Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35
Filtrar
1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(6): 673-686, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132145

RESUMO

Objective: Obstacles for computational tools in psychiatry include gathering robust evidence and keeping implementation costs reasonable. We report a systematic review of automated speech evaluation for the psychosis spectrum and analyze the value of information for a screening program in a healthcare system with a limited number of psychiatrists (Maputo, Mozambique). Methods: Original studies on speech analysis for forecasting of conversion in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, diagnosis of manifested psychotic disorder, and first-episode psychosis (FEP) were included in this review. Studies addressing non-verbal components of speech (e.g., pitch, tone) were excluded. Results: Of 168 works identified, 28 original studies were included. Valuable speech features included direct measures (e.g., relative word counting) and mathematical embeddings (e.g.: word-to-vector, graphs). Accuracy estimates reported for schizophrenia diagnosis and CHR conversion ranged from 71 to 100% across studies. Studies used structured interviews, directed tasks, or prompted free speech. Directed-task protocols were faster while seemingly maintaining performance. The expected value of perfect information is USD 9.34 million. Imperfect tests would nevertheless yield high value. Conclusion: Accuracy for screening and diagnosis was high. Larger studies are needed to enhance precision of classificatory estimates. Automated analysis presents itself as a feasible, low-cost method which should be especially useful for regions in which the physician pool is insufficient to meet demand.

3.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether psychiatric and gaming pattern variables are associated with gaming disorder in a school-based sample. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort for Psychiatric Disorders, a community sample aged 10 to 18, using questionnaires on gaming use patterns. We applied the Gaming Addiction Scale to diagnose gaming disorder and the Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment for other diagnoses. RESULTS: Out of 407 subjects, 83 (20.4%) fulfilled the criteria for gaming disorder. More role-playing game players were diagnosed with gaming disorder that any other genre. Gaming disorder rates increased proportionally to the number of genres played. Playing online, being diagnosed with a mental disorder, and more hours of non-stop gaming were associated with higher rates of gaming disorder. When all variables (including age and gender) were considered in a logistic regression model, the number of genres played, the number of non-stop hours, the proportion of online games, and having a diagnosed mental disorder emerged as significant predictors of gaming disorder. CONCLUSION: Each variable seems to add further risk of gaming disorder among children and adolescents. Monitoring the length of gaming sessions, the number and type of genres played, time spent gaming online, and behavior changes may help parents or guardians identify unhealthy patterns of gaming behavior.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584945

RESUMO

Importance: Many psychiatric disorders can be conceptualized as disorders of brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Discovering the neurobiological underpinnings of brain maturation may elucidate molecular pathways of vulnerability and resilience to such disorders. Objective: To investigate the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of age-associated cortical thinning during maturation and their implications for psychiatric disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicohort analysis used data from 3 community-based studies. The Saguenay Youth Study provided data from 1024 adolescents who were recruited at a single site in Quebec, Canada. The IMAGEN cohort provided data from 1823 participants who were recruited in 8 European cities. The Brazil High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders provided data from 815 participants who were recruited in 2 Brazilian cities. Cortical thickness was estimated from the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and age-associated cortical thinning was estimated in 34 cortical regions. Gene expression from the Allen Human Brain Atlas was aligned with the same regions. Similarities in the interregional profiles of gene expression and the profiles of age-associated cortical thinning were measured. The involvement of dendrites, dendritic spines, and myelin was tested using 3 gene panels. Enrichment for genes associated with psychiatric disorders was tested among the genes associated with thinning and their coexpression networks. Data analysis was conducted between March and October 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: MRI-derived estimates of age-associated cortical thinning and gene expression in 34 cortical regions. Results: A total of 3596 individuals aged 9 to 21 years were included in this study. Of those, 1803 participants (50.1%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 15.2 (2.6) years. Interregional profiles of age-associated cortical thinning were associated with interregional gradients in the expression of genes associated with dendrites, dendritic spines, and myelin; the variance in thinning explained by the gene panels across different points ranged from 0.45% to 10.55% for the dendrite panel, 0.00% to 9.98% for the spine panel, and 0.19% to 26.39% for the myelin panel. These genes and their coexpression networks were enriched for genes associated with several psychiatric disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, genetic similarity between interregional variation in cortical thinning during maturation and multiple psychiatric disorders suggests overlapping molecular underpinnings. This finding adds to the understanding of the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of psychiatric disorders.

8.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(6): 673-686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstacles for computational tools in psychiatry include gathering robust evidence and keeping implementation costs reasonable. We report a systematic review of automated speech evaluation for the psychosis spectrum and analyze the value of information for a screening program in a healthcare system with a limited number of psychiatrists (Maputo, Mozambique). METHODS: Original studies on speech analysis for forecasting of conversion in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, diagnosis of manifested psychotic disorder, and first-episode psychosis (FEP) were included in this review. Studies addressing non-verbal components of speech (e.g., pitch, tone) were excluded. RESULTS: Of 168 works identified, 28 original studies were included. Valuable speech features included direct measures (e.g., relative word counting) and mathematical embeddings (e.g.: word-to-vector, graphs). Accuracy estimates reported for schizophrenia diagnosis and CHR conversion ranged from 71 to 100% across studies. Studies used structured interviews, directed tasks, or prompted free speech. Directed-task protocols were faster while seemingly maintaining performance. The expected value of perfect information is USD 9.34 million. Imperfect tests would nevertheless yield high value. CONCLUSION: Accuracy for screening and diagnosis was high. Larger studies are needed to enhance precision of classificatory estimates. Automated analysis presents itself as a feasible, low-cost method which should be especially useful for regions in which the physician pool is insufficient to meet demand.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Fala
9.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(8): 990-997, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of relatively younger age on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and diagnosis through three population-based cohorts and a meta-analysis. METHOD: This study included participants of three community-based cohorts in Brazil: 1993 Pelotas Cohort (N = 5,249), 2004 Pelotas Cohort (N = 4,231), and Brazilian High-Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders (HRC study) (N = 2,511). We analyzed the effect of relatively younger age on ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. For the meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from inception through December 25, 2018. We selected studies that reported measures of association between relative immaturity and an ADHD diagnosis. We followed the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. The protocol for meta-analysis is available on PROSPERO (CRD42018099966). RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, we identified 1,799 potentially eligible records, from which 25 studies including 8,076,570 subjects (164,049 ADHD cases) were analyzed with their effect estimates. The summarized relative risk of an ADHD diagnosis was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.26-1.43, p < .001) for children born in the first 4 months of the school year (relatively younger). Heterogeneity was high (I2 = 96.7%). Relative younger age was associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (p = .003), 2004 Pelotas Cohort (p = .046), and HRC study (p = .010). CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents who are relatively younger compared with their classmates have a higher risk of receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Clinicians should consider the developmental level of young children when evaluating ADHD symptoms.

10.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-7, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE.: Mental disorders can have a major impact on brain development. Peripheral blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are lower in adult psychiatric disorders. Serum BDNF concentrations and BDNF genotype have been associated with cortical maturation in children and adolescents. In 2 large independent samples, this study tests associations between serum BDNF concentrations, brain structure, and psychopathology, and the effects of BDNF genotype on BDNF serum concentrations in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS.: Children and adolescents (7-14 years old) from 2 cities (n = 267 in Porto Alegre; n = 273 in São Paulo) were evaluated as part of the Brazilian high-risk cohort (HRC) study. Serum BDNF concentrations were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Genotyping was conducted from blood or saliva samples using the SNParray Infinium HumanCore Array BeadChip. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were quantified using FreeSurfer. The Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment was used to identify the presence of a psychiatric disorder. RESULTS.: Serum BDNF concentrations were not associated with subcortical volumes or with cortical thickness. Serum BDNF concentration did not differ between participants with and without mental disorders, or between Val homozygotes and Met carriers. CONCLUSIONS.: No evidence was found to support serum BDNF concentrations as a useful marker of developmental differences in brain and behavior in early life. Negative findings were replicated in 2 of the largest independent samples investigated to date.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 146, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric symptomatology during late childhood and early adolescence tends to persist later in life. In the present longitudinal study, we aimed to identify changes in genome-wide DNA methylation patterns that were associated with the emergence of psychopathology in youths from the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort (HRC) for psychiatric disorders. Moreover, for the differentially methylated genes, we verified whether differences in DNA methylation corresponded to differences in mRNA transcript levels by analyzing the gene expression levels in the blood and by correlating the variation of DNA methylation values with the variation of mRNA levels of the same individuals. Finally, we examined whether the variations in DNA methylation and mRNA levels were correlated with psychopathology measurements over time. METHODS: We selected 24 youths from the HRC who presented with an increase in dimensional psychopathology at a 3-year follow-up as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The DNA methylation and gene expression data were compared in peripheral blood samples (n = 48) obtained from the 24 youths before and after developing psychopathology. We implemented a methodological framework to reduce the effect of chronological age on DNA methylation using an independent population of 140 youths and the effect of puberty using data from the literature. RESULTS: We identified 663 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and 90 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with the emergence of psychopathology. We observed that 15 DMPs were mapped to genes that were differentially expressed in the blood; among these, we found a correlation between the DNA methylation and mRNA levels of RB1CC1 and a correlation between the CBCL and mRNA levels of KMT2E. Of the DMRs, three genes were differentially expressed: ASCL2, which is involved in neurogenesis; HLA-E, which is mapped to the MHC loci; and RPS6KB1, the gene expression of which was correlated with an increase in the CBCL between the time points. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that changes in DNA methylation and, consequently, in gene expression in the peripheral blood occurred concurrently with the emergence of dimensional psychopathology in youths. Therefore, epigenomic modulations might be involved in the regulation of an individual's development of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Maturidade Sexual
12.
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord ; 11(1): 47-58, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927230

RESUMO

Increased reaction time variability (RTV) is one of the most replicable behavioral correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this may not be specific to ADHD but a more general marker of psychopathology. Here we compare RT variability in individuals with ADHD and those with other childhood internalizing and externalizing conditions both in terms of standard (i.e., the standard deviation of reaction time) and alternative indices that capture low-frequency oscillatory patterns in RT variations over time thought to mark periodic lapses of attention in ADHD. A total of 667 participants (6-12 years old) were classified into non-overlapping diagnostic groups consisting of children with fear disorders (n = 91), distress disorders (n = 56), ADHD (n = 103), oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ODD/CD; n = 40) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 377). We used a simple two-choice reaction time task to measure reaction time. The strength of oscillations in RTs across the session was extracted using spectral analyses. Higher RTV was present in ADHD compared to all other disorder groups, effects that were equally strong across all frequency bands. Interestingly, we found that lower RTV to characterize ODD/CD relative to TDC, a finding that was more pronounced at lower frequencies. In general, our data support RTV as a specific marker of ADHD. RT variation across time in ADHD did not show periodicity in a specific frequency band, not supporting that ADHD RTV is the product of spontaneous periodic lapses of attention. Low-frequency oscillations may be particularly useful to differentiate ODD/CD from TDC.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Transtornos Fóbicos/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Criança , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Schizophr Res ; 205: 23-29, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how a set of positive social and personality characteristics called 'positive attributes' affects the emergence and persistence of Psychotic Experiences (PE) in adolescence. METHOD: We used data from a community-based Brazilian High-Risk Cohort (HRC). 2511 6-12 year-old children were evaluated at baseline, and 80.05% completed a 3-year follow-up interview. At baseline, childhood trauma was assessed using parent- and self-report, and positive attributes were assessed by parent-report. Trained psychologists rated self-reported PE at both time points. Linear models evaluated the effect of childhood trauma and positive attributes on PE at follow-up. Mediation models tested i.) the indirect effect of positive attributes on the association between childhood trauma and follow-up PE and, ii.) the indirect effect of childhood trauma and positive attributes on the relationship between PE at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Higher levels of baseline PE (B = 0.157, p < .001) and higher childhood trauma (B = 0.110, p < .001) were associated with increased follow-up PE. Higher positive attributes predicted lower PE after 3 years, adjusting for the prevalence of baseline PE and childhood trauma (B = -0.042, p < .022). Positive attributes partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and follow-up PE. The indirect pathway of childhood trauma and positive attributes mediated the association between baseline and follow-up PE. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of positive social and behavioral traits in childhood may diminish the subsequent emergence of PE. As these attributes can be promoted, our findings suggest that positive attributes may represent a novel target for preventive interventions in children at risk of developing PE.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Personalidade/fisiologia , Trauma Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Risco , Habilidades Sociais
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 575-577, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716596

RESUMO

We evaluated the effects of the interaction between child maltreatment (CM) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on development of mental disorders (MD) and psychopathology. We genotyped 720 individuals from a Brazilian community school-based prospective study, focusing on SNPs in 21 genes known to be associated with mental disorders. CM was assessed via a multi-informant-measure, which was previously validated. To test G × CM, we used linear or logistic models depending on variable evaluated (MD or dimensional psychopathology). After Bonferroni multiple comparison correction, we did not find any statistically significant association of G × CM with either MD or psychopathology.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
CNS Spectr ; 24(3): 333-337, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248027

RESUMO

IntroductionOxidative stress has been documented in chronic schizophrenia and in the first episode of psychosis, but there are very little data on oxidative stress prior to the disease onset. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to compare serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in young individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis with a comparison healthy control group (HC). METHODS: Thirteen UHR subjects and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. Clinical assessment included the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), the Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I (SCID-I) or the Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Activities of SOD and GPx were measured in serum by the spectrophotometric method using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and years of education, there was a significant lower activity of SOD and lower GPX activity in the UHR group compared to the healthy control group (rate ratio [RR]=0.330, 95% CI 0.187; 0.584, p<0.001 and RR=0.509, 95% CI 0.323; 0.803, p=0.004, respectively). There were also positive correlations between GAF functioning scores and GPx and SOD activities. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oxidative imbalances could be present prior to the onset of full-blown psychosis, including in at-risk stages. Future studies should replicate and expand these results.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 107: 104-109, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384090

RESUMO

Child maltreatment (CM) is a global issue with serious lifelong consequences. In fact, maltreatment during childhood might be an important risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, previous studies showed a strong relationship between telomere length (TL) and early life stress. Considering that only a few studies have evaluated this relationship in children and that even fewer considered the sex as a possible moderator, we investigated whether TL in the blood of both children and adolescents was associated with psychopathology and with a history of CM, and whether these associations were moderated by the sex. In this cross-sectional study, 561 individuals (ranging between 6 and 14 years of age) from a large prospective community school-based study, i.e., the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort (HRC), were evaluated. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) score was used to assess psychopathology, whereas a latent variable encompassing some questions about history of adverse environment and trauma was employed to determine the CM history. TL was measured in blood cells using a multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, TL was inserted in two moderation models, in which the CBCL score/CM, TL and sex were the independent variables, the outcome, and the moderator variable, respectively. Although an association between psychiatric symptoms and TL was not observed, a relation between CM and TL moderated by the sex was seen, indicating that males with higher CM scores presented with shorter telomeres than did females. Our results suggest that child maltreatment could influence telomere length in both children and adolescents and that this effect is mediated by the sex.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero , Adolescente , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(11): 1111-1120, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A role for aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of depression has long been proposed. However, no review has yet examined its role in depression by integrating conceptual and quantitative findings across functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG methodologies. The authors quantified these effects, with an emphasis on development. METHOD: A total of 38 fMRI and 12 EEG studies were entered into fMRI and EEG meta-analyses. fMRI studies primarily examined reward anticipation and reward feedback. These were analyzed using the activation likelihood estimation method. EEG studies involved mainly the feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potential, and these studies were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis of the association between FRN and depression. RESULTS: Analysis of fMRI studies revealed significantly reduced striatal activation in depressed compared with healthy individuals during reward feedback. When region-of-interest analyses were included, reduced activation was also observed in reward anticipation, an effect that was stronger in individuals under age 18. FRN was also significantly reduced in depression, with pronounced effects in individuals under age 18. In longitudinal studies, reduced striatal activation in fMRI and blunted FRN in EEG were found to precede the onset of depression in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings show consistent neural aberrations during reward processing in depression, namely, reduced striatal signal during feedback and blunted FRN. These aberrations may underlie the pathogenesis of depression and have important implications for development of new treatments.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos
18.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(6): 555-563, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder in which early-life precursors may manifest in cognition and brain structure. The authors evaluate this possibility by examining, in youths, associations among polygenic risk score for Alzheimer's disease, cognitive abilities, and hippocampal volume. METHOD: Participants were children 6-14 years of age in two Brazilian cities, constituting the discovery (N=364) and replication samples (N=352). As an additional replication, data from a Canadian sample (N=1,029), with distinct tasks, MRI protocol, and genetic risk, were included. Cognitive tests quantified memory and executive function. Reading and writing abilities were assessed by standardized tests. Hippocampal volumes were derived from the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT) multi-atlas segmentation brain algorithm. Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was quantified using summary statistics from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project. RESULTS: Analyses showed that for the Brazilian discovery sample, each one-unit increase in z-score for Alzheimer's polygenic risk score significantly predicted a 0.185 decrement in z-score for immediate recall and a 0.282 decrement for delayed recall. Findings were similar for the Brazilian replication sample (immediate and delayed recall, ß=-0.259 and ß=-0.232, both significant). Quantile regressions showed lower hippocampal volumes bilaterally for individuals with high polygenic risk scores. Associations fell short of significance for the Canadian sample. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease may affect early-life cognition and hippocampal volumes, as shown in two independent samples. These data support previous evidence that some forms of late-life dementia may represent developmental conditions with roots in childhood. This result may vary depending on a sample's genetic risk and may be specific to some types of memory tasks.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Hipocampo/patologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adolescente , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Brasil , Canadá , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 48-55, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-899405

RESUMO

Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y) in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC) and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews. Current (last month) and lifetime DSH were estimated, including analysis stratified by age groups. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of the children's clinical diagnoses and maternal psychopathology on DSH prevalence estimates, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of current DSH was 0.8% (children 0.6%, adolescents 1%) and lifetime DSH was 1.6% (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively). Current and lifetime DSH were more frequent in children with depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), even in multiple models accounting for demographic variables and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Maternal anxiety disorder was strongly associated with current and lifetime DSH in offspring; whereas current DSH, specifically in young children, was associated with maternal mood disorder. Conclusion: Diagnoses of depression, ADHD and ODD were consistently associated with DSH, as was having a mother with anxiety disorder.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Materno
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 96: 224-230, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to explore alterations in brain dynamics at rest that are associated with Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in childhood by measuring low frequency fluctuation of spontaneous brain activity in a large school community sample from a developing country. METHOD: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected in a sample of 655 children and adolescents (6-15 years old) from the brazilian 'High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders (HRC)'. OCS were assessed using items from the Compulsion and Obsessions section of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The correlation between the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and the number of OCS were explored by using a general linear model, considering fALFF as response variable, OCS score as regressor and age, gender and site as nuisance variables. RESULTS: The number of OCS was positively correlated with the fALFF coefficients at the right sensorimotor cortex (pre-motor, primary motor cortex and post-central gyrus) and negatively correlated with the fALFF coefficients at the insula/superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres. Our results were specific to OCS and not due to associations with overall psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that brain spontaneous activity at rest in the sensorimotor and insular/superior-temporal cortices may be involved in OCS in children. These findings need independent replication and future studies should determine whether brain spontaneous activity changes within these regions might be predictors of risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder latter in life.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Descanso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA