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Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3811-3816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122926


Purpose: Talaromyces marneffei is a highly invasive fungus, causing fatal mycosis in patients with or without HIV in Southeast and Eastern Asia. However, its presence in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is rarely reported. Methods: We reported two SLE patients infected by T. marneffei and reviewed other patients reported in the English literature. All cases were pooled for analysis. Results: Eleven patients with SLE infected with T. marneffei infection were identified, including the two presented here. Three were male and eight were female; all were HIV negative. All the patients, except two where data were missing, had received immunosuppressants before T. marneffei infection. The main clinical features included fever, cough, lymph node enlargement, gastrointestinal symptoms, and rash. Five patients were misdiagnosed as having SLE exacerbation. T. marneffei was detected via culture or histopathologic analysis, with the fungus most commonly found in the blood. Seven of the 11 patients were successfully treated by timely antifungal therapy with concomitant SLE control, while four patients who did not receive antifungal therapy died. Conclusion: T. marneffei infection should be excluded when SLE patients, especially if on long-term immunosuppressants, present with fever, cough, lymph node enlargement, gastrointestinal symptoms, and rash. Controlling the lupus and timely antifungal treatment can improve the outcomes of SLE patients with T. marneffei infection.

Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa128, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523970


Background: Hematogenous dissemination of Talaromyces marneffei can result in multiorgan involvement (skin, lung, and reticuloendothelial system involvement); however, few studies have reported intestinal T marneffei infections. We investigated clinical features, management, and patient outcomes concerning Talaromyces-related intestinal infections. Methods: Patients with Talaromycosis between August 2012 and April 2019 at The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients presenting with intestinal Talaromycosis and endoscopy-confirmed diagnoses were investigated. We also undertook a systematic review of the relevant English and Chinese literature. Results: Of 175 patients diagnosed with Talaromycosis, 33 presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 31 underwent stool cultures, 1 of which tested positive. Three patients had gastrointestinal symptoms and negative stool cultures, and endoscopic tissue biopsy confirmed a pathological diagnosis. A systematic review of 14 reports on human Talaromycosis identified an additional 16 patients. Fever, weight loss, and anemia were the most common symptoms, along with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools. Abdominal computed tomography showed intestinal wall edema and thickening and/or abdominal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopy showed erosion, hyperemia, edema, and multiple intestinal mucosal ulcers. Of the 19 patients, 16 received antifungal therapy, 14 of whom recovered and 2 died. Three patients received no therapy and died. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal disseminated Talaromycosis is not rare and can affect the stomach, duodenum, and colon, and may involve the entire digestive tract. Colon is the most common site. Endoscopy is needed for patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms in T marneffei-infected endemic areas. Systemic application of effective antifungal therapy can improve the prognosis.

BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 394, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493232


BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is a highly pathogenic fungus that can cause life-threatening fatal systemic mycosis. Disseminated Talaromycosis marneffei affects multiple organs, including the lungs, skin, and reticuloendothelial system. However, T. marneffei infection has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants with multiple intestinal perforations and diffuse hepatic granulomatous inflammation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of an HIV-negative 37-month-old boy who has had recurrent pneumonia since infancy and was infected with disseminated Talaromycosis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the whole abdomen showed hepatomegaly and intestinal wall thickening in the ascending colon and cecum with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Colonoscopy showed a cobblestone pattern with erosion, ulcer, polypoid lesions, and lumen deformation ranging from the colon to the cecum. T. marneffei was isolated from the mucous membrane of the colon, liver, and bone marrow. After antifungal treatment and surgery, his clinical symptoms significantly improved. Whole-exome sequencing using the peripheral blood of the patient and his parents' revealed a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 17 of the STAT3 gene (c.1673G>A, p.G558D). CONCLUSIONS: In T. marneffei infection-endemic areas, endoscopic examination, culture, or histopathology from the intestine tissue should be performed in disseminated Talaromycosis patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Timely and systemic antifungal therapy could improve the prognosis. Immunodeficiency typically should be considered in HIV-negative infants with opportunistic infections.

Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Micoses/diagnóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Talaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Colonoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Perfuração Intestinal , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3807-3816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824178


Purpose: Talaromyces marneffei (T.M) is an intracellular opportunistic fungus that causes invasive mycosis in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) caused by T.M infection is extremely rare. Here, we analyzed the clinical features, immune mechanisms, treatment, and prognosis related to this comorbidity. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between August 2012 and February 2019 at multiple research centers. Patients who presented with culture and/or histopathological proof of talaromycosis-associated HLH were included. Results: HIV-negative patients (n = 126) were enrolled. Of nine patients with T.M infection combined with secondary HLH, six were preschool children (five boys and one girl), and three were adults (two men and one woman). Seven of these nine had underlying diseases or recurrent infections. The most common symptoms were fever, anemia, hypoproteinemia, cough, weight loss, oral thrush, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, digestive symptoms, joint pain, and dyspnea. All patients showed reduced hemoglobin concentrations and platelet numbers. Liver dysfunction, hyperferritinemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and low natural killer cell numbers were observed. Eight of nine patients received antifungal therapy, one patient did not receive therapy, and two of nine patients received anti-HLH therapy. Four died during treatment. Conclusion: T.M fungemia associated with HLH was related to high mortality. Once diagnosed, timely and effective antifungal treatments and supportive care are essential.

Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(10): ofz208, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660325


Background: Few reports of Talaromyces marneffei (TM) or cryptococcosis infections among HIV-negative patients with high-titeranti-IFN-γautoantibodies (nAIGAs) have been published. We investigated the clinical manifestations of patients with nAIGAs and TM infections. Methods: HIV-negative adults (≥18 years) were enrolled if they haddisseminated TM infection (group 1; further divided into nAIGAs positive [group 1P] and negative [group 1N]); cryptococcosis(pulmonary cryptococcosis and/or cryptococcosis of the brain)(group 2); pulmonary tuberculosis (group 3); and healthy controls (group 4) with nAIGAs detected. Complete histories, physical examinations, and routine clinical laboratory tests were obtained at baseline. Results: Overall, 88 participants were in the four groups (20,13,23, and 32 in groups 1 to 4, respectively). Significant differences occurred between groups with higher nAIGAs titers (P < 0.001), and higher total white-cell and absolute neutrophil counts (P < 0.001) in group1. Lungs (90.0%), lymph nodes (60.0%), skin (55.0%), and bones (50.0%) were most common sites of involvement. Significant differences in total white-cell and absolute neutrophil counts occurred between groups IP and 1N.Patients with recurrent TM infections, particularly group 1P, had higher initial nAIGA titer. Conclusions: Patients with persistent infection who died tended to have positive initial nAIGA titer. It suggests that nAIGAs may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of TM infections, and may be associated with more severe, refractory infection.

Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(16): 1909-1918, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348027


BACKGROUND: Little study has investigated the differences between Talatomyces marneffei (T. marneffei) respiratory infection and tuberculosis and the prognostic factors of such infection. This study investigated the characteristics and prognostic factors of T. marneffei infections with respiratory lesions and the causes of misdiagnosis. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with T. marneffei infections with respiratory system lesion were investigated. T. marneffei diagnosis followed isolation from clinical specimens using standard culture, cytology, and histopathology. Survival curves were estimated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with log-rank test to compare differences in survival rates between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were also performed to assess significant differences in clinical characteristics of overall survival. RESULTS: Of 126 patients diagnosed with T. marneffei infections, 63 (50.0%) had T. marneffei respiratory system infections; 38.1% (24/63) were misdiagnosed as having tuberculosis. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CD4/CD8 < 0.5, percentage of CD4 T cells <42.8%, and length of time from onset to confirmation of diagnosis >105 days were potential risk factors for poor prognoses. Length of time from onset to confirmation of diagnosis persisted as an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (odds ratio: 0.083, 95.0% confidence interval: 0.021-0.326, P < 0.001). However, the size of the lung lesions, dyspnea, thoracalgia, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion did not significantly predict overall survival. There was no significant difference in prognosis according to the type of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: T. marneffei infections involving the respiratory system are common. The critical determinants of prognosis are HIV infection, CD4/CD8, percentage of CD4 T cells, type of treatment, and the time range from onset to confirmation of diagnosis. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial for improving prognosis.

Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Talaromyces/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talaromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem