170503, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156665

RESUMO

We report the analog simulation of an ergodic-localized junction by using an array of 12 coupled superconducting qubits. To perform the simulation, we fabricated a superconducting quantum processor that is divided into two domains: one is a driven domain representing an ergodic system, while the second is localized under the effect of disorder. Because of the overlap between localized and delocalized states, for a small disorder there is a proximity effect and localization is destroyed. To experimentally investigate this, we prepare a microwave excitation in the driven domain and explore how deep it can penetrate the disordered region by probing its dynamics. Furthermore, we perform an ensemble average over 50 realizations of disorder, which clearly shows the proximity effect. Our work opens a new avenue to build quantum simulators of driven-disordered systems with applications in condensed matter physics and material science.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common illness in neurosurgical practice with a substantial recurrence rate. Previous studies found that serum lipids were associated with the risk of stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current study, we aimed to identify the relationship between serum lipids and CSDH recurrence. METHODS: The medical records of 274 consecutive surgical patients with CSDH in our department were reviewed and analyzed. Patients were separated into recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) and other potential predictors associated with CSDH recurrence, and the performance of predictors was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Of the 274 patients included in the study, 42 (15.3%) experienced at least 1 recurrence of CSDH. Univariate analysis showed that age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, anticoagulant use, triglycerides, HDL, and midline shift were all significantly associated with CSDH recurrence. Multivariable Cox regression analysis found that only age, diabetes mellitus, midline shift, and HDL level were independent risk factors for CSDH recurrence. A higher HDL level (HR = 0.929, 95% CI 0.905-0.953) was significantly associated with a lower risk of recurrence, and ROC curve analysis revealed that the optimal HDL cut-off value as a predictor was 37.45 mg/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Low level of high-density lipoprotein is significantly associated with recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(18): 180501, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196221

RESUMO

Adiabatic quantum computing enables the preparation of many-body ground states. Realization poses major experimental challenges: Direct analog implementation requires complex Hamiltonian engineering, while the digitized version needs deep quantum gate circuits. To bypass these obstacles, we suggest an adiabatic variational hybrid algorithm, which employs short quantum circuits and provides a systematic quantum adiabatic optimization of the circuit parameters. The quantum adiabatic theorem promises not only the ground state but also that the excited eigenstates can be found. We report the first experimental demonstration that many-body eigenstates can be efficiently prepared by an adiabatic variational algorithm assisted with a multiqubit superconducting coprocessor. We track the real-time evolution of the ground and excited states of transverse-field Ising spins with a fidelity that can reach about 99%.

13.
Opt Express ; 28(22): 32294-32301, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114918

RESUMO

By developing a 'two-crystal' method for color erasure, we can broaden the scope of chromatic interferometry to include optical photons whose frequency difference falls outside of the 400 nm to 4500 nm wavelength range, which is the passband of a PPLN crystal. We demonstrate this possibility experimentally, by observing interference patterns between sources at 1064.4 nm and 1063.6 nm, corresponding to a frequency difference of about 200 GHz.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(15): 153601, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095635

RESUMO

Intensity squeezing-i.e., photon number fluctuations below the shot-noise limit-is a fundamental aspect of quantum optics and has wide applications in quantum metrology. It was predicted in 1979 that intensity squeezing could be observed in resonance fluorescence from a two-level quantum system. However, its experimental observation in solid states was hindered by inefficiencies in generating, collecting, and detecting resonance fluorescence. Here, we report the intensity squeezing in a single-mode fiber-coupled resonance fluorescence single-photon source based on a quantum dot-micropillar system. We detect pulsed single-photon streams with 22.6% system efficiency, which show sub-shot-noise intensity fluctuation with an intensity squeezing of 0.59 dB. We estimate a corrected squeezing of 3.29 dB at the first lens. The observed intensity squeezing provides the last piece of the fundamental picture of resonance fluorescence, which can be used as a new standard for optical radiation and in scalable quantum metrology with indistinguishable single photons.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(8): 083102, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872918

RESUMO

InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are widely used for near-infrared photon counting in practical applications. Photon detection efficiency (PDE) is one of the most important parameters for SPD characterization, and therefore, increasing PDE consistently plays a central role in both industrial development and academic research. Here, we present the implementation of high-frequency gating InGaAs/InP SPDs with a PDE as high as 60% at 1550 nm. On one hand, we optimize the structure design and device fabrication of InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes with an additional dielectric-metal reflection layer to relatively increase the absorption efficiency of incident photons by ∼20%. On the other hand, we develop a monolithic readout circuit of weak avalanche extraction to minimize the parasitic capacitance for the suppression of the afterpulsing effect. With 1.25 GHz sine wave gating and optimized gate amplitude and operation temperature, the SPD is characterized to reach a PDE of 60% with a dark count rate (DCR) of 340 kcps. For practical use, given 3 kcps DCR as a reference, the PDE reaches ∼40% PDE with an afterpulse probability of 5.5%, which can significantly improve the performance for the near-infrared SPD-based applications.

16.
Opt Express ; 28(17): 25123-25133, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907041

RESUMO

High-performance single-photon detectors (SPDs) at 1550-nm band are critical for fiber-based quantum communications. Among many types of SPDs, the up-conversion SPDs based on periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides are of great interest. Combined with a strong pump laser, the telecom single-photons are converted into short wavelength ones and detected by silicon-based SPDs. However, due to the difficulty of precise controlling waveguide profile, the direct coupling between a single-mode fiber and the waveguide is not efficient. Here by utilizing fiber taper with proper diameter, optimal mode-matching is achieved and coupling efficiency up to 93% is measured. With an optimized design, a system detection efficiency of 36% and noise counting rate of 90 cps are realized. The maximum detection efficiency is characterized as 40% with a noise counting rate of 200 cps. Numerical simulation results indicate that our device can significantly improve the performance of QKD and extend the communication distance longer than 200 km.

17.
Opt Express ; 28(13): 18917-18930, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672180

RESUMO

We report a proof-of-principle demonstration of Shor's algorithm with photons generated by an on-demand semiconductor quantum dot single-photon source for the first time. A fully compiled version of Shor's algorithm for factoring 15 has been accomplished with a significantly reduced resource requirement that employs the four-photon cluster state. Genuine multiparticle entanglement properties are confirmed to reveal the quantum character of the algorithm and circuit. The implementation realizes the Shor's algorithm with deterministic photonic qubits, which opens new applications for cluster state beyond one-way quantum computing.

18.
Science ; 369(6503): 550-553, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554628

RESUMO

Scalable, coherent many-body systems can enable the realization of previously unexplored quantum phases and have the potential to exponentially speed up information processing. Thermal fluctuations are negligible and quantum effects govern the behavior of such systems with extremely low temperature. We report the cooling of a quantum simulator with 10,000 atoms and mass production of high-fidelity entangled pairs. In a two-dimensional plane, we cool Mott insulator samples by immersing them into removable superfluid reservoirs, achieving an entropy per particle of [Formula: see text] The atoms are then rearranged into a two-dimensional lattice free of defects. We further demonstrate a two-qubit gate with a fidelity of 0.993 ± 0.001 for entangling 1250 atom pairs. Our results offer a setting for exploring low-energy many-body phases and may enable the creation of large-scale entanglement.

19.
Nature ; 582(7813): 501-505, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541968

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD)1-3 is a theoretically secure way of sharing secret keys between remote users. It has been demonstrated in a laboratory over a coiled optical fibre up to 404 kilometres long4-7. In the field, point-to-point QKD has been achieved from a satellite to a ground station up to 1,200 kilometres away8-10. However, real-world QKD-based cryptography targets physically separated users on the Earth, for which the maximum distance has been about 100 kilometres11,12. The use of trusted relays can extend these distances from across a typical metropolitan area13-16 to intercity17 and even intercontinental distances18. However, relays pose security risks, which can be avoided by using entanglement-based QKD, which has inherent source-independent security19,20. Long-distance entanglement distribution can be realized using quantum repeaters21, but the related technology is still immature for practical implementations22. The obvious alternative for extending the range of quantum communication without compromising its security is satellite-based QKD, but so far satellite-based entanglement distribution has not been efficient23 enough to support QKD. Here we demonstrate entanglement-based QKD between two ground stations separated by 1,120 kilometres at a finite secret-key rate of 0.12 bits per second, without the need for trusted relays. Entangled photon pairs were distributed via two bidirectional downlinks from the Micius satellite to two ground observatories in Delingha and Nanshan in China. The development of a high-efficiency telescope and follow-up optics crucially improved the link efficiency. The generated keys are secure for realistic devices, because our ground receivers were carefully designed to guarantee fair sampling and immunity to all known side channels24,25. Our method not only increases the secure distance on the ground tenfold but also increases the practical security of QKD to an unprecedented level.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(18): 180503, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441958

RESUMO

Quantum networks illustrate the use of connected nodes of quantum systems as the backbone of distributed quantum information processing. When the network nodes are entangled in graph states, such a quantum platform is indispensable to almost all the existing distributed quantum tasks. Unfortunately, real networks unavoidably suffer from noise and technical restrictions, making nodes transit from quantum to classical at worst. Here, we introduce a figure of merit in terms of the number of classical nodes for quantum networks in arbitrary graph states. Such a network property is revealed by exploiting a novel Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steerability. Experimentally, we demonstrate photonic quantum networks of n_{q} quantum nodes and n_{c} classical nodes with n_{q} up to 6 and n_{c} up to 18 using spontaneous parametric down-conversion entanglement sources. We show that the proposed method is faithful in quantifying the classical defects in prepared multiphoton quantum networks. Our results provide novel identification of generic quantum networks and nonclassical correlations in graph states.

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