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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167221

RESUMO

Irrigation is an important adaptation strategy to improve crop resilience to global climate change. Irrigation plays an essential role in sustaining crop production in water-limited regions, as irrigation water not only benefits crops through fulfilling crops' water demand but also creates an evaporative cooling that mitigates crop heat stress. Here we use satellite remote sensing and maize yield data in the state of Nebraska, USA, combined with statistical models, to quantify the contribution of cooling and water supply to the yield benefits due to irrigation. Results show that irrigation leads to a considerable cooling on daytime land surface temperature (-1.63°C in July), an increase in enhanced vegetation index (+0.10 in July), and 81% higher maize yields compared to rainfed maize. These irrigation effects vary along the spatial and temporal gradients of precipitation and temperature, with a greater effect in dry and hot conditions, and decline toward wet and cool conditions. We find that 16% of irrigation yield increase is due to irrigation cooling, while the rest (84%) is due to water supply and other factors. The irrigation cooling effect is also observed on air temperature (-0.38 to -0.53°C) from paired flux sites in Nebraska. This study highlights the non-negligible contribution of irrigation cooling to the yield benefits of irrigation, and such an effect may become more important in the future with continued warming and more frequent droughts.

2.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 31(2): 167-179, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Autophagy plays a positive role in the prevention of liver damage after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI); however, the molecular mechanism is still a mystery. Understanding the molecular events behind this injury may have important implications for devising proper strategies for managing liver injury. This study investigated the effects of Frizzled-2 expression on autophagy as well as Ca2+ concentration and apoptosis in BRL-3A cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BRL-3A cells exposed to the hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) condition were used as an in vitro HIRI hepatic cell model. The transfection of Frizzled-2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or expression vector was performed to silence or overexpress Frizzled-2 in BRL-3A cells. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration was monitored by the fluorescence of Ca+. Western blot was used to detect autophagy-related proteins and apoptotic marker Caspase-3. The cellular autophagosome was observed by a transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Beclin-1 and Atg7 expressions were considerably induced by H/R treatment, and this induction was attenuated by Frizzled-2 siRNA in BRL-3A cells. The LC3B-II/I ratio was inhibited by H/R treatment, although it was considerably induced by Frizzled-2 siRNA. The overexpression of Frizzled-2 induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration and expressed autophagy-related proteins and Caspase-3 except for the suppression of LC3B-II/I ratio in BRL-3A cells in the normoxia condition. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of Frizzled-2 mimicked H/R treatment and suppressed autophagy activity, whereas Frizzled-2 siRNA induced cellular autophagy and attenuated the H/R-induced hepatic injury in BRL-3A cells. These developments suggest that Frizzled-2 siRNA protects hepatic BRL-3A cells from the injury of H/R via autophagy modulation.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096622

RESUMO

Three new quaternary Zintl phases with the "9-4-9" formula, Ae9Mn4-xAlxSb9 (Ae = Ca, Yb, Eu), have been synthesized using Pb as the metal flux, and their crystal structures have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both Ca9Mn2.91(4)Al1.09Sb9 and Yb9Mn3.59(6)Al0.41Sb9 are isostructural with Ca9Mn4Bi9, and they crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbam with unit cell dimensions of a = 12.4571(8), 12.2884(16) Å, b = 22.1352(16), 22.024(3) Å, and c = 4.6012(3), 4.6187(6) Å, respectively. Their anionic structures can be viewed as infinite ribbons based on corner-shared tetrahedrons. Also, Eu9Mn2.87(4)Al1.13Sb9 has the space group Cmca and a = 9.4883(7) Å, b = 23.6895(18) Å, and c = 24.4845(19) Å. The structural relationships between Ca9Mn2.91(4)Al1.09Sb9 and Eu9Mn2.87(4)Al1.13Sb9 are compared and discussed as well. The successful Al3+ substitution provides additional electrons to the compounds to achieve structural stability. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements, performed on single crystals of Eu9Mn2.87(4)Al1.13Sb9, indicate complex magnetic properties and semiconductor behavior. The physical properties of Yb9Mn3.59(6)Al0.41Sb9 are similar to those observed for Yb9Mn4.18(2)Sb9.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(526)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941824

RESUMO

Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common movement disorders and the prototypical disorder for abnormal rhythmic movements. However, the pathophysiology of tremor generation in ET remains unclear. Here, we used autoptic cerebral tissue from patients with ET, clinical data, and mouse models to report that synaptic pruning deficits of climbing fiber (CF)-to-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses, which are related to glutamate receptor delta 2 (GluRδ2) protein insufficiency, cause excessive cerebellar oscillations and might be responsible for tremor. The CF-PC synaptic pruning deficits were correlated with the reduction in GluRδ2 expression in the postmortem ET cerebellum. Mice with GluRδ2 insufficiency and CF-PC synaptic pruning deficits develop ET-like tremor that can be suppressed with viral rescue of GluRδ2 protein. Step-by-step optogenetic or pharmacological inhibition of neuronal firing, axonal activity, or synaptic vesicle release confirmed that the activity of the excessive CF-to-PC synapses is required for tremor generation. In vivo electrophysiology in mice showed that excessive cerebellar oscillatory activity is CF dependent and necessary for tremor and optogenetic-driven PC synchronization was sufficient to generate tremor in wild-type animals. Human validation by cerebellar electroencephalography confirmed that excessive cerebellar oscillations also exist in patients with ET. Our findings identify a pathophysiologic contribution to tremor at molecular (GluRδ2), structural (CF-to-PC synapses), physiological (cerebellar oscillations), and behavioral levels (kinetic tremor) that might have clinical applications for treating ET.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112491, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863858

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: "Shanghuo", a concept based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, describes a status of Yin-Yang imbalance when Yang overwhelms Yin. The imbalance of Yin-Yang resembles the breaking of homeostasis and manifests by the impaired physiological functions, which leads to the onset, recurrence, and progression of diseases. Since ancient times, Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), such as herbal tea, has been applied as a treatment for "Shanghuo". AIM OF THE STUDY: This review is aimed to describe the origin of "Shanghuo" from the Yin-Yang theory in TCM, as well as explore the relevance and correlations between "Shanghuo" and diseases susceptibility from the perspective of modern medicine. We also propose several strategies from CMM to improve the status of "Shanghuo" for the purpose of treating diseases. METHODS: Systematic research of articles with keywords including Shanghuo, Yin-Yang, emotional stress and disease susceptibility was done by using the literature databases (Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, CNKI). Related books, PhD and master's dissertations were also researched. Full scientific plant names were validated by "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: To date, a large number of publications have reported research on sub-health status, but studies about the theory or intervention of "Shanghuo" are rarely found. The articles we reviewed indicate that accumulated emotional stress is critical for the cause of "Shanghuo". As a status similar to sub-health, "Shanghuo" is also manifested by impaired physiological functions and decreased nonspecific resistance, which increase susceptibility to various diseases. What's more, some studies highlight the importance of TCM treatment towards "Shanghuo" in maintaining normal physiological functions, such as immunity, lipid metabolism and ROS clearance. CONCLUSIONS: Researches on "Shanghuo" and its mechanism are every rare currently and are in need of investigation in the future. Studies on disease susceptibility recently are mostly about susceptible genes that relate to a few parts of people, however, for most of the people, accumulated emotional stress or other stressors is accountable for the susceptibility of diseases. Given that emotional stress plays an important factor in the causation of "Shanghuo", we reviewed the articles about this relevance and discussed the connection of "Shanghuo" with disease susceptibility in a novel perspective. In addition, we have reviewed the disease susceptibility model of restraint stress from its biochemical manifestation to application in CMM assessment. Although it would be a breakthrough in evaluating CMM efficacy of attenuating disease-susceptibility, understanding the comprehensive theory and establishing more models of "Shanghuo" would be required in further investigation.

6.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729819891565, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808719

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of arm movements from adduction to abduction on intracavitary electrocardiogram and the position of a catheter tip. METHODS: Overall, 192 peripherally inserted central catheter lines were placed under intracavitary electrocardiogram guidance and 188 of them were enrolled in the study. The catheter was first placed at a time point corresponding to the peak P wave with the arm in adduction. The arm was then abducted to 90° without changing catheter insertion length. During the procedure, basal electrocardiogram, intracavitary electrocardiogram, and radiographs with the arm in adduction and abduction were recorded. Amplitude wave changes and catheter movements were measured on electrocardiogram records and radiographs, respectively. RESULTS: In 188 cases, the P wave displayed typical changes, and 97.8% (184/188) catheters were successfully placed correctly. At the peak P wave, the amplitude of the peak P wave was 8.64 times greater than that of the basal P wave, and the P/R ratio was 0.61. When the arm was abducted to 90°, the amplitude of the P wave dropped to 57% of its peak, P/R decreased from 0.61 to 0.34, and the catheter tip moved cephalad 1.00 and 0.77 vertebral body units in male and female patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Peripherally inserted central catheter moves toward the heart when the arm position changes from abduction to adduction. Peripherally inserted central catheter tip placement at the peak P wave with patient's arm in adduction is accurate and can prevent the catheter from advancing too low. R wave can function as a reference for observing P wave changes during peripherally inserted central catheter placement.

7.
Water Resour Res ; 55(8): 6499-6516, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762499

RESUMO

Spatiotemporally continuous global river discharge estimates across the full spectrum of stream orders are vital to a range of hydrologic applications, yet they remain poorly constrained. Here we present a carefully designed modeling effort (Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model and Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge river routing model) to estimate global river discharge at very high resolutions. The precipitation forcing is from a recently published 0.1° global product that optimally merged gauge-, reanalysis-, and satellite-based data. To constrain runoff simulations, we use a set of machine learning-derived, global runoff characteristics maps (i.e., runoff at various exceedance probability percentiles) for grid-by-grid model calibration and bias correction. To support spaceborne discharge studies, the river flowlines are defined at their true geometry and location as much as possible-approximately 2.94 million vector flowlines (median length 6.8 km) and unit catchments are derived from a high-accuracy global digital elevation model at 3-arcsec resolution (~90 m), which serves as the underlying hydrography for river routing. Our 35-year daily and monthly model simulations are evaluated against over 14,000 gauges globally. Among them, 35% (64%) have a percentage bias within ±20% (±50%), and 29% (62%) have a monthly Kling-Gupta Efficiency ≥0.6 (0.2), showing data robustness at the scale the model is assessed. This reconstructed discharge record can be used as a priori information for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission's discharge product, thus named "Global Reach-level A priori Discharge Estimates for Surface Water and Ocean Topography". It can also be used in other hydrologic applications requiring spatially explicit estimates of global river flows.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111545, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376712

RESUMO

We propose a spectral contrast method to map the transmission images of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in metallic nanostructures. Comparing the intensities between two neighboring wavelength bands near the SPR wavelength, the signal-to-noise ratio for biosensing applications obtained using the proposed method is found to be ten times higher than that obtained by conventional intensity analysis and 1.6 times better than that obtained by peak-wavelength fitting. The dynamic range and linearity of the refractive index are comparable to the peak-wavelength shift measurement. Based on the detection method, a spectral modulation system for the optical microscope is developed, combined with a gold-capped nanowire array, to measure the biointeractions in microfluidic devices. The experimental results show that the proposed method obtained multiple detections with a detection limit of 1.04 × 10-5 refractive index units. Two types of analysis methods for SPR images are used to study the protein-antibody interactions. The region-of-interest analysis supports multiplexing detections in a compact microfluidic sensor. The effective pixel analysis eliminates low-response pixels and enhances the signal-to-noise ratios for sensitive label-free detection.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Glucose/análise , Nanofios/química , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Refratometria , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 818-826, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401276

RESUMO

In this study, the physicochemical properties of an ammonium oxalate extraction pectin (AOP) from Premna microphylla turcz was investigated. Moreover, its cold gelation with undenatured whey protein concentrate (WPC) was studied at room temperature and different pHs. Characterizations of AOP demonstrated that AOP was a linear low-methoxyl pectin rich in homogalacturonan with low branching degree of RG-I, leading to its good gelling properties. Gelation between AOP and WPC was mainly investigated by turbidity measurement, FTIR, CLSM and ITC. The results showed that an optimal complex ratio for gelation was observed at 1:5 at pH 6.0. Moreover, AOP was the backbone of the composite gel and WPC might act as crosslinking agents through electrostatic or hydrophobic interaction at different pHs. When pH was around the pHΦ of the complex, composite gel was mainly constructed by electrostatic interaction. With the increase of pH, the electrostatic interaction between AOP and WPC gradually weakened, while the hydrophobic interaction constantly increased. When pH was higher than the pHc of the complex, composite gel was mainly formed by hydrophobic interaction. The results of this study are conducive to further utilization of Premna microphylla turcz pectin to develop related food products.

10.
Nat Mater ; 18(9): 970-976, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285617

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted significant interest because of their large surface-to-volume ratios and electron confinement. Compared to common 2D materials such as graphene or metal hydroxides, with their intrinsic layered atomic structures, the formation mechanisms of 2D metal oxides with a rocksalt structure are not well understood. Here, we report the formation process for 2D cobalt oxide and cobalt nickel oxide nanosheets, after analysis by in situ liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy. Our observations reveal that three-dimensional (3D) nanoparticles are initially formed from the molecular precursor solution and then transform into 2D nanosheets. Ab initio calculations show that a small nanocrystal is dominated by positive edge energy, but when it grows to a certain size, the negative surface energy becomes dominant, driving the transformation of the 3D nanocrystal into a 2D structure. Uncovering these growth pathways, including the 3D-to-2D transition, provides opportunities for future material design and synthesis in solution.

11.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344873

RESUMO

To enhance the interfacial adhesion between poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) fibers and a rubber matrix without damaging the fiber structures, aminated carbon nanotubes (NH2-CNTs) were mildly deposited onto the fiber surface by combining the biomimetic modification of dopamine via the Michael addition reaction. Furthermore, differences between the "one-step" method and the "two-step" method were researched through adjusting the addition sequence of NH2-CNTs. The surface morphologies and chemical structures of PPTA fibers before and after modification were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanical properties of fibers and the adhesive properties with rubber were tested using an electronic tensile tester of single-filament and universal testing machine, respectively. After modification by the "one-step" method for 24 h, the single-filament tensile strength of the modified fibers increased by 16.5%, meanwhile, the pull-out force of the modified fibers to rubber increased by approximately 59.7%. Compared with the "two-step" method, the "one-step" method had superiority due to the short reaction time and the large deposition rate of CNTs.

12.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2019: 1570796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354806

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The feasibility and safety of single-port laparoscopic surgery for left lateral liver lobectomy are largely unknown. This study is aimed at comparing the effectiveness and safety between single-port laparoscopic (SPL) and conventional multiport laparoscopic (CL) surgeries for hepatic left lateral sectionectomy. Methods: A total of 65 patients receiving laparoscopic hepatic left lateral sectionectomy between January 2008 and July 2015 were included and divided into the SPL group (n = 40) and the CL group (n = 25). Results: There was no significant difference in the operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and incidences of postoperative complications (biliary leakage, hemorrhage, and contusion at incision) between groups (all P > 0.05). However, the SPL group had a significantly lower VAS pain score (at 24 h but not 7 days postoperation) and higher cosmetic satisfaction scores (at both 2 months and 6 months postoperation) than the CL group (all P < 0.01). Moreover, multivariate linear regression analysis further confirmed the superior pain score and cosmetic outcome in the SPL group. Conclusions: Single-port laparoscopic hepatic left lateral sectionectomy is a safe and feasible treatment for patients with lesions in the left hepatic lobe. Patients with benign lesions in the left hepatic lobe are more suitable to receive single-port laparoscopic hepatic left lateral sectionectomy than those with malignancies.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228798

RESUMO

AIM: Cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction (MI) are currently considered as the leading causes of death and disability. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) on kidney injury and renal oxidative stress. In addition, the associated mechanism involved in these processes was examined in an MI model, and particularly focused on the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 138 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study. The control group was designated as 0 wk (n = 8). A total of 3 phases (2, 4, 6 wk) of administration were used in the sham-operated groups (sham, n = 10), MI groups (MI, n = 10), MI + XJEK groups (XJEK, n = 10) and MI + fosinopril groups (fosinopril, n = 10). Additional 10 rats were used to evaluate the infarct area. At 2, 4 or 6 wk post-MI, the hemodynamic parameters were monitored, the rats were sacrificed, then blood, heart and renal tissues were collected for furtherly analysis. RESULTS: The results indicated that XJEK administration continuously ameliorated renal hypertrophy index, blood urea nitrogen and cystatin C concentrations. XJEK further improved post-MI cardiac function by limiting scar formation and caused a downregulation in the hemodynamic parameters at the end of 2 and 4 wk. The hemodynamic parameters were upregulated after 6 wk treatment with XJEKcompared with those noted in the MI groups. Similarly, XJEK treatment for 2 wk potentiated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression and inhibited the deficiency of nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 at 6 wk post-MI compared with that of the MI groups, indicating the attenuation of the renal oxidative stress condition. The levels of malondialdehyde and angiotensin II (Ang II) in plasma and renal tissues, as well as the levels of aldosterone, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and NADPH Oxidase-4 in the kidney tissue significantly decreased following XJEK treatment for 6 wk. In addition, the XJEK treatment groups revealed a significant upregulation in the activity of superoxide dismutase and in the total antioxidant capacity activity compared with those noted in the corresponding MI groups. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that progressive nephropathy in MI rats was associated with intrarenal activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Concomitantly, this process was associated with oxidative stress and impaired Nrf2 activation. The improvement in the severity of nephropathy by XJEK in this model may be associated with the reversal of these abnormalities.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Rim/lesões , Rim/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cistatina C/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(12)2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212737

RESUMO

U-shaped graphene domains have been prepared on a copper substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which can be precisely tuned for the shape of graphene domains by optimizing the growth parameters. The U-shaped graphene is characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman. These show that the U-shaped graphene has a smooth edge, which is beneficial to the seamless stitching of adjacent graphene domains. We also studied the morphology evolution of graphene by varying the flow rate of hydrogen. These findings are more conducive to the study of morphology evolution, nucleation, and growth of graphene domains on the copper substrate.

15.
Cerebellum ; 18(6): 1036-1063, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124049

RESUMO

Tremor is the most common movement disorder; however, we are just beginning to understand the brain circuitry that generates tremor. Various neuroimaging, neuropathological, and physiological studies in human tremor disorders have been performed to further our knowledge of tremor. But, the causal relationship between these observations and tremor is usually difficult to establish and detailed mechanisms are not sufficiently studied. To overcome these obstacles, animal models can provide an important means to look into human tremor disorders. In this manuscript, we will discuss the use of different species of animals (mice, rats, fruit flies, pigs, and monkeys) to model human tremor disorders. Several ways to manipulate the brain circuitry and physiology in these animal models (pharmacology, genetics, and lesioning) will also be discussed. Finally, we will discuss how these animal models can help us to gain knowledge of the pathophysiology of human tremor disorders, which could serve as a platform towards developing novel therapies for tremor.

16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108937, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) is a Chinese herbal formula that has beenreported to exert effective protection against cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of XJEK on high-salt-induced hypertensive mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: The model of hypertension was established through a high-salt diet. Sixty male Kunming mice were randomized into six groups, namely the Control, Model, Low-dose XJEK, Middle-dose XJEK, High-dose XJEK and Fosinopril groups (n=10 per group). Different steady interventions were given to each group: 0.9% Sodium chloride was added to the diet of the Control group and 8% sodium chloride to the diet of the other five groups from the very beginning. An additional 4, 8 and 12 g/kg/day XJEK were intragastrically administered to the Low-dose, Middle-dose and High-dose XJEK groups, respectively, and 2 mg/kg/day fosinopril to the fosinopril group, from the start of week 5. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly from weeks 1 to 8 using the tail-cuff method. At the end of week 8, left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure and rate of rise of LV pressure were examined using a TransonicScisense catheter (Transonic Systems Inc,Ithaca, NY,USA). Endothelium-dependent relaxations induced by acetylcholine were observed in an isolated thoracic aorta ring. Serum and heartsweresampled for the measurement of the following indexes:Serum nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content (determined by colorimetricanalysis); serum angiotensin II(Ang II), endothelin-1, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) concentration and l-arginine (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay); heart to body weight (HW/BW) ratio; myocardial morphological change (determined by HE and VG staining); myocardial eNOS expression (determined by immunofluorescence), and myocardial endothelin receptor A (ETA) expression (determined by western blotting). RESULTS: Statistical data showed that the HW/BW ratio was significantly decreased in the drug treatment group. XJEK treatment could improve the heart systolic and diastolic function and ameliorate hemodynamic parameters and vascular remodeling indexes. Colorimetric results showed that, compared with the model group, XJEK increased serum SOD, NOlevels, and decreased those of serum MDA and Ang II. XJEK reverted changes in cardiac pathology, decreased the myocardial cross-sectional area, collagen volume fraction and perivascular collagen area and improved endothelial dysfunction (ED) by promoting eNOS activity, enhancing NO bioavailability, increasing the expression of BH4 and decreasing ETA content. In addition, treatment with XJEK decreased ADMA content in the myocardium. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, XJEK mitigates cardiac remodeling in high-salt-induced hypertensive mice. The potential mechanism involves improved oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independently of ameliorating BP.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 157, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedicel orientation can affect the female flower orientation and seed yield in cucumber. A spontaneous mutant possessing upward growth of pedicels was identified in the wild type inbred strain 9930 and named upward-pedicel (up). The morphological and genetic analyses of up were performed in this study. In order to clone the up gene, 933 F2 individuals and 524 BC1 individuals derived from C-8-6 (WT) and up were used for map-based cloning. RESULTS: up was mapped to a 35.2 kb physical interval on chromosome 1, which contains three predicted genes. Sequencing analysis revealed that a 5-bp deletion was found in the second exon of Csa1G535800, and it led to a frameshift mutation resulting in a premature stop codon. The candidate gene of CsUp (Csa1G535800) was further confirmed via genomic and cDNA sequencing in biparental and natural cucumber populations. Sequencing data showed that a 4-bp deletion was found in the sixth exon of Csa1G535800 in CGN19839, another inbred line, and there was also a mutation of an amino acid in Csa1G535800 that could contribute to the upward growth of pedicels in CGN19839. Moreover, it was found that Csa1G535800 exhibited strong expression in the pedicel of WT, suggesting its important role in development of pedicel orientation. Thus, Csa1G535800 was considered to be the candidate gene of CsUp. CONCLUSIONS: CsUp encodes an Auxilin-like protein and controls pedicel orientation in cucumber. The identification of CsUp may help us to understand the mechanism of pedicel orientation development and allow for investigation of novel functions of Auxilin-like proteins in cucumber.


Assuntos
Auxilinas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cucumis sativus/genética , Genes de Plantas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Loci Gênicos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are limited studies describing the association between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and osteoporosis. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study to investigate this epidemiologic evidence. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Of 10,290 participants, 2,058 patients with AS and 8,232 patients without AS were enrolled from the NHIRD between 2000 to 2013. Cumulative incidences of osteoporosis were compared between 2 groups. Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing osteoporosis after controlling for demographic and other co-morbidities, and subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the risk factors for osteoporosis in AS patients. RESULTS: The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of osteoporosis in AS patients was 2.17 times higher than that non-AS group (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-2.57). The adjusted HRs of osteoporosis for AS patients after controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbid medical disorders was 1.99 (95% CI 1.68-2.36). Among AS group, after adjustment for major comorbidities, old age (≥65 years, HR 4.32, 95% CI 3.01-6.18), female sex (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.87-3.28), dyslipidemia (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.06) were risk factors associated with osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study demonstrated that patients with AS had a higher risk of developing osteoporosis, especially in those aged over 65, female sex and with dyslipidemia in this patient group.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Osteoporose , Espondilite Anquilosante , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espondilite Anquilosante/complicações , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 23(12): 2354-2361, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of research indicates that the monitoring of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may have great significance to the diagnosis of malignant tumors, assessment of condition, selection of treatment methods, and evaluation of prognosis and has a broad range of potential applications. However, the value of CTCs with different phenotypes in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and assessment of patient condition remains unclear. METHODS: We collected 5 ml of peripheral blood from 176 patients who were found to have space-occupying lesions in the liver via B-ultrasound diagnosis at Zhujiang Hospital affiliated with Southern Medical University between August 2015 and October 2017 and used CanPatrol™ CTCs assay technology to isolate and count CTCs with different phenotypes in the patients' peripheral blood. This allowed analysis of the value of CTCs with different phenotypes in the diagnosis of HCC and assessment of BCLC stage. RESULTS: We used CanPatrol™ CTCs assay technology to isolate different types of CTCs: epithelial CTCs (only stained for epithelial markers), mesenchymal CTCs (only stained for mesenchymal markers), mixed CTCs (stained for epithelial markers and mesenchymal markers), and total CTCs (all of the foregoing CTC phenotypes). Of 176 observed patients, 6 patients were finally diagnosed as other malignant tumor liver metastasis, 113 were diagnosed as having hepatocellular carcinoma, and 57 were diagnosed as having nonmalignant liver diseases. Furthermore, we intend to evaluate the diagnostic value of different phenotype CTCs count in discrimination between hepatocellular carcinoma and nonmalignant liver diseases. We found that CTCs of all types were significantly more numerous in the peripheral blood of the HCC group patients than in the NLD group patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, of the different types of CTCs, total CTCs had the greatest diagnostic value (AUC 0.774; 95% CI, 0.704-0.834). A further discovery was that the AUC values for total CTCs, AFP, and a combined model (combined use of total CTCs and AFP) were 0.774 (95%CI, 0.704-0.834), 0.669 (95%CI, 0.587-0.750), and 0.821 (95%CI, 0.756-0.886). Late-stage HCC patients (BCLC stage B-C) had a higher peripheral blood mesenchymal CTC count than early-stage patients (BCLC stage 0-A) (median:1 vs 0), and mesenchymal CTCs ≥ 1 was the cut-off value for the diagnosis of BCLC stage in HCC patients (sensitivity: 66.67%, specificity: 59.46%, Youden index: 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Total CTCs are more effective than AFP in the diagnosis of HCC; combined use of total CTCs and AFP can enhance the sensitivity of HCC diagnosis.

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