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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973093

RESUMO

The cell of a rod-shaped bacterium is composed of a cylinder and two hemispherical poles. In recent decades, the molecular mechanism of morphogenesis in rod-shaped bacteria has received extensive research. However, most works have focused on the morphogenesis of cylinders, and the morphogenesis of the hemispherical poles remains unclear. In the past, the pole of bacterial cell wall was considered as a rigid hemispherical structure. However, our work indicated that the pole in the isolated sacculi from Bacillus subtilis was a flat structure instead of a hemisphere form. Further works showed that internal pressure was responsible for shaping the hemispherical poles, indicating an elastic nature of the cell wall in poles. In addition, we found that the internal pressure was able to transform septa into hemispherical shape which is similar to normal poles. Based on our work, we proposed a model for the internal pressure-induced formation of hemispherical poles in B. subtilis, and this work may provide new clues into basic knowledge of the morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria.

2.
Complement Ther Med ; : 102734, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Tic Disorders (TD) in children, and to clarify the current evidence regarding for the clinical application of acupuncture in the treatment of TD. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing acupuncture treatment with pharmaceutical treatment for TD were included in this review. A comprehensive search of 6 electronic literature databases was conducted, and the retrieval date was from the establishment of the database to April 2020. The Cochrane Collaboration's bias risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the bias risk of the included literature, and adopted the Review Manager 5.3 was used for statistical analysis of the data in the included literature. RESULTS: A total of 22 RCTs (1668 participants) were included in this review. Meta-analysis indicated that acupuncture rate showed superior effects in the following aspects, including higher overall effective rate [RR = 1.20,95% CI(1.09,1.20),P<0.00001], significant reduction in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores [MD=-2.79,95%CI(-4.75,-0.82),P = 0.005], lower incidence of adverse effects [RR = 0.26,95%CI(0.17,0.41),P<0.00001], and reducedrecurrence rate [RR = 0.28,95%CI(0.17,0.46),P<0.00001]. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture treatment alone is more effective in the treatment of TD than pharmaceutical treatment, as seen in the reduction of YGTSS scores, fewer adverse effects and lower recurrence rates.

3.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-3, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980087

RESUMO

The inhibitory effect of three degraded sesquiterpene lactones, iso-seco-tanapartholide, arteludooicinolide A and millifolide A isolated from Achillea millefolium L., on anti-human lung cancer cells was examined using MTT and reporter gene assays. Millifolide A has significant inhibitory effects on the proliferation of human lung cancer cells probably through inducing cell apoptosis.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962978

RESUMO

The families of copper-containing membrane-bound monooxygenases (CuMMOs) and soluble di-iron monooxygenases (SDIMOs) are not only involved in methane oxidation but also in short-chain alkane oxidation. Herein, we describe Rhodococcus sp. ZPP, a bacterium able to grow with ethane or propane as the sole carbon and energy source and report on horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of actinobacterial hydrocarbon monooxygenases (HMO) of the CuMMO family and sMMO (soluble methane monooxygenase)-like SDIMO in the genus Rhodococcus The key function of HMO in strain ZPP for propane oxidation was verified by allylthiourea inhibition. The HMO genes (designated hmoCAB) and those encoding sMMO-like SDIMO (designated smoXYB1C1Z) are located on a linear mega-plasmid (pRZP1) of strain ZPP. Comparative genomic analysis of similar plasmids indicated mobility of these plasmids within the genus Rhodococcus The plasmid pRZP1 in strain ZPP could be conjugatively transferred to a recipient R. erythropolis in a mating experiment and showed similar ethane and propane consuming activities. Finally, our findings demonstrate that horizontal transfer of plasmid-based CuMMO and SDIMO genes confers the ability to use ethane and propane on the recipient.ImportanceCuMMOs and SDIMOs initiate the aerobic oxidation of alkanes in bacteria. Here, the supposition that horizontally transferred plasmid-based CuMMO and SDIMO genes confer on the recipient the similar ability to use ethane and propane was proposed and confirmed in Rhodococcus. This study is a living example of HGT of CuMMOs and SDIMOs and outlines the plasmid-borne properties responsible for gaseous alkane-degradation. Our results indicate that plasmids can support rapid evolution of enzyme-mediated biogeochemical processes.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104924, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933806

RESUMO

Nine undescribed monoterpene phenol dimers, bisbakuchiols D-L (1-9), were isolated from the fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectral analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-9 were specified by experimental and quantum chemical calculations of ECD spectra, and that of 1 was further established by X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation. Bisbakuchiols (1-4) were composed of two bakuchiols, one of which was cyclized via a C-7'/ C-12' single bond to form a six-member ring, and connect to each other by C-4-O-C-13' bonds. Bisbakuchiols (7-9) had a pyran ring by linkage of C-8-O-C-12. In the enzyme assay, compounds 5 and 9 exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 0.69 and 0.73 µM, and compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate PTP1B inhibitory activities. Furthermore, a molecular docking simulation of PTP1B and active compounds 5 and 9 showed that these active compounds possess low binding affinities ranging from -6.9 to -7.1 kcal/mol.

6.
J Immunol ; 206(9): 2075-2087, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863791

RESUMO

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a threatening pathogenic virus in shrimp culture, and at present, no effective strategy can prevent and control the disease. Intestinal flora and its metabolites are important for the resistance of shrimp to lethal pathogenic viruses. However, the changes of metabolites in the shrimp intestines after WSSV infection remain unclear. We established an artificial oral infection method to infect shrimp with WSSV and analyzed the metabolites in intestinal content of shrimp by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 78 different metabolites and five different metabolic pathways were identified. Among them, we found that the content of linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, increased significantly after WSSV infection, indicating that linoleic acid might be involved in antiviral immunity in shrimp. Further study showed that, after oral administration of linoleic acid, WSSV proliferation decreased evidently in the shrimp, and survival rate of the shrimp increased significantly. Mechanical analysis showed that linoleic acid directly bound to WSSV virions and inhibited the viral replication. Linoleic acid also promoted the expression of antimicrobial peptides and IFN-like gene Vago5 by activating the ERK-NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results indicated that WSSV infection caused metabolomic transformation of intestinal microbiota and that the metabolite linoleic acid participated in the immune response against WSSV in shrimp.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009479, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798239

RESUMO

Invertebrates rely on innate immunity, including humoral and cellular immunity, to resist pathogenic infection. Previous studies showed that forkhead box transcription factor O (FOXO) participates in mucosal immune responses of mammals and the gut humoral immune regulation of invertebrates. However, whether FOXO is involved in systemic and cellular immunity regulation in invertebrates remains unknown. In the present study, we identified a FOXO from shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and found that it was expressed at relatively basal levels in normal shrimp, but was upregulated significantly in shrimp challenged by Vibrio anguillarum. FOXO played a critical role in maintaining hemolymph and intestinal microbiota homeostasis by promoting the expression of Relish, the transcription factor of the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway for expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in shrimp. We also found that pathogen infection activated FOXO and induced its nuclear translocation by reducing serine/threonine kinase AKT activity. In the nucleus, activated FOXO directly regulated the expression of its target Amp and Relish genes against bacterial infection. Furthermore, FOXO was identified as being involved in cellular immunity by promoting the phagocytosis of hemocytes through upregulating the expression of the phagocytotic receptor scavenger receptor C (Src), and two small GTPases, Rab5 and Rab7, which are related to phagosome trafficking to the lysosome in the cytoplasm. Taken together, our results indicated that FOXO exerts its effects on homeostasis of hemolymph and the enteric microbiota by activating the IMD pathway in normal shrimp, and directly or indirectly promoting AMP expression and enhancing phagocytosis of hemocytes against pathogens in bacteria-infected shrimp. This study revealed the different functions of FOXO in the mucosal (local) and systemic antibacterial immunity of invertebrates.

8.
Behav Neurol ; 2021: 5533827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859767

RESUMO

There are nearly 50 million Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients worldwide, 90% of whom develop behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), which increase the mortality rate of patients, and impose an economic and care burden on families and society. As a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, serotonin is involved in the regulation of psychoemotional, sleep, and feeding functions. Accumulating data support the importance of serotonin in the occurrence and development of BPSD. Studies have shown that reduction of serotonin receptors can increase depression and mental symptoms in AD patients. At present, there is no drug treatment for AD approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Among them, agomelatine, as a new type of antidepressant, can act on serotonin 2 receptors to improve symptoms such as depression and anxiety. At present, research on BPSD is still in the preliminary exploratory stage, and there are still a lot of unknowns. This review summarizes the relationship between serotonin 2 receptors, agomelatine, and BPSD. It provides a new idea for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of BPSD.

9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1521-1529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883876

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of vaginally versus orally administered estradiol (E2) and dydrogesterone (DG) on the proliferative and secretory transformation of endometrium in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) and preparing for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: Twenty patients with POF who were awaiting oocyte donation were included in the study; they were randomly assigned to two groups to receive E2 and DG either orally or vaginally. Treatment efficacy was compared between the two groups regarding blood E2 concentrations, endometrial thickness, histology using hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical analysis of ER expression, and PR and pinopodes morphology using scanning electron microscopy. Results: E2 concentrations differed significantly between oral and vaginal E2 and DG administration for 14 days (82.3 vs 1015.6 pg/mL; P < 0.001) and 21 days (85.0 vs 809.8 pg/mL; P < 0.001). Endometrial thickening was more pronounced in the vaginal treatment group, and also ER staining was stronger on days 14 and 21 in the vaginal treatment group. PR staining in the endometrium appeared more intense in the oral treatment group, which was, however, not significant. The abundance of developing pinopodes was higher in the vaginal treatment group (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Vaginal administration of E2 and DG is more effective than oral administration regarding proliferative and secretory transformation of the endometrium in POF patients and preparing for assisted reproductive technology.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147184, 2021 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with various adverse health outcomes. Recently, an increasing concern on its alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) has been aroused due to the restriction use of BPA. Few studies have identified predictors of exposure to BPA alternatives and assessed their health risks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of BPA and its alternatives and to assess their health risks among pregnant women. METHODS: We detected first morning urinary concentrations of BPA and its alternatives (BPS and BPF) among 1097 pregnant women from an established Chinese cohort. A questionnaire was conducted to obtain demographic characteristics, dietary habits, and lifestyles. We examined the predictors of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA and its alternatives concentrations using multivariable linear regression. Risk assessment of exposure to BPA and its alternatives was calculated based on the estimated of daily intake (EDI). RESULTS: Geometric means of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS were 0.92, 0.12, and 0.08 µg/g creatinine, respectively. Pregnant women from Wuhan had lower concentrations of BPA, BPF, and ∑BPs (sum of BPA, BPF, and BPS) than those from Xiaogan. Intake of fried food was related to higher concentrations of BPA, and intake of pickled food was associated with higher concentrations of BPF and ∑BPs. The maximum EDI values for exposure to BPA, BPF, BPS, and ∑BPs ranged from 5.6428 to 13.3356 nmol/kg body weight/day, which were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (18 nmol/kg body weight/day). The maximum hazard index (HI) value was 0.7409. CONCLUSION: Several predictors identified in this study may inform public recommendations to reduce exposure to BPA and its alternatives.

11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 118002, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910735

RESUMO

Incorporation of chitosan (CS) into Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) matrix is of great interests in biomedical field due to the advantageous properties of each material. However, the conventional strategies result in poor composite effect with low efficiency. In this study, the three-dimensional fibrillar network of BNC was utilized as a template for the first time to homogeneously disperse CS to form nanoparticles (CSNPs) in BNC matrix via ionic gelation method, to develop chitosan nanoparticles-embedded bacterial nanocellulose (CSNPs-BNC) composites. This composite method is simple and efficient, without introducing dispersants and crosslinking agents, while retaining the mechanical properties and native 3D network structure of BNC. The CSNPs-BNC composites had excellent antibacterial activity to support potential clinical application. The CSNPs-BNC composites could promote the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells, and demonstrate good biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that CSNPs-BNC can provide a promising candidate for biomedical applications.

12.
Genes Genomics ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing epidemic of ischemic stroke (IS) makes it urgent to understand the pathogenesis and regulatory mechanism, previous studies have described microRNAs (miRNAs) is part of the brain's response to ischemia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to screen potential biomarkers for the prediction and novel treatment of IS. METHODS: Differentially expressed miRNAs were screened from three newly diagnosed IS patients and three controls by RNA sequencing technology. Furthermore, target prediction databases were then used to analysis the target genes of different expressed miRNAs, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were used to identify the functions and the main biochemical and signal pathways of differentially expressed target genes. RESULTS: Our results revealed that 27 miRNAs were differentially expressed in IS, among which, hsa-miR-659-5p was the most highly increased and was first found to be associated with IS. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses showed that differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly significantly enriched in lysosome pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, spliceosome pathway, base excision repair pathway. CONCLUSIONS: miRNAs were involved in IS pathogenesis, and hsa-miR-659-5p, hsa-miR-151a-3p and hsa-miR-29c-5p as the three highest |log2FoldChange| regulation in this study, which may be the biomarkers of IS and need further study.

13.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104789, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714760

RESUMO

TD-DFT quantum calculation was performed to predict and/or illustrate the electronic transition, the related absorption and emission maxima of some pyrrole-difluoroboron derivatives with different electron donor-acceptor unit or π-conjugated degree. Upon the calculated results, a new near infrared (NIR) fluorophore (abbreviated as TPBD-BP) was designed and fabricated through linking triphenylamine and pyrrole-difluoroboron units to benzothiadiazole (BTD) backbone. The fluorescence of TPBD-BP in solid state centered at 932 nm, which was 985 nm for TPBD-BP nanoparticles (TPBD-BP dots) encapsulated in PEG-6000. The fluorescence of TPBD-BP in both solid state and dots exhibited off-peak tail emission to NIR-II region (extended to 1300 nm). The TPBD-BP dots showed excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and aggregation induced emission (AIE), which was suitable to be applied in vivo imaging. NIR-II emission signal of TPBD-BP dots can be observed in the reproductive organ of normal nude mice after tail vein injection. This attractive combination of computational and experimental investigation would help to develop new-typed small-molecular NIR fluorophores.

14.
J Org Chem ; 86(8): 5792-5804, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769821

RESUMO

We examine the theoretical underpinnings of the seminal discoveries by Reiner Sustmann about the ambiphilic nature of Huisgen's phenyl azide cycloadditions. Density functional calculations with ωB97X-D and B2PLYP-D3 reproduce the experimental data and provide insights into ambiphilic control of reactivity. Distortion/interaction-activation strain and energy decomposition analyses show why Sustmann's use of dipolarophile ionization potential is such a powerful predictor of reactivity. We add to Sustmann's data set several modern distortion-accelerated dipolarophiles used in bioorthogonal chemistry to show how these fit into the orbital energy criteria that are often used to understand cycloaddition reactivity. We show why such a simple indicator of reactivity is a powerful predictor of reaction rates that are actually controlled by a combination of distortion energies, charge transfer, closed-shell repulsion, polarization, and electrostatic effects.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(9): 5652-5664, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656501

RESUMO

To develop solid-state light-emitting materials with high luminescence efficiency, determining the potential photophysics and luminescence mechanisms of the aggregation state remains a challenge and a priority. Here, we apply density functional theory to study the photophysical properties of a series of square planar Pt(ii) complexes in both monomeric and dimeric forms. We reveal that four monomeric Pt(ii) complexes are dominated by triplet ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer, and the lack of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer feature results in weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which leads to limited radiative rates; moreover, calculated nonradiative transition rates are one or two orders of magnitude higher than those radiative rates because a large amount of reorganization energy caused by the vibration of the bipyrazolate (bipz) ligand cannot be readily suppressed in the monomeric form. Therefore, four monomers exhibit photoluminescence quenching in CH2Cl2 solution in both theoretical calculations and experiments. However, in the solid state, the intense luminescence phenomenon indicates obviously distinct properties between the monomer and aggregation. We carried out a dimer model to interpret that the interaction of PtPt induces a metal-metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excimeric state, which leads more metal components to participate in the charge transfer and enhance the SOC effect. At the same time, the ligand vibration can be significantly reduced by the shortened distance, and there is a strong π-π packing interaction in the dimer; thus, an excellent quantum yield can be achieved in aggregation. In addition, we disclose that introducing bulky substituents bearing electron-donating groups at R' and R'' positions have little effect on the properties of the monomers; however, there is a benefit of restricting the internal reorganization energy through the intermolecular interaction when packing in the solid state. Therefore, substitutions can be tuned to improve the properties of monomers (such as emission energy and reorganization energy). We hope that our work will shine some light on Pt(ii) emitters in the fabrication of efficient OLEDs.

16.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemorrhages of brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) can lead to neurological deficits, the natural history of which is uncertain. The study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes of untreated brainstem CMs and to identify the adverse factors associated with worsened outcomes. METHODS: From 2009 to 2015, 698 patients (321 women) with brainstem CMs were entered into the prospective cohort after excluding patients lost to follow-up (n=43). All patients were registered, clinical data were collected and scheduled follow-up was performed. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 60.9 months, prospective haemorrhages occurred in 167 patients (23.9%). The mean modified Rankin Scale scores at enrolment and at censoring time were 1.6 and 1.2. Neurological status was improved, unchanged and worsened in 334 (47.9%), 293 (42.0%) and 71 (10.2%) patients, respectively; 233 (33.4%) recovered to normal levels. Lesions crossing the axial midpoint (relative risk (RR) 2.325, p=0.003) and developmental venous anomaly (DVA) (RR 1.776, p=0.036) were independently significantly related to worsened outcomes. The percentage of worsened outcomes was 5.3% (18 of 337) in low-risk patients (neither DVA nor crossing the axial point) and increased to 26.0% (13 of 50) in high-risk patients (with both DVA and crossing the axial point). The percentage of worsened outcomes significantly increased as the number of prospective haemorrhages increased (from 1.5% (8 of 531, if 0 prospective ictus) to 37.5% (48 of 128, if 1 ictus) and 38.5% (15 of 39, if >1 ictus)). CONCLUSIONS: The neurological outcomes of untreated brainstem CMs were improved/unchanged in majority of patients (89.8%) with a fatality rate of 1.7% in our cohort, which seemed to be favourable. Radiological features significantly predicted worsened outcomes. Our results provide evidence for clinical consultation and individualised treatment. The referral bias of our cohort was underlined.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116925, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744636

RESUMO

Numerous pieces of evidence documented the importance of gut microbiota in regulating human health and evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants, which are closely related to the host health in various aspects, including nutrition, energy translation, metabolism, pathogen resistance, and immune function. A variety of environmental factors can disrupt gut microbiota and their functions, and inevitably cause immune diseases, obesity and diabetes. However, deciphering the inner mechanisms involved in the functional interaction of gut microbes with host health is still needed extensive investigations. This review focused on the essential roles of intestinal microbes in host-related diseases and highlighted the development and applications of germ-free (GF) animal models, mainly zebrafish. Moreover, the generation, immunity characters, advantages and challenges of GF zebrafish models were also summarized. Importantly, the composition and isolation of zebrafish gut bacteria for further application and toxicity evaluation of aquatic environmental pollutants were also discussed. In conclusion, GF zebrafish play irreplaceable roles in understanding the potential functions and responses of customized microbiota towards human and environmental health implications.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Peixe-Zebra
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(7): 624-640, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN) is low. To improve our understanding of this rare tumor type and optimally guide clinical treatment, associated risk factors, clinical manifestations, and prognosis must be explored. AIM: To identify risk factors that influence the prognosis of patients with gastroenteropancreatic MiNEN (GEP-MiNEN). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 46 patients who were diagnosed with GEP-MiNEN at the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College (Anhui, China) between January 2013 and December 2017. Risk factors influencing the prognosis of the patients were assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and cox regression models. We compared the results with 55 randomly selected patients with gastroenteropancreatic GEP neuroendocrine tumors, 47 with neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC), and 58 with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: Among the 46 patients with GEP-MiNEN, thirty-five had gastric tumors, nine had intestinal tumors (four in the small intestine and five in the colon and rectum), and two had pancreatic tumors. The median age of the patients was 66 (41-84) years, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.83. Thirty-three (71.7%) patients had clinical stage III and IV cancers. Distant metastasis occurred in 14 patients, of which 13 had metastasis to the liver. The follow-up period was 11-72 mo, and the median overall survival was 30 mo. Ki-67 index ≥ 50%, high proportion of NEC, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, and higher clinical stage were independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of patients with GEP-MiNEN. The median overall survival was shorter for patients with NEC than for those with MiNEN (14 mo vs 30 mo, P = 0.001), but did not significantly differ from those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and MiNEN (30 mo vs 18 mo, P = 0.453). CONCLUSION: A poor prognosis is associated with rare, aggressive GEP-MiNEN. Ki-67 index, tumor composition, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, and clinical stage are important factors for patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino , Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/terapia , Masculino , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/epidemiologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia
19.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153520, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schisandrol B (SolB) is one of the bioactive components from a traditional Chinese medicine Schisandra chinensis or Schisandra sphenanthera. It has been demonstrated that SolB exerts hepatoprotective effects against drug-induced liver injury and promotes liver regeneration. It was found that SolB can induce hepatomegaly but the involved mechanisms remain unknown. PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the mechanisms involved in SolB-induced hepatomegaly. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with SolB (100 mg/kg) for 5 days. Serum and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. The mechanisms of SolB were investigated by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, luciferase reporter gene assays and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: SolB significantly increased hepatocyte size and proliferation, and then promoted liver enlargement without liver injury and inflammation. SolB transactivated human PXR, activated PXR in mice and upregulated hepatic expression of its downstream proteins, such as CYP3A11, CYP2B10 and UGT1A1. SolB also significantly enhanced nuclear translocation of PXR and YAP in human cell lines. YAP signal pathway was activated by SolB in mice. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that SolB can significantly induce liver enlargement, which is associated with the activation of PXR and YAP pathways.

20.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929389, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Accumulated evidence has suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a role in bone formation and bone tissue regeneration. However, it is unknown whether the H2S content is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present study, we aimed to explore the changes of serum H2S in osteopenia and osteoporosis patients. We analyzed femur expression of cystathionine ß synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), which are key enzymes for generating H2S. RESULTS Sixteen (16%) patients had osteopenia, 9 (9%) had osteoporosis, and 75 (75%) had normal BMD. In comparison with patients with normal BMD (controls), the serum levels of H2S were unexpectedly increased in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. This increase was much higher in patients with osteoporosis than in those with osteopenia. Serum H2S levels were negatively correlated with femoral BMD, but not lumbar BMD. Interestingly, the expression of CBS and CSE were downregulated in femur tissues in patients with osteoporosis, whereas the expression of 3-MST remained unchanged. Serum phosphorus levels, alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, and triglycerides were found to be closely associated with CBS and CSE scores in femur tissues. CONCLUSIONS Serum H2S levels and femur CBS and CSE expression may be involved in osteoporosis pathogenesis.

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