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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(19): 190503, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622023

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution can provide unconditionally secure key exchange for remote users in theory. In practice, however, in most quantum key distribution systems, quantum hackers might steal the secure keys by observing the side channels in the emitted photons, such as the photon frequency spectrum, emission time, propagation direction, spatial angular momentum, and so on. It is hard to prevent such kinds of attacks because side channels may exist in many dimensions of the emitted photons. Here we report an experimental realization of a side-channel-secure quantum key distribution protocol which is not only measurement-device independent, but also immune to all side-channel attacks to the photons emitted from Alice's and Bob's labs. We achieve a secure key rate of 1.73×10^{-6} per pulse through 50 km fiber spools.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(17): 170501, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570417

RESUMO

Long-distance quantum state transfer (QST), which can be achieved with the help of quantum teleportation, is a core element of important quantum protocols. A typical situation for QST based on teleportation is one in which two remote communication partners (Alice and Bob) are far from the entanglement source (Charlie). Because of the atmospheric turbulence, it is challenging to implement the Bell-state measurement after photons propagate in atmospheric channels. In previous long-distance free-space experiments, Alice and Charlie always perform local Bell-state measurement before the entanglement distribution process is completed. Here, by developing a highly stable interferometer to project the photon into a hybrid path-polarization dimension and utilizing the satellite-borne entangled photon source, we demonstrate proof-of-principle QST at the distance of over 1200 km assisted by prior quantum entanglement shared between two distant ground stations with the satellite Micius. The average fidelity of transferred six distinct quantum states is 0.82±0.01, exceeding the classical limit of 2/3 on a single copy of a qubit.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(16): 160502, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522497

RESUMO

Understanding various phenomena in nonequilibrium dynamics of closed quantum many-body systems, such as quantum thermalization, information scrambling, and nonergodic dynamics, is crucial for modern physics. Using a ladder-type superconducting quantum processor, we perform analog quantum simulations of both the XX-ladder model and the one-dimensional XX model. By measuring the dynamics of local observables, entanglement entropy, and tripartite mutual information, we signal quantum thermalization and information scrambling in the XX ladder. In contrast, we show that the XX chain, as free fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, fails to thermalize to the Gibbs ensemble, and local information does not scramble in the integrable channel. Our experiments reveal ergodicity and scrambling in the controllable qubit ladder, and open the door to further investigations on the thermodynamics and chaos in quantum many-body systems.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(18): 180502, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594113

RESUMO

Twin-field quantum key distribution (TFQKD) promises ultralong secure key distribution which surpasses the rate distance limit and can reduce the number of the trusted nodes in long-haul quantum network. Tremendous efforts have been made toward implementation of TFQKD, among which, the secure key with finite size analysis can distribute more than 500 km in the lab and in the field. Here, we demonstrate the sending-or-not-sending TFQKD experimentally, achieving a secure key distribution with finite size analysis over a 658 km ultra-low-loss optical fiber. Meanwhile, in a TFQKD system, any phase fluctuation due to temperature variation and ambient variation during the channel must be recorded and compensated, and all this phase information can then be utilized to sense the channel vibration perturbations. With our quantum key distribution system, we recovered the external vibrational perturbations generated by artificial vibroseis on both the quantum and frequency calibration link, and successfully located the perturbation position in the frequency calibration fiber with a resolution better than 1 km. Our results not only set a new distance record of quantum key distribution, but also demonstrate that the redundant information of TFQKD can be used for remote sensing of the channel vibration, which can find applications in earthquake detection and landslide monitoring besides secure communication.

6.
Opt Express ; 30(7): 11684-11692, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473107

RESUMO

Quantum interference plays an essential role in understanding the concepts of quantum physics. Moreover, the interference of photons is indispensable for large-scale quantum information processing. With the development of quantum networks, interference of photons transmitted through long-distance fiber channels has been widely implemented. However, quantum interference of photons using free-space channels is still scarce, mainly due to atmospheric turbulence. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with photons transmitted by free-space channels. Two typical photon sources, i.e., correlated photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process and weak coherent states, are employed. A visibility of 0.744 ± 0.013 is observed by interfering with two photons generated in the SPDC process, exceeding the classical limit of 0.5. Our results demonstrate that the quantum property of photons remains even after transmission through unstable free-space channels, indicating the feasibility and potential application of free-space-based quantum interference in quantum information processing.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(11): 110501, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363009

RESUMO

The recognition of entanglement states is a notoriously difficult problem when no prior information is available. Here, we propose an efficient quantum adversarial bipartite entanglement detection scheme to address this issue. Our proposal reformulates the bipartite entanglement detection as a two-player zero-sum game completed by parameterized quantum circuits, where a two-outcome measurement can be used to query a classical binary result about whether the input state is bipartite entangled or not. In principle, for an N-qubit quantum state, the runtime complexity of our proposal is O(poly(N)T) with T being the number of iterations. We experimentally implement our protocol on a linear optical network and exhibit its effectiveness to accomplish the bipartite entanglement detection for 5-qubit quantum pure states and 2-qubit quantum mixed states. Our work paves the way for using near-term quantum machines to tackle entanglement detection on multipartite entangled quantum systems.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(11): 110506, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363036

RESUMO

Device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) can permit the superior security even with unknown devices. In practice, however, the realization of device-independent QKD is technically challenging because of its low noise tolerance. In the photonic setup, due to the limited detection efficiency, a large amount of the data generates from no-detection events which contain few correlations but contribute high errors. Here, we propose the device-independent QKD protocol with random postselection, where the secret keys are extracted only from the postselected subset of outcomes. This could not open the detection loophole as long as the entropy of the postselected subset is evaluated from the information of the entire set of data, including both detection and no-detection events. This postselection has the advantage to significantly reduce the error events, thus relaxing the threshold of required detection efficiency. In the model of collective attacks, our protocol can tolerate detector efficiency as low as 68.5%, which goes beyond standard security proofs. The results make a concrete step for the implementation of device-independent QKD in practice.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(6): 060502, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213187

RESUMO

Hybrid matter-photon entanglement is the building block for quantum networks. It is very favorable if the entanglement can be prepared with a high probability. In this Letter, we report the deterministic creation of entanglement between an atomic ensemble and a single photon by harnessing the Rydberg blockade. We design a scheme that creates entanglement between a single photon's temporal modes and the Rydberg levels that host a collective excitation, using a process of cyclical retrieving and patching. The hybrid entanglement is tested via retrieving the atomic excitation as a second photon and performing correlation measurements, which suggest an entanglement fidelity of 87.8%. Our source of matter-photon entanglement will enable the entangling of remote quantum memories with much higher efficiency.

10.
Nature ; 602(7896): 229-233, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140383

RESUMO

Ultracold assembly of diatomic molecules has enabled great advances in controlled chemistry, ultracold chemical physics and quantum simulation with molecules1-3. Extending the ultracold association to triatomic molecules will offer many new research opportunities and challenges in these fields. A possible approach is to form triatomic molecules in a mixture of ultracold atoms and diatomic molecules by using a Feshbach resonance between them4,5. Although ultracold atom-diatomic-molecule Feshbach resonances have been observed recently6,7, using these resonances to form triatomic molecules remains challenging. Here we report on evidence of the association of triatomic molecules near the Feshbach resonance between 23Na40K molecules in the rovibrational ground state and 40K atoms. We apply a radio-frequency pulse to drive the free-bound transition in ultracold mixtures of 23Na40K and 40K and monitor the loss of 23Na40K molecules. The association of triatomic molecules manifests itself as an additional loss feature in the radio-frequency spectra, which can be distinguished from the atomic loss feature. The observation that the distance between the association feature and the atomic transition changes with the magnetic field provides strong evidence for the formation of triatomic molecules. The binding energy of the triatomic molecules is estimated from the measurements. Our work contributes to the understanding of the complex ultracold atom-molecule Feshbach resonances and may open up an avenue towards the preparation and control of ultracold triatomic molecules.

11.
Science ; 375(6580): 528-533, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113717

RESUMO

Second sound attenuation, a distinctive dissipative hydrodynamic phenomenon in a superfluid, is crucial for understanding superfluidity and elucidating critical phenomena. Here, we report the observation of second sound attenuation in a homogeneous Fermi gas of lithium-6 atoms at unitarity by performing Bragg spectroscopy with high energy resolution in the long-wavelength limit. We successfully obtained the temperature dependence of second sound diffusivity [Formula: see text] and thermal conductivity κ. Furthermore, we observed a sudden rise-a precursor of critical divergence-in both [Formula: see text] and κ at a temperature of about 0.95 superfluid transition temperature [Formula: see text]. This suggests that the unitary Fermi gas has a much larger critical region than does liquid helium. Our results pave the way for determining the universal critical scaling functions near quantum criticality.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(4): 040403, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148136

RESUMO

Standard quantum theory was formulated with complex-valued Schrödinger equations, wave functions, operators, and Hilbert spaces. Previous work attempted to simulate quantum systems using only real numbers by exploiting an enlarged Hilbert space. A fundamental question arises: are the complex numbers really necessary in the standard formalism of quantum theory? To answer this question, a quantum game has been developed to distinguish standard quantum theory from its real-number analog, by revealing a contradiction between a high-fidelity multiqubit quantum experiment and players using only real-number quantum theory. Here, using superconducting qubits, we faithfully realize the quantum game based on deterministic entanglement swapping with a state-of-the-art fidelity of 0.952. Our experimental results violate the real-number bound of 7.66 by 43 standard deviations. Our results disprove the real-number formulation and establish the indispensable role of complex numbers in the standard quantum theory.

13.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(5): 1685-1701, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169822

RESUMO

At temperatures close to absolute zero, the molecular reactions and collisions are dominantly governed by quantum mechanics. Remarkable quantum phenomena such as quantum tunneling, quantum threshold behavior, quantum resonances, quantum interference, and quantum statistics are expected to be the main features in ultracold reactions and collisions. Ultracold molecules offer great opportunities and challenges in the study of these intriguing quantum phenomena in molecular processes. In this article, we review the recent progress in the preparation of ultracold molecules and the study of ultracold reactions and collisions using ultracold molecules. We focus on the controlled ultracold chemistry and the scattering resonances at ultralow temperatures. The challenges in understanding the complex ultracold reactions and collisions are also discussed.

14.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(1): nwab011, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070323

RESUMO

Quantum error correction is an essential ingredient for universal quantum computing. Despite tremendous experimental efforts in the study of quantum error correction, to date, there has been no demonstration in the realisation of universal quantum error-correcting code, with the subsequent verification of all key features including the identification of an arbitrary physical error, the capability for transversal manipulation of the logical state and state decoding. To address this challenge, we experimentally realise the [5, 1, 3] code, the so-called smallest perfect code that permits corrections of generic single-qubit errors. In the experiment, having optimised the encoding circuit, we employ an array of superconducting qubits to realise the [5, 1, 3] code for several typical logical states including the magic state, an indispensable resource for realising non-Clifford gates. The encoded states are prepared with an average fidelity of [Formula: see text] while with a high fidelity of [Formula: see text] in the code space. Then, the arbitrary single-qubit errors introduced manually are identified by measuring the stabilisers. We further implement logical Pauli operations with a fidelity of [Formula: see text] within the code space. Finally, we realise the decoding circuit and recover the input state with an overall fidelity of [Formula: see text], in total with 92 gates. Our work demonstrates each key aspect of the [5, 1, 3] code and verifies the viability of experimental realisation of quantum error-correcting codes with superconducting qubits.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 16(12): 1294-1296, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887534
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(23): 230503, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936806

RESUMO

Quantum self-testing is a device-independent way to certify quantum states and measurements using only the input-output statistics, with minimal assumptions about the quantum devices. Because of the high demand on tolerable noise, however, experimental self-testing was limited to two-photon systems. Here, we demonstrate the first robust self-testing for multiphoton genuinely entangled quantum states. We prepare two examples of four-photon graph states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with a fidelity of 0.957(2) and the linear cluster states with a fidelity of 0.945(2). Based on the observed input-output statistics, we certify the genuine four-photon entanglement and further estimate their qualities with respect to realistic noise in a device-independent manner.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(16): 160502, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723577

RESUMO

In this Letter we report an experiment that verifies an atomic-ensemble quantum memory via a measurement-device-independent scheme. A single photon generated via Rydberg blockade in one atomic ensemble is stored in another atomic ensemble via electromagnetically induced transparency. After storage for a long duration, this photon is retrieved and interfered with a second photon to perform a joint Bell-state measurement (BSM). The quantum state for each photon is chosen based on a quantum random number generator, respectively, in each run. By evaluating correlations between the random states and BSM results, we certify that our memory is genuinely entanglement preserving.

18.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 38582-38590, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808908

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides an information-theoretically secure method to share keys between legitimate users. To achieve large-scale deployment of QKD, it should be easily scalable and cost-effective. The infrastructure construction of quantum access network (QAN) expands network capacity and the integration between QKD and classical optical communications reduces the cost of channel. Here, we present a practical downstream QAN over a 10 Gbit/s Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON), which can support up to 64 users. In the full coexistence scheme using the single feeder fiber structure, the co-propagation of QAN and 10G-EPON signals with 9 dB attenuation is achieved over 21 km fiber, and the secure key rate for each of 16 users reaches 1.5 kbps. In the partial coexistence scheme using the dual feeder fiber structure, the combination of QAN and full-power 10G-EPON signals is achieved over 11 km with a network capacity of 64-user. The practical QAN over the 10G-EPON in our work implements an important step towards the achievement of large-scale QKD infrastructure.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(18): 180502, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767431

RESUMO

We report phase-programmable Gaussian boson sampling (GBS) which produces up to 113 photon detection events out of a 144-mode photonic circuit. A new high-brightness and scalable quantum light source is developed, exploring the idea of stimulated emission of squeezed photons, which has simultaneously near-unity purity and efficiency. This GBS is programmable by tuning the phase of the input squeezed states. The obtained samples are efficiently validated by inferring from computationally friendly subsystems, which rules out hypotheses including distinguishable photons and thermal states. We show that our GBS experiment passes a nonclassicality test based on inequality constraints, and we reveal nontrivial genuine high-order correlations in the GBS samples, which are evidence of robustness against possible classical simulation schemes. This photonic quantum computer, Jiuzhang 2.0, yields a Hilbert space dimension up to ∼10^{43}, and a sampling rate ∼10^{24} faster than using brute-force simulation on classical supercomputers.

20.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 25859-25867, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614905

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information theoretically secure key exchange requiring authentication of the classic data processing channel via pre-sharing of symmetric private keys to kick-start the process. In previous studies, the lattice-based post-quantum digital signature algorithm Aigis-Sig, combined with public-key infrastructure (PKI), was used to achieve high-efficiency quantum security authentication of QKD, and we have demonstrated its advantages in simplifying the MAN network structure and new user entry. This experiment further integrates the PQC algorithm into the commercial QKD system, the Jinan field metropolitan QKD network comprised of 14 user nodes and 5 optical switching nodes, and verifies the feasibility, effectiveness and stability of the post-quantum cryptography (PQC) algorithm and advantages of replacing trusted relays with optical switching brought by PQC authentication large-scale metropolitan area QKD network. QKD with PQC authentication has potential in quantum-secure communications, specifically in metropolitan QKD networks.

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