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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 547: 36-43, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592377

RESUMO

Pain is a major complication of cancer and significantly affects the quality of life. Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-CN) has been reported to be involved in the development of neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain. However, whether CSF-CN contributes to cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to illustrate the role of CSF-CN in the pathogenesis of CIBP and identify its potential mechanism via the MKP-1-mediated MAPK pathway. The Walker 256 cancer cells were injected into the tibia cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats to induce CIBP models. Intracerebroventricular injection of cholera toxin subunit B- saporin (CB-SAP) was performed to "knockout" the CSF-CN. Morphine and LV-MKP-1 were applied. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia behaviors, double immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were conducted after CIBP induction. The results revealed that CIBP significantly reduced the mechanical withdrawal threshold and the thermal threshold. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that c-Fos-positive neurons in CSF-CN were significantly higher in the CIBP group than that in the sham group. Targeted ablation of CSF-CN dramatically aggravated pain sensitivity. Moreover, MKP-1 was down-regulated in the CSF-CN after CIBP induction. Pharmacological intervention with morphine significantly ameliorated the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia through reversing the down-expression of MKP-1 in the CSF-CN on day 14 after CIBP induction. Mechanically, overexpression of MKP-1 by LV-MKP-1 injection significantly relieved CIBP via inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated p38, which subsequently decreased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Iba-1, and reduced the mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 in CSF-CN. In conclusion, CSF-CN contributed to CIBP via regulating the MKP-1-mediated p38-MAPK pathway. Future therapy targeting the expression of MKP-1 in the CSF-CN may be a promising new choice.

2.
Med Ultrason ; 23(1): 55-61, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621274

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the reliability of quantitative analysis of dynamic stretching muscle stiffness using shear wave elas-tography (SWE), and to evaluate the influence of stretched levels and region of interest (ROI) sizes on the repeatability of SWE measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SWE videos of the gastrocnemius medius were collected during ankle movement from plantar flexion (PF) 40° to dorsiflexion (DF) 30°. Shear wave imageswere collected of ankle angles at PF 25°, 0°, DF 15°, and DF 30°, representing the slack status, mildly stretched level, moderately stretched level, and maximal stretched level of the gastrocnemius medius, respectively. ROI circles with diameters of 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm were applied to measure the shear modulus. Intra-observer, and inter-observer repeatability of the measurements were compared among different stretched levels and ROI sizes. RESULTS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers were enrolled. Muscle stiffness increased as the ankle DF increased. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of intra-observer and inter-observer repeatability obtained for ROI sizes of 2 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm indicated good to excellent repeatability at all stretched levels. CONCLUSIONS: Shear wave elastography appeared to be a reliable tool to evaluate the dynamic stretching muscle stiffness with satisfactory repeatability at various stretched levels of gastrocnemius medius. Good to excellent repeatability was found using different ROI sizes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543437

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic pollutant that is widely spread through industrial production and agricultural practices. Epidemiological data has revealed that lifetime exposure to environmentally relevant levels of Cd increases the risk of developing various organ diseases, including chronic kidney, heart, and lung diseases, as well as nervous tissue disorders. This study assessed Cd levels in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The distribution of Cd concentration, the lifetime average daily dose (LADD), and the hazard index (HI) were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. In the general population, the 50th percentile LADD of Cd for male rice consumers between the ages of 19-65 years was 0.06 µg/kg body weight per day, and the hazard index (HI) 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were 0.16, 0.69, and 1.54, respectively. According to the HI heat map for the exposure of the general population to Cd from rice in Taiwan, the highest exposure to Cd was noted in the Yilan area (HI 0.64). Therefore, rice production in the Yilan area should be further monitored to evaluate the levels of Cd contamination.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24273, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546048

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The exact dose of cytarabine still remain controversial for the management of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after complete remission (CR), but recent studies favor lower doses. This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of single-intermediate dose (ID) cytarabine in patients with AML after achieving CR, compared with standard-dose cytarabine.In this retrospective study, AML patients who achieved CR after consolidation therapy before enrollment between 07/2008 and 05/2019 were included. All patients were divided into single-ID cytarabine and standard-dose cytarabine. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare overall survival (OS) and relapse-free time (RFS). Cox regression models were used to assess factors independently associated with OS and RFS. The toxic side effects of hematology and non-hematology were observed.52 patients were enrolled. There were 33 in ID group, 19 in Standard dose group. The 3-year RFS rate (40.4% vs 22.2%, P = .031) was better in the ID group than in the standard-dose group, while the 3-year OS rate was not different between the 2 groups (50.2% vs 27.8%, P = .074). Treatment stratage of ID cytarabine chemotherapy significantly improve the prognosis of AML regardless of patient age, risk grade, WBC count. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in grade 3 to 4 bone marrow suppression, gastrointestinal symptoms, blood transfusion, infections.Patients with AML receiving ID cytarabine showed better survival and similar toxicity profiles compared with patients who received standard-dose cytarabine.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Consolidação/normas , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/métodos , Quimioterapia de Consolidação/estatística & dados numéricos , Citarabina/farmacologia , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1142: 38-47, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280702

RESUMO

The pre-processing of samples is important factors that affect the results of the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data. However, the effects of frozen sections storage conditions on the integrity of RNA and sequencing results haven't been reported. The study of frozen section protection schemes can provide reliable experimental results for single-cell and spatial transcriptome sequencing. In this study, RNA was isolated to be studied for RNA from brain section at different temperatures (RT: room temperature, -20 °C) and storage time (0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 16 h, 24 h, 7day, 3week, 6month). The stability of reference genes was validated using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the storage at room temperature significantly affected RNA integrity number (RIN), and the RIN value was lower with the prolongation of storage, while the storage at -20 °C exerted less effect on the RIN value. Cresyl violet staining for brain tissue sections had little effect on RNA integrity. 1925, 899 and 3390 differential expression genes (DEGs) were screened at 2 h, 4 h and 8 h at room temperature, respectively. A total of 892, 478 and 619 genes were shown to be differentially expressed at -20 °C for 7d, 3w and 6 m, respectively. Among them, the expression of glycoprotein m6a (Gpm6a), calmodulin 1 (Calm1), calmodulin 1 (Calm2), thymosin, beta 4, X chromosome (Tmsb4x), ribosomal protein S21 (Rps21) and so on were correlated with RNA quality. According to the expression stability of 4 reference genes (Actb: beta-actin; Gapdh: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; 18S: 18S ribosomal; Hprt1: hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1), 18S is the most stable reference gene in the brain. In conclusion, the storage temperature and time of frozen sections have significant effects on RNA integrity and sequencing results. But there are still some genes that are stable and not affected by worsening of overall RNA integrity ie the decrease of RIN value. In addition, 1% cresyl violet staining can protect RNA.

6.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153432, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A natural pterostilbene analogue isolated from the herb Sphaerophysa salsula, 3'-hydroxypterostilbene (HPSB), exhibits antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines; however, the inhibitory effects of HPSB on skin carcinogenesis remains unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of HPSB on two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice and its potential mechanism. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of HPSB in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated acute skin inflammation and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/TPA-induced two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. In addition, the effects of HPSB on the modulation of the phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes in the DMBA-induced HaCaT cell model were investigated. RESULTS: The results provide evidence that topical treatment with HPSB significantly inhibits TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and leukocyte infiltration through the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein expression in mouse skin. Furthermore, HPSB suppresses DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumor incidence and multiplicity via the inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) expression in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. In addition, pretreatment with HPSB markedly reduces DMBA-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene expression in human keratinocytes; however, HPSB does not significantly affect the gene expression of the phase II enzymes. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that topical treatment with HPSB prevents mouse skin tumorigenesis. Overall, our study suggests that natural HPSB may serve as a novel chemopreventive agent capable of preventing carcinogen activation and inflammation-associated tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno/toxicidade , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/toxicidade , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Erupção por Droga/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107231, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307515

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-35 is the newest member of the IL-12 family. It is expressed in many immune cells and has been recognized as a novel inflammatory cytokine that may have bifunctional properties. Recent findings have indicated that the expression of IL-35 is abnormal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, the results were inconsistent. In this study, 400 RA patients were recruited to evaluate serum levels of IL-35 in a Chinese Han population by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association of IL-35 gene polymorphisms and RA genetic susceptibility was investigated in 400 RA patients and 612 healthy controls. The results showed that serum levels of IL-35 were elevated in 100 RA patients compared to 51 healthy controls, relating to disease activity and synovial fluid IL-35 expression in the training cohort. Another independent 300 RA patients and 369 other rheumatic disease patients (98 lupus, 95 osteoarthritis, 95 gout, 42 Sjogren's syndrome and 39 ankylosing spondylitis patients) confirmed that serum levels of IL-35 were elevated in RA patients, and serum IL-35 has good diagnostic ability for differentiating RA from the other rheumatic diseases. The genotyping of 10 IL-35 polymorphisms, including rs2227314, rs2243115, rs2243123, rs2243131, rs568408, rs583911, rs428253, rs4740, rs9807813 and rs4905, revealed that rs2227314, rs2243131, rs9807813, and rs583911 were correlated with RA risk. Different genotypes (rs2227314, rs583911, and rs9807813) exhibited different expression of IL-35. These findings demonstrate that serum levels of IL-35 are increased in RA patients and that IL-35 polymorphisms are correlated with RA risk.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(49): 14513-14522, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231468

RESUMO

Obesity is an important health issue nowadays. 3'-Hydroxydaidzein (OHD) is a metabolite of daidzein (DAI) that can be found in fermented soybean products, such as miso. DAI has been known to affect lipid accumulation, but the effect of OHD on lipid accumulation still needs to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of OHD on mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that mice treated with 0.1% OHD (HOHD) significantly reduced their body weight and inguinal fat without altering their food intake compared with the HFD group. The HOHD and DAI groups' hyperlipidemia were alleviated through decreased serum triacylglycerols and total cholesterol levels. The adipocyte sizes in inguinal fat were significantly smaller in the HOHD and DAI groups compared with the HFD group. Both the HOHD and DAI groups had increased PRDM16, C/EBP ß, p-p38, SIRT1, PGC1 α, and UCP1 protein expression in their inguinal adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. Moreover, the OHD and DAI groups had significantly lower amounts of Lachnospira and GCA_900066225 compared with the HFD group. Collectively, OHD can ameliorate HFD-induced obesity in mice by stimulating the browning of the white adipose tissue and modulating gut microbiota.

9.
iScience ; 23(11): 101682, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163937

RESUMO

The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) are two recently developed technologies for effective harvesting of ambient mechanical energy for the creation of self-powered systems. The advantages of TENGs and PENGs which include large open-circuit output voltage, low cost, ease of fabrication, and high conversion efficiency enable their application as new flexible sensors, wearable devices, soft robotics, and machines. This perspective provides an overview of the current state of the art in triboelectric and piezoelectric devices that are used as self-powered sensors and energy harvesters for soft robots and machines; hybrid approaches that combine the advantages of both mechanisms are also discussed. To improve system performance and efficiency, the potential of providing self-powered soft systems with a degree of multifunctionality is investigated. This includes optical sensing, transparency, self-healing, water resistance, photo-luminescence, or an ability to operate in hostile environments such as low temperature, high humidity, or high strain/stretch. Finally, areas for future research directions are identified.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197240

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), a methylation in the N6 position of adenosine especially in the mRNA, exerts diverse physiological and pathological functions. However, the precise role of m6A methylation in hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is still unknown. Here, we observed that HPC treatment protected H9c2 cells against H2O2-induced injury, upregulated the m6A level in the total RNA and the expression of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3), methyltransferase like 14 (METTL14), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19. Either knockdown of METTL3 or METTL14 notably reversed the HPC-induced enhancement of cell viability, anti-apoptosis ability, and H19 expression. Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation (IP) indicated that knockdown of METTL3 or METTL14 decreased m6A level in the lncRNA H19. Gain-of-function assay demonstrated that H19 overexpression could partially rescue the decreased protection mediated by METTL3 or METTL14 knockdown in HPC-treated H9c2 cells. RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay showed that METTL3 and METTL14 could directly bind with H19. Our study identified a novel pattern of posttranscriptional regulation in HPC treatment. Since METTL3, METTL14, and lncRNA H19 were involved in HPC protection, they could be considered as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in HPC-derived cardiac rehabilitation and therapeutic approaches.

11.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 960-962, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present two prenatal cases of first-trimester cystic hygroma who are later found to suffer from rare genetic syndromes. CASE REPORT: Both of the two pregnant women were showed to have fetal cystic hygroma on ultrasound at the first trimester. Fetal microarray result was normal. Follow-up sonographic examinations showed no structural anomalies. The two pregnancies continued uncomplicatedly to term. However, the two infants developed early neurodevelopmental syndrome within two years of age. Exome sequencing confirmed that one child had Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 23 (MRD23) with a c.646delC (p.Q216Sfs∗35) variant in SETD5 gene, and the other child had Smith-Magenis syndrome with a c.3103dupC (Q1035Pfs∗31) variant in RAI1 gene. CONCLUSION: Clinicians have to be vigilant when counseling the patient whose fetus has a first-trimester cystic hygroma even with a normal array result and normal sonographic scans. Although they are rare, monogenetic syndromes are possible outcomes.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130268

RESUMO

Apoptosis is a cellular defense mechanism used for the elimination of host cells infected by viruses. Viruses have evolved corresponding inhibitors of apoptosis genes to promote their replication. Anti-apoptosis-related genes, involved in baculovirus proliferation, have been proposed but it is unclear whether these genes can be manipulated in gene therapy. We constructed a transgenic silkworm, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to knock out the BmNPV inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (iap2). The sequencing results showed that all the sequences could edit the target site of BmNPV iap2 gene. There were no differences in economic traits and growth tests between the BmNPV iap2 knockout strain transgenic silkworm lines and the control groups. However, the mortality rate was significantly reduced, the median lethal dose (LD50) was about 100 times higher than the control group, and the onset time was prolonged by 1-2 days after knocking out BmNPV iap2. In addition, the expression levels of apoptotic-related genes Bmiap2, BmICE and BmDreed were significantly affected and the activity of caspase 9 was increased after BmNPV iap2 being edited in transgenic silkworm. These results demonstrated that gene editing BmNPV iap2 could significantly inhibit BmNPV replication and proliferation. This approach provides a new strategy for antiviral research.

13.
Eur Radiol ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate age-related changes on passive muscle stiffness in healthy individuals and measure the shear modulus in different age groups. METHODS: Shear wave elastography (SWE) movies of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were collected during passive stretching induced by ankle rotation from plantarflexion (PF) to dorsiflexion (DF). A series of SWE images at ankle angles of PF 40°, PF 30°, PF 20°, PF 10°, 0°, DF 10°, DF 20°, and DF 30° were collected and shear moduli measured accordingly for analyses. RESULTS: Eighty-six healthy volunteers (27 children, 31 middle-aged adults, and 28 older people) were recruited. No significant difference was observed in the shear modulus between the three groups at ankle angles of PF 40°, PF 30°, PF 20°, PF 10°, and 0° (p > 0.05). The difference in the shear modulus among the three groups became significant as DF increased. At ankle angles of DF 10°, DF 20°, and DF 30°, the shear modulus was the greatest in the older group, followed by the middle-aged group and then the children group (p = 0.007, 0.000, and 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Passive muscle stiffness increases with age, and the difference between age groups was pronounced only after reaching a certain degree of stretching. KEY POINTS: • The influence of age on passive muscle stiffness becomes pronounced only after reaching a certain degree of stretching. • Age should be considered when evaluating passive muscle stiffness in muscular disorders.

14.
Biosci Rep ; 40(11)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063118

RESUMO

MicroRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p) is involved in the development of many cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC), and FAT4 is correlated with regulation of growth and apoptosis of cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the relation between FAT4 and miR-106b-5p and the underlying mechanism of the two on the development of CRC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and Western blot (WB) analysis were performed to detect the expressions of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins. The viability of CRC cells was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Scratch test and transwell assay were performed to measure the migration and invasion of CRC cell. Tumor angiogenesis was simulated by in vitro angiogenesis experiment. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the targeting relation between miR-106b-5p and FAT4. The study found that the expression of FAT4 was down-regulated and that of miR-106b-5p was up-regulated in CRC tissues. Overexpression of FAT4 resulted in decreased proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of CRC cells, whereas silencing of FAT4 led to the opposite results. In rescue experiment, miR-106b-5p partially reversed the function of FAT4 in CRC cells, thus playing a carcinogenic role by targeting FAT4 in the CRC cells.

15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(5): 639-646, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132645

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Currently, several different concentrations of saline are recommended for use in nasal irrigation. Increasing studies show that nasal irrigation with hypertonic saline is more effective than traditional saline in the treatment of rhinosinusitis, but there have been few systematic analyses of the effect of nasal irrigation with hypertonic saline on chronic rhinosinusitis. Objective: We sought to compare the effects of hypertonic saline and isotonic saline in the treatment of rhinosinusitis in order to provide a reference for clinical nasal irrigation for chronic rhinosinusitis treatment. Methods: Medline, cochrane library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese biomedical journal database, China national knowledge infrastructure, Wanfang database, and other databases were searched, and the searching was supplemented by manual searches for relevant references to treatment of rhinosinusitis by saline nasal irrigation. The last retrieval date was March 2018. The included studies were evaluated for quality, and data were extracted for meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3. Results: Seven studies were included. Effects favoring hypertonic saline on nasal symptoms were greater in 4 subgroups. These were (1) patients with nasal secretion (SMD = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.00; p < 0.01), (2) patients with congestion (SMD = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.00; p < 0.01), (3) patients with headache (SMD = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.26; p < 0.01), (4) patients with overall symptomatic relief (SMD = 1.63; 95% CI: 0.83, 2.44; p < 0.01). However, no difference was shown in smell improvement (SMD = 0.47; 95% CI: −0.65, 1.59; p = 0.41) and radiologic scores improvement (SMD = 2.44; 95% CI: -3.14, 8.02; p < 0.01). Besides, hypertonic saline showed greater improvement in mucociliary clearance time scores than did the isotonic saline group (SMD = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.60; p < 0.01). Hypertonic saline brought greater minor adverse effects. Conclusion: Compared with isotonic saline, hypertonic saline nasal irrigation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis is significantly more effective and has mild side effects in improving nasal symptoms and ciliary movement, but there is no significant difference in imaging findings and smell improvement. Although hypertonic saline is worthy of widespread use in clinical practice, it is still necessary to further study the exact manner and concentration of nasal irrigation.


Resumo Introdução: Atualmente, o uso de várias concentrações diferentes de solução salina é recomendado na irrigação nasal. Um número crescente de estudos mostra que a irrigação nasal com solução salina hipertônica é mais eficaz do que a solução salina tradicional no tratamento de rinossinusite, mas existem poucas análises sistemáticas do efeito da irrigação nasal com solução salina hipertônica em rinossinusite crônica. Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos da solução salina hipertônica com a solução salina isotônica no tratamento da rinossinusite, para fornecer uma referência clínica de irrigação nasal no tratamento da rinossinusite crônica. Método: Foram pesquisados os bancos de dados Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Chinese biomedical journal database, China national knowledge infrastructure, Wanfang database e outros, e a pesquisa foi complementada por pesquisas manuais de referências relevantes ao tratamento da rinossinusite por irrigação nasal com solução salina. A data da última recuperação de dados foi março de 2018. Os estudos incluídos foram avaliados quanto à qualidade e os dados foram extraídos para a metanálise com o software RevMan 5.3. Resultados: Sete estudos foram incluídos. Os efeitos favoráveis à solução salina hipertônica nos sintomas nasais foram maiores em quatro subgrupos. Esses foram (1) pacientes com secreção nasal (DMP = 1,52; IC95%: 1,04, 2,00; p ˂ 0,01); (2) pacientes com congestão (DMP = 1,52; IC95%: 1,04, 2,00; p ˂ 0,01); (3) Pacientes com dor de cabeça (DMP = 0,82; IC95%: 0,38, 1,26; p ˂ 0,01); (4) Pacientes com alívio sintomático geral (DMP = 1,63; IC95%: 0,83, 2,44; p ˂ 0,01). Entretanto, não houve diferença na melhoria do olfato (DMP = 0,47; IC95%: -0,65, 1,59; p = 0,41) e na melhoria dos escores radiológicos (DMP = 2,44; IC95%: -3,14, 8,02; p < 0,01). Além disso, o grupo solução salina hipertônica mostrou maior melhoria nos escores do tempo de clearence mucociliar do que o grupo solução salina isotônica (DMP = 1,19; IC95%: 0,78, 1,60; p ˂ 0,01). A solução salina hipertônica causou efeitos adversos menores. Conclusão: Em comparação com a solução salina isotônica, a irrigação nasal com solução salina hipertônica para o tratamento da rinossinusite crônica é significantemente mais eficaz e apresenta efeitos colaterais mais leves, melhoria mais acentuada dos sintomas nasais e no movimento ciliar, mas não há diferença significante nos achados de imagem e na melhoria do olfato. Embora a solução salina hipertônica seja digna de uso generalizado na prática clínica, ainda são necessários mais estudos sobre a forma de uso e a concentração ideal da solução nasal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sinusite , Rinite , Solução Salina Hipertônica , Cloreto de Sódio , Doença Crônica , Lavagem Nasal
16.
Technol Health Care ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cerebral infarction (ACI) is a common cerebrovascular disease in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of alteplase and urokinase in treating ACI. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with ACI, who were treated with alteplase and urokinase, were selected as the main subjects. Among these patients, 45 patients with ultra-early acute cerebral infarction, who received intravenous thrombolysis with RT-PA (alteplase), were included in the treatment group, while 51 patients with acute cerebral infarction, who were treated with urokinase in the same time period, were included in the control group. RESULTS: The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were significantly lower in the treatment group and control group (P< 0.05) at two hours, seven days and 14 days after thrombolysis, when compared to those before thrombolysis. The bleeding rate was significantly lower in the control group, when compared to the treatment group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The intravenous thrombolysis with urokinase or alteplase in the ultra-early stage of acute cerebral infarction can reduce the neurological injury symptoms and effectively improve the prognosis of patients with stroke. Urokinase is lower in risk of bleeding, but better in safety, when compared to alteplase.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 3771-3779, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891645

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification and has been shown to be involved in the response to abiotic stress. However, there are few studies on DNA methylation in insect response to environmental signals. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis of DNA methylation profiles between two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat and humidity by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). We identified, in total, 2934 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between RT_48h (resistant strain with high-temperature/humidity treatment for 48 h) and ST_48h (sensitive strain with high-temperature/humidity treatment for 48 h) under cytosine context (CG), which corresponded to 1230 DMR-related genes (DMGs), and the DMRs were primarily located in the gene body (exon and intron) region. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis showed that these DMGs were most significantly enriched in binding, cellular metabolic process, and RNA transport pathways. Moreover, 10 DMGs have been revealed to be involved in the heat-humidity stress response in the silkworm. The results of this study indicated that DNA methylation plays crucial roles in silkworm response to environmental stressors and provides important clues to identify key resistance genes in silkworm under high-temperature/humidity stress response.

18.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 626-639, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919483

RESUMO

Glial cell line derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of glial cells, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. A positively therapeutic effect has been demonstrated on some animal neurodegenerative diseases. However, the inability to deliver the protein across blood brain barrier (BBB) into damaged brain region limits its clinical application. Here, we developed GDNF-loaded microbubbles (MBs) and achieved a local and precise delivery of GDNF into the brain through MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. To demonstrate the therapeutic effect, rat depression model was developed by chronic mild stress treatment. Typical depression behaviors were confirmed. MRI-guided focused ultrasound was used to irradiate the GDNF-loaded MBs. Obvious BBB opening was observed in the treated rat brains and a significant higher GDNF concentration was detected in the ultrasound-treated brain tissues. Behavioral tests demonstrated the increased GDNF could reverse the depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic mild stress, improve the expression of 5-HT 1B receptor and the protein p11, and increase the number of 5-HT or TPH2 immunoreactive neurons. In conclusion, our study provided an effective approach to deliver GDNF proteins into brain to treat rat depression through MRI-guided focused ultrasound-induced destruction of blood-brain barrier.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Depressão , Neuroglia , Animais , Encéfalo , Linhagem Celular , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 259, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathology education provides information on pathology and guides students to become pathologists. Recently, the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China required the establishment of the system of 'High-quality Online and Offline Courses', which indicates that online courses will play an important role in higher education. Furthermore, the number of pathologists currently cannot satisfy clinical needs. To solve this health issue and implement the policy from the Ministry of Education, it is necessary to improve the current state of pathology education. First, we need to know students' opinions of the current courses and their professional choices. METHODS: Online questionnaires covering the quality of traditional courses, attitudes towards online courses, and suggestions for optimizing courses were designed and applied. Whether students want to become pathologists and the underlying reasons for this interest are also included in this survey. Participants are medical students from certain colleges in Nanjing. The collected data were assessed by statistical analyses, and p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 342 valid responses, 60.94% of undergraduate students showed their interest in pathology courses, and among them, 48.72% expressed that they may become pathologists. However, the corresponding percentage is only 29.59% in the group without interest. To optimize curricula, the top two suggestions are introducing more clinical cases (undergraduate students, 64.45%; graduate students, 79.09%) and making the classes lively and interesting (undergraduate students, 59.77%; graduate students, 62.79%). Approximately 80.00% of students consider online courses to be good supplementary materials to traditional courses, and approximately half prefer an online-offline mixed learning model. Salary, interest, and employment status are the main factors influencing students' professional choices. CONCLUSIONS: Students are generally satisfied with traditional pathology courses, and online courses are good supplementary materials in their opinions. It has been suggested that clinical cases be introduced in classes. It is more likely that students who have an interest in pathology will become pathologists. The data from this survey also show that the main causes of the shortage of pathologists are a lack of engaging work and an unsatisfactory salary.

20.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(4): 3130-3137, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855681

RESUMO

The early prediction of renal outcomes in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) remains challenging. The present retrospective study evaluated patients with iMN confirmed by renal biopsy. An optimized Cox regression model and a nomogram were constructed for the early prediction of renal outcomes. A total of 141 patients who met the inclusion criteria were evaluated in the present study. In total 18 (12.8%) patients eventually progressed to the endpoint, 6 of whom developed end-stage renal disease, and one patient died during follow-up. The optimized model demonstrated that 24-h proteinuria [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.40; P-value <0.001] and chronic tubulointerstitial injury [referred to as grade 0, grade 1 (HR), 5.12; 95% CI, 1.33-19.75; P-value=0.02] or grade 2 (HR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.35-30.59; P-value=0.02) were independent risk factors for a poor renal outcome. Patients with an estimated three-year renal survival rate (ETR) less than 0.87 had a high risk of a poor renal outcome. In addition, patients with an ETR of 0.87 to 0.98 more quickly developed a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate after two years of follow-up. In the present study a nomogram for the early prediction of renal outcomes in patients with iMN was developed. This nonogram suggested that patients with an ETR of 0.87-0.98 should receive greater attention during follow-up.

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