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1.
J Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141100

RESUMO

This study examined the association between digoxin use and subsequent psoriasis risk using a population-based database in Taiwan. This cohort study enrolled 15 545 digoxin users and 15 545 propensity score-matched non-users from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient was independently followed up for 5 years to confirm whether they had been diagnosed with psoriasis. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate psoriasis risk among digoxin users. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed. The psoriasis incidence rates were 3.02 and 2.27 per 1000 person-years among digoxin users and non-users, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, psoriasis risk was significantly higher among digoxin users than among non-users. Notably, in most subgroup analyses, digoxin use tended to increase psoriasis risk, particularly among patients with heart failure, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Moreover, significantly increased psoriasis risk was noted over 2, 3, 4 and 5 years of digoxin use. In conclusion, our findings confirm that digoxin use increases subsequent psoriasis risk. Thus, physicians should be aware of this association and accordingly estimate the risks and benefits of digoxin use. Nevertheless, some patient variables, such as body mass index and obesity, were unavailable in this study. The findings in this study should be elucidated carefully because the potential effects of these factors could not be considered.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195575

RESUMO

A critical factor hampering the deployment of fuel-flexible, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs) is the long-term stability of electrode in different gas environments. Specifically, for state-of-the-art Ni-cermet anodes, reduction /oxidation (redox) cycles during fuel-rich and fuel-starved conditions cause a huge volume change, eventually leading to cell failure. Here we report a robust redox-stable SrFe0.2Co0.4Mo0.4O3(SFCM)/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2(GDC) ceramic anode supported LT-SOFCs with high performance and remarkable redox stability. The anode supported configuration tackles the high ohmic loss associated with conventional ceramic anodes, achieving a high open circuit voltage (OCV) of ~0.9V and a peak power density (PPD) of 500 mW/cm2 at 600°C in hydrogen. In addition, ceramic anode-supported SOFCs are stable over tens of redox cycles under harsh operating conditions. Our study reveals that oxygen non-stoichiometry of SFCM compensates for the dimensional changes that occur during redox cycles. Our results demonstrate the potential of all ceramic cells for the next generation of LT-SOFCs.

3.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126368, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171941

RESUMO

Mangrove sediments act as an important natural sink and a secondary source for trace metals. The main objective of this study was to investigate metal contamination and its relationship to mangrove-derived carbohydrates in mangrove sediments. Sixteen metals (Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, and Pb)were analyzed in the surface sediments from four sites at different latitudes on the southeast coastline of China. The sedimentary organic matter was characterized by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and the neutral sugars were examined by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry. Our results from the enrichment factors indicated that the mangrove sediments were no enriched by Ga, Sr, and Ba, minor enriched by Be, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, Sb, Tl, and Pb, and moderate enriched by Cd. Litterfall was a major source of organic matter in the mangrove sediments, and the neutral sugars were mainly derived from this litterfall. Significant correlations were detected between the total organic carbon, pyrolytic parameters, neutral sugars, and enrichment factors of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cd, suggesting the input of neutral carbohydrates played an important role in enhancing the metal accumulation in the mangrove sediments. The mangrove litterfall itself was a major source of metals for the sediments, and the mangrove-derived organic matter enhanced the sediment's metal accumulation.

4.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213626

RESUMO

Clinical response rates after adoptive cell therapy (ACT) are highly correlated with in vivo persistence of the infused T cells. However, antigen-specific T cells found in tumor sites are often well-differentiated effector cells with limited persistence. Central memory CD8+ T cells, capable of self-renewal, represent desirable ACT products. We report here that exposure to a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and IL21 could reprogram differentiated human CD8+ T cells into central memory-like T cells. De-differentiation of CD8+ T cells was initiated by increased H3 acetylation and chromatin accessibility at the CD28 promoter region. This led to IL21-mediated pSTAT3 binding to the CD28 region, and subsequent upregulation of surface CD28 and CD62L (markers of central memory T cells). The reprogrammed cells exhibited enhanced proliferation in response to both IL2 and IL15, and a stable memory-associated transcriptional signature (increased Lef1 and Tcf7). Our findings support the application of IL21 and HDACi for the in vitro generation of highly persistent T cell populations that can augment the efficacy of adoptively transferred T cells.

6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(4): 3862-3879, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139660

RESUMO

Perioperative neurocognitive disorders are common in elderly patients who have undergone surgical procedures. Neuroinflammation induced by microglial activation is a hallmark of these neurological disorders. Acetate can suppress inflammation in the context of inflammatory diseases. We employed an exploratory laparotomy model with isoflurane anesthesia to study the effects of acetate on perioperative neurocognitive disorders in aged mice. Neurocognitive function was assessed with open-field tests and Morris water maze tests 3 or 7 days post-surgery. Acetate ameliorated the surgery-induced cognitive deficits of aged mice and inhibited the activation of IBA-1, a marker of microglial activity. Acetate also reduced expression of inflammatory proteins (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß and interleukin-6), oxidative stress factors (NADPH oxidase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species), and signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase) in the hippocampus. BV2 microglial cells were used to verify the anti-inflammatory effects of acetate in vitro. Acetate suppressed inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-treated BV2 microglial cells, but not when GPR43 was silenced. These results suggest that acetate may bind to GPR43, thereby inhibiting microglial activity, suppressing neuroinflammation, and preventing memory deficits. This makes acetate is a promising therapeutic for surgery-induced neurocognitive disorders and neuroinflammation.

7.
Neural Netw ; 125: 131-141, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088567

RESUMO

In recent years, deep learning achieves remarkable results in the field of artificial intelligence. However, the training process of deep neural networks may cause the leakage of individual privacy. Given the model and some background information of the target individual, the adversary can maliciously infer the sensitive feature of the target individual. Therefore, it is imperative to preserve the sensitive information in the training data. Differential privacy is a state-of-the-art paradigm for providing the privacy guarantee of datasets, which protects the private and sensitive information from the attack of adversaries significantly. However, the existing privacy-preserving models based on differential privacy are less than satisfactory since traditional approaches always inject the same amount of noise into parameters to preserve the sensitive information, which may impact the trade-off between the model utility and the privacy guarantee of training data. In this paper, we present a general differentially private deep neural networks learning framework based on relevance analysis, which aims to bridge the gap between private and non-private models while providing an effective privacy guarantee of sensitive information. The proposed model perturbs gradients according to the relevance between neurons in different layers and the model output. Specifically, during the process of backward propagation, more noise is added to gradients of neurons that have less relevance to the model output, and vice-versa. Experiments on five real datasets demonstrate that our mechanism not only bridges the gap between private and non-private models, but also prevents the disclosure of sensitive information effectively.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 286-292, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084470

RESUMO

Soybean straw cannot be efficiently degraded and utilized by ruminants due to the complex cross-linked structure among cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in its cell wall. Xylanase can degrade the xylan component of hemicellulose, destroy the xylan-lignin matrix and, consequently, would theoretically improve the hydrolysis effectiveness of cellulose. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effects of recombinant Lentinula edodes xylanase (rLeXyn11A) on fiber structure, hydrolysis, and in vitro ruminal fermentation of soybean straw. Treatment with rLeXyn11A enhanced the hydrolysis of soybean straw with an evident increase in productions of ribose, rhamnose, and xylose. Soybean straw treated by rLeXyn11A had lower hemicellulose content and greater cellulose and lignin contents. The rLeXyn11A could remove xylan, loosen unordered fibrous networks, enhance substrate porosity, and rearrange lignin, consequently increasing the exposure of cellulose and improving the cellulase hydrolysis of soybean straw. Supplemental rLeXyn11A stimulated the dry matter digestion, volatile fatty acids production, and microbial protein synthesis during in vitro ruminal incubation. This paper demonstrated that rLeXyn11A could strengthen the cellulase hydrolysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation of soybean straw by degrading xylan and changing fiber structure, showing its potential for improving the utilization of soybean straw in ruminants.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is an important public health issue around the world. Research indicates that many factors may be related to the rate of CO uptake and elimination in the human body. However, some factors related to CO uptake and elimination are considered controversial. Relatively little attention has been devoted to review and synthesis of factors affecting CO uptake and elimination. PURPOSE: This paper provides a critical scoping review of the factors and divides them into four aspects, including environmental, demographic, physiological and treatment factors. METHODS: We searched the scientific databases for research that has proposed a mathematical equation as a synthesis of quantities related to CO poisoning, CO elimination, CO uptake, CO half-life, CO uptake and elimination and their relationships. After excluding the studies that did not meet the study criteria, there were 39 studies included in the review and the search was completed before 16 December 2019. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This review discusses most of the factors that impact the rate of CO uptake and elimination. Several factors may be related to CO uptake and elimination, such as CO concentration, the duration of exposure to CO, age, sex, exercise, minute ventilation, alveolar ventilation, total haemoglobin mass and different treatments for CO poisoning. Although some potential factors were not included in the review, the findings are useful by presenting an overview for discussing factors affecting CO uptake and elimination and provide a starting point for further study regarding strategies for CO poisoning and the environmental standard of CO.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134699, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726297

RESUMO

Microplastics, whether originating directly from industrial and household products or from the degradation of larger plastics, are currently of intense global concern. These particles are present in aquatic environments in high concentrations and may adversely affect aquatic organisms. An additional concern is the ability of microplastics to adsorb inorganic and organic pollutants and subsequently liberate them into marine and freshwater systems. In this review, we report on the occurrence and abundance of microplastics in the global aquatic environment. We then consider the accumulation (uptake, distribution, and elimination) of microplastics in aquatic organisms and the important factors that lead to bioaccumulation. The effects of microplastics on aquatic organisms of different trophic levels are also discussed. Several studies have shown that the size, shape, and surface physicochemical characteristics of microplastics are essential determinants of their biological effects. Finally, we examine the combined effects of microplastics and other pollutants, including persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals. Our review concludes by suggesting future lines of research based on the remaining knowledge gaps in microplastic research.

12.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(1): 1-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850600

RESUMO

Daidzein has been reported to be effective in regulating lipid metabolism in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms of daidzein on adipogenesis in beef cattle are not yet reported and the results of daidzein on affecting lipid metabolism in other species have been conflicting. High-throughput sequencing of mRNA (RNA-Seq) technology was performed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of daidzein on adipogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of finishing Xianan beef cattle. A total of 893 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by differential expression analysis, among which 405 genes were upregulated and 488 genes were downregulated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that these DEGs were significantly enriched to the pathways related to lipid metabolism including ECM-receptor interaction, Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis and Hedgehog signalling pathway. Daidzein significantly affected the candidate genes (Shh, Pec, Gli, Wnt6, DLK, IGFBP2, ID3 and C/EBPE) related to adipocyte differentiation. Besides, daidzein improved the ability of subcutaneous adipocytes in synthesizing triglycerides by directly using the long-chain fatty acids and enhanced the efficiency of triglyceride synthesis of subcutaneous adipocytes in Xianan steers. In conclusion, daidzein plays a positive role not only in adipogenic differentiation, but also in triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of Xianan beef cattle.

13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 148: 111836, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731074

RESUMO

This work reports a customized methodology for the fabrication of 3D CdS nanosheet (NS)-enwrapped carbon fiber framework (CFF) and its utilization for sensitive split-type CuO-mediated PEC immunoassay. Specifically, the 3D CdS NS-CFF was fabricated via a solvothermal process, while the sandwich immunocomplexing was allowed in a 96 well plate with CuO nanoparticles (NPs) as the signaling labels. The subsequent release of the Cu2+ ions was directed to interact with the CdS NS, generating trapping sites and thus inhibiting its photocurrent generation. In such a protocol, the 3D CdS NS-CFF photoelectrode could not only guarantee its sufficient contact with the Cu2+-containing solution but also supply plenty CdS surface for the Cu2+ ions. Because of the target-dependent release of the Cu2+ ions and its proper coupling with the 3D CdS NS-CFF photoelectrode, a sensitive split-type PEC immunoassay was achieved for the detection of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). This proposed system exhibited good stability and selectivity, and its applicability for real sample analysis was also demonstrated via comparison with the commercial BNP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. We expect this work could stimulate more interest in the design and utilization of 3D photoelectrodes for novel PEC bioanalysis.

14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 349-360, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791508

RESUMO

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been widely used as a sorbent for passive sampling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. However, it has seen only limited application in passive sampling for measurement of freely dissolved concentrations of parent and substituted PAHs (SPAHs), which are known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Here, the 16 priority PAHs and some typical PAHs were selected as target compounds and were simultaneously determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Some batch experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explore the adsorption kinetics of the target compounds in LDPE membranes. The results showed that both PAHs and SPAHs could reach equilibrium status within 19-38 days in sorption kinetic experiments. The coefficients of partitioning between LDPE film (50 µm thickness) and water (KLDPE) for the 16 priority PAHs were in good agreement with previously reported values, and the values of KLDPE for the 9 SPAHs are reported in this study for the first time. Significant linear relationships were observed, i.e., log KLDPE = 0.705 × log KOW + 1.534 for PAHs (R2 = 0.8361, p < 0.001) and log KLDPE = 0.458 × log KOW + 3.092 for SPAHs (R2 = 0.5609, p = 0.0077). The selected LDPE film was also proven to meet the condition of "zero sink" for the selected target compounds. These results could provide basic support for the configuration and in situ application of passive samplers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Polietileno/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Polietileno/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 389: 121903, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879097

RESUMO

Marine phytoplankton possess a sophisticated homeostatic network to counteract metal toxicity. Changes in environmental conditions such as ambient nutrient concentrations can significantly impact their intrinsic metal sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the role of silicon (Si) in counteracting cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We first demonstrated that Si enrichment dramatically enhanced Cd tolerance and changed the Cd accumulation in the diatom. Our modeling suggested that Si-enriched cells adsorbed more Cd but had a higher Cd elimination rate than the Si-starved cells. Examinations by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the Si-enriched cells had better silification and more SiO- in the cell walls, which markedly lowered the surface potential of the diatom cells and allowed them to attract more Cd. Although the Si-enriched cells tended to have a high Cd burden when facing Cd stress, they suppressed the increase of intracellular Cd by both down-regulating the influx transporter ZIP and up-regulating the efflux transporter ATPase5-1B. Our study shows the significant roles Si plays in maintaining metal homeostasis and combating Cd challenge in marine diatoms.

16.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(4): 430-434, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792488

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of impacted supernumerary teeth in 115 patients. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen patients with im-pacted supernumerary teeth who were admitted to the Department of Oral and Max-illofacial Surgery of Hefei Stomatological Hospital were selected randomly. The age, sex, number of teeth, location, direction, clinical manifestation, anaes-thesia method and operation time were analyzed retrospectively, T test and Chi-square test were used to determine the statistical differences with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULTS: Among 115 patients, there were 176 impacted supernu-merary, most of them were in mixed dentition period (66.96%), the sex ratio was 2.29:1, and Most patients (59.1%) had one supernumerary tooth, followed by two supernumerary teeth(33.9%). Most supernumerary teeth were located in the middle of the maxilla (68.2%). Inverted ones were the most common (52.8%). The most common symptoms were delayed eruption, displacement, crowding, torsion and space of the adjacent teeth. 92.2% of patients underwent general anesthesia. The dee-per the locations of impacted supernumerary were, the longer the operation time was. CONCLUSIONS: There are regional characteristics of supernumerary teeth in Hefei City, which can provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Fasciite , Dente Impactado , Dente Supranumerário , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Erupção Dentária
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 2179738, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737165

RESUMO

The effects and underlying mechanisms of butyrate and butyrate+niacin on apoptosis in sheep rumen epithelial cells were investigated. Cells were exposed to butyrate (0-140 mM) for 6 h. A low concentration (20 mM) of butyrate increased cell viability and promoted growth whereas high concentrations (40-140 mM) inhibited proliferation. Cells were then cocultured with 120 mM butyrate and niacin (0-100 mM) for 6 h. Niacin addition attenuated butyrate-induced cellular damage and promoted proliferation at 20-80 mM; 40 mM presented the optimal effect. Higher concentrations (100 mM) of niacin resulted in low cell viability. Subsequent experiments confirmed that 120 mM butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced the intracellular total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) versus the untreated control. Compared with 120 mM butyrate, cotreatment with 40 mM niacin significantly reduced the intracellular ROS content and increased the intracellular T-AOC. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 120 mM butyrate increased the proportion of apoptotic cells by 17.8% versus the untreated control, and 120 mM butyrate+40 mM niacin treatment reduced the proportion of apoptotic cells by 28.6% and 39.4% versus the untreated control and butyrate treatment, respectively. Treatment with 120 mM butyrate increased caspase-9 and p53 mRNA levels and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio versus the untreated control. Treatment with 120 mM butyrate+40 mM niacin downregulated the expression of caspase-3 and p53 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax versus butyrate treatment alone but had no effect on the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Thus, high concentrations of butyrate may induce rumen epithelial cell apoptosis by increasing oxidative stress and inducing caspase-9 and p53 expression. Cotreatment with niacin regulates apoptosis-related gene expression by reducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage and downregulating caspase-3 and p53 expressions to protect rumen epithelial cells against butyrate-induced apoptosis.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031135, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors related to the prognosis of carbon monoxide (CO)-poisoned patients in the hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a review of the medical records of 669 CO-poisoned patients, who were admitted to the Department of Emergency, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taiwan, from 2009 to 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected for analysis. In the study, the end points for poor outcome were patients who either still had sequelae, were bedridden or died after treatment. The independent t-test, χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to identify the association between the prognostic factors and the outcomes. RESULTS: The logistic regression analysis confirmed that the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p=0.008) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (p=0.002) were related to poor outcomes. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the cut-off point of intubation days was 1.5 days (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.793) for all patients and 2.5 days (AUC=0.817) for patients with intubation when predicting poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: We identified the factors that most strongly predict the prognosis of CO poisoning, including the GCS score, serum BUN and intubation days. Moreover, the number of hyperbaric oxygen treatments seems to have impact of the outcome.

19.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 289, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced vascular dysfunction is the main factor to acute ischemic stroke. Sirt3 is one of the sirtuin family members, which plays an important role in the development of neurological diseases. METHODS: In this study, we constructed I/R injury model on HBMEC cells and induced the overexpression of Sirt3 in model cells. Meanwhile, the p38 activator U-46619 was used to examine the connection between Sirt3 and p38. We also examined the level of endothelial associated proteins, including occluding, ZO-1 and claudin-4 by using qRT-PCR and western blot. RESULTS: Our findings indicated that overexpression of Sirt3 decreased the permeability of model cells and promoted in the growth of endothelial cells. However, the activation of p38 could antagonize the function of Sirt3 in HBMEC cells. Moreover, Our results indicated a positive correlation between Sirt3 and inter-endothelial junction proteins. Importantly, PPAR-γ agonist and inhibitor were utilized to investigate the role of PPAR-γ in Sirt3 mediated cell function. Sirt3 was targeted by PPAR-γ in model cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this research not only demonstrated PPAR-γ might benefit to the growth of endothelial cell though activating Sirt3 but also indicated its potential value in the treatment for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756211

RESUMO

Recent technical advancements in neural engineering allow for precise recording and control of neural circuits simultaneously, opening up new opportunities for closed-loop neural control. In this work, a rapid spike sorting system was developed based on template matching to rapidly calculate instantaneous firing rates for each neuron in a multi-unit extracellular recording setting. Cluster templates were first generated by a desktop computer using a non-parameter spike sorting algorithm (Super-paramagnetic clustering) and then transferred to a field-programmable gate array digital circuit for rapid sorting through template matching. Two different matching techniques-Euclidean distance (ED) and correlational matching (CM)-were compared for the accuracy of sorting and the performance of calculating firing rates. The performance of the system was first verified using publicly available artificial data and was further confirmed with pre-recorded neural spikes from an anesthetized Mongolian gerbil. Real-time recording and sorting from an awake mouse were also conducted to confirm the system performance in a typical behavioral neuroscience experimental setting. Experimental results indicated that high sorting accuracies were achieved for both template-matching methods, but CM can better handle spikes with non-Gaussian spike distributions, making it more robust for in vivo recording. The technique was also compared to several other off-line spike sorting algorithms and the results indicated that the sorting accuracy is comparable but sorting time is significantly shorter than these other techniques. A low sorting latency of under 2 ms and a maximum spike sorting rate of 941 spikes/second have been achieved with our hybrid hardware/software system. The low sorting latency and fast sorting rate allow future system developments of neural circuit modulation through analyzing neural activities in real-time.

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