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1.
Opt Express ; 27(17): 24469-24480, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510335

RESUMO

Recent advancements of mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum light sources have opened up new possibilities in laser-based trace gas sensing. While the supercontinuum sources inherently support wide spectral coverage, the detection of broadband absorption signals with high speed and low cost is traditionally limited by the MIR detector arrays. In this work, we demonstrate that this limitation can be circumvented by upconverting the MIR signal into the near-infrared (NIR) region, where cost-effective silicon-based detector arrays can be utilized to measure broadband absorption. We also show that, by combining a MIR supercontinuum source with a MIR-to-NIR upconverter and an astigmatic multipass cell, fast detection (~20 ms) of ethane with sub-ppmv sensitivity can be achieved at room temperature. For multi-species detection, a least-square global fitting method is presented, showing a promising potential for applications such as environmental monitoring and biomedical research.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 89, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular alterations associated with breast cancer (BC) progression may lead to more effective strategies for both prevention and management. The current model of BC progression suggests a linear, multistep process from normal epithelial to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and then invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Up to 20% ADH and 40% DCIS lesions progress to invasive BC if left untreated. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms during BC progression is therefore crucial to prevent over- or under-treatment. Our previous work demonstrated that miR-671-5p serves as a tumor suppressor by targeting Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1)-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC. Here, we aim to explore the role of miR-671-5p in the progression of BC oncogenic transformation and treatment. METHODS: The 21T series cell lines, which were originally derived from the same patient with metastatic BC, including normal epithelia (H16N2), ADH (21PT), primary DCIS (21NT), and cells derived from pleural effusion of lung metastasis (21MT), and human BC specimens were used. Microdissection, miRNA transfection, dual-luciferase, radio- and chemosensitivity, and host-cell reactivation (HCR) assays were performed. RESULTS: Expression of miR-671-5p displays a gradual dynamic decrease from ADH, to DCIS, and to IDC. Interestingly, the decreased expression of miR-671-5p detected in ADH coexisted with advanced lesions, such as DCIS and/or IDC (cADH), but not in simple ADH (sADH). Ectopic transfection of miR-671-5p significantly inhibited cell proliferation in 21NT (DCIS) and 21MT (IDC), but not in H16N2 (normal) and 21PT (ADH) cell lines. At the same time, the effect exhibited in time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, miR-671-5p significantly suppressed invasion in 21PT, 21NT, and 21MT cell lines. Furthermore, miR-671-5p suppressed FOXM1-mediated EMT in all 21T cell lines. In addition, miR-671-5p sensitizes these cell lines to UV and chemotherapeutic exposure by reducing the DNA repair capability. CONCLUSIONS: miR-671-5p displays a dynamic decrease expression during the oncogenic transition of BC by suppressing FOXM1-mediated EMT and DNA repair. Therefore, miR-671-5p may serve as a novel biomarker for early BC detection as well as a therapeutic target for BC management.

3.
Viruses ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394878

RESUMO

Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, causes hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens. We previously showed that miR-125b is down-regulated in ALV-J-induced tumors. This study aimed to investigate the possible role of miR-125b in ALV-J-mediated infection and tumorigenesis. Knockdown of miR-125b expression in HP45 cells reduced, whereas over-expression induced late-stage apoptosis. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase activity assays indicate that miR-125b targets Semaphorin 4D/CD100 (Sema4D) by binding the 3'-untranslated region of messenger RNA (mRNA). Up-regulation of miR-125b in the DF1 cell line suppressed Sema4D expression, whereas miR-125 down-regulation increased Sema4D expression levels. To uncover the function of Sema4D during ALV-J infection, animal infection experiments and in vitro assays were performed and show that Sema4D mRNA levels were up-regulated in ALV-J-infected tissues and cells. Finally, functional experiments show that miR-125 down-regulation and Sema4D over-expression inhibited apoptosis in HP45 cells. These results suggest that miR-125b and its target Sema4D might play an important role in the aggressive growth of HP45 cells induced by avian leukosis viruses (ALVs). These findings improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism of ALV-J infection and tumorigenesis.

4.
J Immunotoxicol ; 16(1): 140-148, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290710

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-induced liver and embryo damage in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rats were divided into five groups, and then were orally gavaged daily with peanut oil (vehicle) or a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) - with or without co-treatment with 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg quercetin - on gestation days (GD) 4-7. At GD 9, all rats were euthanized, and their blood, liver, and uterus were collected. Expressions of CYP450 mRNA and protein in liver, cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6) and IFNγ/IL-4 ratios in liver and sera, liver morphology, and the status of implanted embryos were analyzed. The results showed Aroclor 1254 treatment alone caused hepatic cord damage (i.e. cell disorganization, swelling, decreased cytoplasm, vacuolization), and that quercetin co-treatment appeared to mitigate this damage. Similarly, levels of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 mRNA in livers of Aroclor 1254-only-treated rats were significantly higher than those in rats co-treated with quercetin. Hepatic and sera levels of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNγ/IL-4 ratios, and the ratio of delayed-development embryos, all increased in Aroclor 1254-treated rats, but were relatively decreased as a result of quercetin co-treatments. IL-4 levels were decreased by Aroclor 1254 and tended to increase back to normal when quercetin was used. The results indicated that quercetin imparted a protective effect against Aroclor 1254-induced toxicity in pregnant rats, in part, by modulating levels of important pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing induced CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 expression.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(15): 10028-10037, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298034

RESUMO

The recognition and in-depth understanding of inverse trans influence (ITI) have successfully guided the synthesis of novel actinide complexes and enriched actinide chemistry. Those complexes, however, are mainly limited to the involvement of high-valence actinide and/or metal-ligand multiple bonds. Examples containing both low oxidation state actinide and metal-metal single bond remain rare. Herein, more than 20 actinide-transition metal (An-TM) complexes of phosphinoaryl oxide ligands have been designed in accordance with several experimentally known analogs, by changing the metal atoms (An = Th, Pa, U, Np, and Pu; and TM = Ni, Pd, and Pt), actinide oxidation states (IV and III) and metal-metal axial donor ligands (X = Me3SiO, F, Cl, Br, and I). The relativistic density functional theory study of structural (trans-An-X and cis-An-O toward An-TM), bonding (topological electron/energy density), and electronic properties reveals the order of the ITI stabilizing actinide-metal bond. Computed electron affinity (EA) values, related to the electrochemical reduction, linearly correlate with experimentally measured reduction potentials. Although the same ITI order for the ligand donors was shown as in a previous study, the correlation between electrochemical reduction and the ITI was found to be weak when the actinide atoms were changed. For most complexes, the reduction is primarily of an actinide-based mechanism with minor participation of transition metal and phosphinoaryl oxide, whereas that of thorium-nickel complexes is different.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1809-1815, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regression from prediabetes to normal glucose regulation (NGR) was associated with reduced incidence of diabetes by 56% over 10 years in participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). In an observational analysis, we examined whether regression to NGR also reduced risk for microvascular disease (MVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the prevalence of aggregate MVD at DPPOS year 11 in people who regressed to NGR at least once (vs. never) during the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Logistic regression assessed the relationship of NGR with retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, individually. Generalized additive models fit smoothing splines to describe the relationship between average A1C during follow-up and MVD (and its subtypes) at the end of follow-up. RESULTS: Regression to NGR was associated with lower prevalence of aggregate MVD in models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, baseline A1C, and treatment arm (odds ratio [OR] 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.78, P = 0.011). However, this association was lost in models that included average A1C during follow-up (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78-1.16, P = 0.63) or diabetes status at the end of follow-up (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.12, P = 0.40). Similar results were observed in examination of the association between regression to NGR and prevalence of nephropathy and retinopathy, individually. Risk for aggregate MVD, nephropathy, and retinopathy increased across the A1C range. CONCLUSIONS: Regression to NGR is associated with a lower prevalence of aggregate MVD, nephropathy, and retinopathy, primarily due to lower glycemic exposure over time. Differential risk for the MVD subtypes begins in the prediabetes A1C range.

7.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(8): 972-985, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204904

RESUMO

The rhizobium-legume symbiotic system is crucial for nitrogen cycle balance in agriculture. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, may regulate various physiological processes in plants. However, whether H2S has regulatory effect in this symbiotic system remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the possible role of H2S in the symbiosis between soybean (Glycine max) and rhizobium (Sinorhizobium fredii). Our results demonstrated that an exogenous H2S donor (sodium hydrosulfide [NaHS]) treatment promoted soybean growth, nodulation, and nitrogenase (Nase) activity. Western blotting analysis revealed that the abundance of Nase component nifH was increased by NaHS treatment in nodules. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data showed that NaHS treatment upregulated the expressions of symbiosis-related genes nodA, nodC, and nodD of S. fredii. In addition, expression of soybean nodulation marker genes, including early nodulin 40 (GmENOD40), ERF required for nodulation (GmERN), nodulation signaling pathway 2b (GmNSP2b), and nodulation inception genes (GmNIN1a, GmNIN2a, and GmNIN2b), were upregulated. Moreover, the expressions of glutamate synthase (GmGOGAT), asparagine synthase (GmAS), nitrite reductase (GmNiR), ammonia transporter (GmSAT1), leghemoglobin (GmLb), and nifH involved in nitrogen metabolism were upregulated in NaHS-treated soybean roots and nodules. Together, our results suggested that H2S may act as a positive signaling molecule in the soybean-rhizobia symbiotic system and enhance the system's nitrogen fixation ability.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Nodulação , Rhizobium , Soja , Gasotransmissores/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Nodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Simbiose/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 15-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213247

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), an α-herpesvirus targeting avian species, causes fatal Marek's disease (MD) in chickens. The host interferon (IFN) responses play a key role in resisting viral infection. However, host IFN responses following MDV infection in the chicken central immune organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius), which contain numerous MDV target cells, is poorly understood. In this study, we performed animal experiments in specific pathogen-free chickens infected with two virulent MDV strains (BS/15 and Md5) or without infection as negative controls. Specifically, the type I IFN (IFN-α and IFN-ß) transcriptional and proteomic expression levels at 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days post infection (dpi) were detected and analyzed. Our results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of IFN-α and IFN-ß in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were mainly downregulated in cytolytic infection (such as 10 dpi) and reactivation (such as 17 dpi) stages, but not the latent (such as 14 dpi) stage of MDV infection, which was determined by comprehensively analyzing the MDV viral load and immune organ damage caused by MDV infection. These data suggest that MDV could inhibit the expression of host type I IFNs, which may be involved in the MDV-induced host immunosuppression and contribute to the immune escape of MDV from host immunity. Furthermore, we found that the downregulated expression of the host type I IFNs induced by BS/15 and Md5 infection was significantly different, which we speculated may be related to the diverse virulence and pathogenicity of MDV strains. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MDV mostly inhibited the expression of type I IFNs in infected hosts, which may be associated to its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas , Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2 , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteômica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Timo/imunologia , Carga Viral , Virulência
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 382, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection is the main cause of genital ulcer disease and increases the risk of HIV acquisition. Little information is available regards the epidemiological characteristics of HSV-2 among general population in China. The aim of this study was to explore seroprevalence and associated factors of HSV-2 and provide information for design of HSV-2 control strategy in Shandong, China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8074 persons, 18-49 years of age, were selected using multi-stage probability sampling to represent the general population of Shandong in 2016. Demographic data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Other variables were obtained by self-administered questionnaire surveys. Blood was collected for HSV-2 IgG detection with ELISA. RESULTS: A total of 7256 sexually-active participants were included in the analysis. The weighted seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-5.3) in females, which was significant higher than that in males (2.7%; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) (P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of HSV-2 was higher in individuals from eastern region (6.4%; 95% CI, 5.9-6.9) and urban areas (4.3%; 95% CI, 2.6-6.0) of Shandong than those from other regions (P < 0.01). Associated factors for HSV-2 infection among men were being urban residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.88), having two or more sex partners in the past year (AOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.90-5.43) and having commercial sex (AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00-2.26). Among females, being divorced or widowed (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.08-2.97), having a tattoo (AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.07-7.84), and being dissatisfied with the sex activity quality (AOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.24-3.63) was associated with HSV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a relatively low burden of HSV-2 in Shandong province, China compared with the seroprevalence reported in many other provinces and countries. HSV-2 control programs in Shandong should focus on eastern, urban and female residents, and pay more attention to individuals with identified associated factors.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Microvasc Res ; 125: 103882, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075242

RESUMO

Fractal dimension is a robust fractal parameter for estimating the morphology of vascular networks. It reflects the property of vascular networks that may vary and thus, differentiate between individual networks and/or identify physiological and pathological conditions. As such, fractal dimension differs also between arteriolar and venular compartments, yet the underlying reason is so far unclear. In order to understand the mechanisms behind these differences, we quantitatively analyzed the impacts of vessel attributes on the fractal dimension. Fractal dimension and vessel attributes given by vessel density (VD), vessel length density (VL), and diameter index (DI=VD/VL) were analyzed in three microvascular networks of the rat mesentery, which were reconstructed from experimental data. The results show that differences in diameter between arterioles and venules are primarily responsible for arterio-venous differences in fractal dimension. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity of the variation of fractal dimension to vessel length and diameter varies with the type of the vessels. While the change of vessel length contributes 57.8 ±â€¯3.4% to the variation of arteriolar dimension, vessel diameter contributes 63.9 ±â€¯4.8% to the variation of venular dimension. The present study provides an explanation for the different fractal dimension and dimension variation in arteriolar and venular compartments. It highlights the importance of estimating the fractal dimensions of arterioles and venules separately, which will enhance the ability of feature extraction by fractal analysis in physiological and clinical application.

11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(10)2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117174

RESUMO

We present a fully integrated and transportable multi-species trace gas sensor based on a mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum light source. The high brightness (surpassing synchrotron) and ultra-broad spectral bandwidth (2-4 µm) of this light source allows simultaneous detection of multiple broadband absorbing gas species. High sensitivity in the sub-ppmv level has been achieved by utilizing an astigmatic multipass cell. A grating-based spectrometer at a scanning rate of 20 Hz is developed employing a balanced detection scheme. A multi-component global fitting algorithm is implemented into a central LabVIEW program to perform real-time data analysis. The obtained concentration values are validated by the standard gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Field application of the sensor for quality control of stored fruits at a small scale is demonstrated, involving the detection of ethylene, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, and water simultaneously. The sensor also shows promising potentials for other applications, such as environmental monitoring and biomedical research.

12.
Stat Med ; 38(15): 2868-2882, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957257

RESUMO

We propose an extension of Harrell's concordance (C) index to evaluate the prognostic utility of biomarkers for diseases with multiple measurable outcomes that can be prioritized. Our prioritized concordance index measures the probability that, given a random subject pair, the subject with the worst disease status as of a time τ has the higher predicted risk. Our prioritized concordance index uses the same approach as the win ratio, by basing generalized pairwise comparisons on the most severe or clinically important comparable outcome. We use an inverse probability weighting technique to correct for study-specific censoring. Asymptotic properties are derived using U-statistic properties. We apply the prioritized concordance index to two types of disease processes with a rare primary outcome and a more common secondary outcome. Our simulation studies show that when a predictor is predictive of both outcomes, the new concordance index can gain efficiency and power in identifying true prognostic variables compared to using the primary outcome alone. Using the prioritized concordance index, we examine whether novel clinical measures can be useful in predicting risk of type II diabetes in patients with impaired glucose resistance whose disease status can also regress to normal glucose resistance. We also examine the discrimination ability of four published risk models among ever smokers at risk of lung cancer incidence and subsequent death.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213770, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934003

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been investigated for potential links with human cancer. However, the distribution of somatic nucleotide variations in HERV elements has not been explored in detail. This study aims to identify HERV elements with an over-representation of somatic mutations (hot spots) in cancer patients. Four HERV elements with mutation hotspots were identified that overlap with exons of four human protein coding genes. These hotspots were identified based on the significant over-representation (p<8.62e-4) of non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs). These genes are TNN (HERV-9/LTR12), OR4K15 (HERV-IP10F/LTR10F), ZNF99 (HERV-W/HERV17/LTR17), and KIR2DL1 (MST/MaLR). In an effort to identify mutations that effect survival, all nsSNVs were further evaluated and it was found that kidney cancer patients with mutation C2270G in ZNF99 have a significantly lower survival rate (hazard ratio = 2.6) compared to those without it. Among HERV elements in the human non-protein coding regions, we found 788 HERVs with significantly elevated numbers of somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) (p<1.60e-5). From this category the top three HERV elements with significantly over-represented SNVs are HERV-H/LTR7, HERV-9/LTR12 and HERV-L/MLT2. Majority of the SNVs in these 788 HERV elements are located in three DNA functional groups: long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (60%), introns (22.2%) and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBS) (14.8%). This study provides a list of mutational hotspots in HERVs, which could potentially be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

14.
J BUON ; 24(1): 374-381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941994

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of apatinib combined with cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL60 cells and its relevant mechanisms. METHODS: HL60 cells were treated with control, apatinib alone, cytarabine alone and apatinib combined with cytarabine. Cell proliferation in each group was detected via methy thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, changes in the cell cycle and mitochondrial transmembrane potential in each group after treatment were detected via flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected via Annexin V-PI double labeling. Moreover, changes in cell cycle-related proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins in each group after treatment were detected via Western blotting. RESULTS: MTT assay revealed that the sub-lethal dose of apatinib combined with cytarabine had a higher inhibitory rate on tumor cells than cytarabine alone. Cell cycle assay showed that apatinib combined with cytarabine could effectively arrest HL60 cells in G0/G1 phase in the combination group. In combination group, the expression level of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, while the expression levels of the negative regulators p21 and p27 were significantly up-regulated compared with those in single application groups. Results of apoptosis assay manifested that in the combination group, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HL60 cells could be synergistically destroyed, and the proportion of apoptotic cells was also obviously increased. Results of Western blotting demonstrated that the levels of apoptosis-associated proteins cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bax in the combination group after treatment were remarkably up-regulated, while the Bcl-2 protein level was significantly down-regulated. CONCLUSION: Apatinib combined with cytarabine resists acute myeloid leukemia through synergistically regulating cell cycle and promoting apoptosis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Citarabina/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 212-220, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827390

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the most important immunosuppressive diseases that seriously threaten poultry farming and food safety worldwide. The variant strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) has been greatly neglected for more than 30 years. Recently, the subclinical infection of suspected IBD, causing considerable economic losses, occurred in the main chicken-farming regions of China. Through RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenic analyses, novel variant IBDVs were first identified in six provinces of eastern China. Immunological detection further confirmed the antigenic variation of the Chinese variant IBDVs. The Chinese IBDV variants were obviously different from the American IBDV variants, with less than a 97.7% (VP1) or 98.7% (VP2) amino acid sequence identity. Animal experiments further confirmed the serious threat of the variant IBDVs to chickens, demonstrating irreversible damage to the central immune organ, obvious immunosuppression, and growth retardation. This study not only identified the pandemic nature of the novel variant IBDVs for the first time but also discovered the distinct molecular epidemiological characteristics of these viruses, which will contribute more to the control of the disease.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/epidemiologia , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
17.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 16: 218-228, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901580

RESUMO

Bacteria with multiple drug resistance (MDR) have become a global issue worldwide, and hundreds of thousands of people's lives are threatened every year. The emergence of novel MDR strains and insufficient development of new antimicrobial agents are the major reasons that limit the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. Thus, preserving the clinical value of current antibiotics could be one of the effective approaches to resolve this problem. Here we identified numerous novel small RNAs that were downregulated in the MDR clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeru), and we demonstrated that overexpression of one of these small RNAs (sRNAs), AS1974, was able to transform the MDR clinical strain to drug hypersusceptibility. AS1974 is the master regulator to moderate the expression of several drug resistance pathways, including membrane transporters and biofilm-associated antibiotic-resistant genes, and its expression is regulated by the methylation sites located at the 5' UTR of the gene. Our findings unravel the sRNA that regulates the MDR pathways in clinical isolates of P. aeru. Moreover, transforming bacterial drug resistance to hypersusceptibility using sRNA could be the potential approach for tackling MDR bacteria in the future.

18.
JAMA Dermatol ; 155(6): 666-672, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916737

RESUMO

Importance: Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is the most serious adverse reaction associated with dapsone administration and one of the major causes of death in patients with leprosy, whose standard treatment includes multidrug therapy (MDT) with dapsone, rifampicin, and clofazimine. Although the HLA-B*13:01 polymorphism has been identified as the genetic determinant of DHS in the Chinese population, no studies to date have been done to evaluate whether prospective HLA-B*13:01 screening could prevent DHS by identifying patients who should not receive dapsone. Objective: To evaluate the clinical use of prospective HLA-B*13:01 screening for reduction of the incidence of DHS by excluding dapsone from the treatment for patients with HLA-B*13:01-positive leprosy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 15, 2015, to April 30, 2018, in 21 provinces throughout China. A total of 1539 patients with newly diagnosed leprosy were enrolled who had not received dapsone previously. After excluding patients who had a history of allergy to sulfones or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 1512 individuals underwent HLA-B*13:01 genotyping. All of the patients were followed up weekly for the first 8 weeks after treatment to monitor for adverse events. Exposures: Patients who were HLA-B*13:01 carriers were instructed to eliminate dapsone from their treatment regimens, and noncarrier patients received standard MDT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of DHS. The historical incidence rate of DHS (1.0%) was used as a control. Results: Among 1512 patients (1026 [67.9%] men, 486 [32.1%] women; mean [SD] age, 43.1 [16.2] years), 261 (17.3%) were identified as carriers of the HLA-B*13:01 allele. A total of 714 adverse events in 384 patients were observed during the follow-up period. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome did not develop in any of the 1251 patients who were HLA-B*13:01-negative who received dapsone, while approximately 13 patients would be expected to experience DHS, based on the historical incidence rate of 1.0% per year (P = 2.05 × 10-5). No significant correlation was found between other adverse events, including dermatologic or other events, and HLA-B*13:01 status. Conclusions and Relevance: Prospective HLA-B*13:01 screening and subsequent elimination of dapsone from MDT for patients with HLA-B*13:01-positive leprosy may significantly reduce the incidence of DHS in the Chinese population.

19.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 21, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute contagious immunosuppressive disease which lead to acute bursal injury and immune dysfunction in poultry. It has caused heavy economic losses in the commercial poultry industry for many years in worldwide. Attenuated live vaccine has widely used in poultry showing some promising signs against IBDV infection. But it has defects such as generating enhanced virulence and immunosuppression prohibits. Therefore, the development of mucosal vaccines using the food-grade lactic acid bacterium is necessary. Here, we construct a recombinant Lactococcus co-expressing the major IBDV antigens VP2 and RCK protein of Salmonella enterica to prevent IBD. RESULTS: The recombinant fusion protein VP2-RCK was expressed in a soluble and stable form in the cytoplasm of the recombinant Lactococcus lactis. Animal experiments showed that: (1) the survival rates of the injected immunization inactivated recombinant LAB group and oral immunization live recombinant LAB group were 100% and 80%, respectively; (2) ELISA titers of all serum samples from all experimental groups were negative, but high amounts of specific neutralizing antibodies were detected (1:210 to 1:212); and (3) the bursas of the injected immunization inactivated recombinant LAB group did not suffer damage, as confirmed by clinical observation and bursal histopathological examination. Our results indicate that r-L. lactis-OptiVP2-RCK induces a specific neutralizing-antibody-mediated immune response that confers full protection against very-virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge. CONCLUSION: Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 strain and its matching plasmid pNZ8149 could express the recombinant fusion protein VP2-RCK in a soluble form in the cytoplasm. The protective efficacy of r-L. lactis-OptiVP2-RCK (100%) was better than r-L. lactis-OptiVP2 (0%) which prove RCK protein played its unique role. The neutralizing antibodies titers against infectious bursal disease virus via one-time vaccination with inactivated r-L. lactis-OptiVP2-RCK could reach 1:210 to 1:212, but ELISA titers of all serum samples were negative. For this phenomenon, perhaps because of the change of delivery pathway or the spatial structure of fusion protein. We need further study to test these hypotheses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Lactococcus lactis , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
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