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2.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 25(4): 586-591, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cleavage stage development, embryonic competence, and euploidy in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with subsequent next generation sequencing. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study included patients at an academic fertility center who underwent IVF with at least one cleavage stage embryo from 2016 to 2019. Embryos were analyzed as slow (<6 cells), intermediate (6-8 cells), or fast (>8 cells); day 3 cell count was also analyzed as a continuous variable. Primary outcomes were blastulation rate, biopsied blastocyst rate, and euploid rate. Odds of blastulation, biopsy, and euploidy were also calculated. Additionally, we modeled the predicted probability of an embryo reaching blastulation, biopsy, and euploidy based on cleavage stage development. RESULTS: When compared with intermediate and slow cohorts, fast cleaving embryos had significantly higher rates of blastulation (82.70% vs. 75.13 vs. 42.48%), biopsy (55.04% vs. 44.00% vs. 14.98%), and euploidy (50.65% vs. 47.93% vs. 48.05%). After adjustment for covariates, there was a significant association between cleavage stage development and odds of blastulation (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.29-1.48), biopsy (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51), and euploidy (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17). Finally, we observed significant associations between cleavage stage development and predicted probability of reaching blastulation (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27-1.32), biopsy (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.22-1.26), and euploidy (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.04). CONCLUSIONS: Cleavage stage embryos with greater mitotic activity perform as well as or better than intermediate or slower cleaving embryos. Rapidly cleaving embryos have high rates of euploidy and significant clinical potential.

3.
A A Pract ; 15(8): e01502, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403375

RESUMO

Adenotonsillectomies are one of the most common otolaryngologic surgeries performed to alleviate obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and apnea in children. The pain management following adenotonsillectomy continues to be a challenge for both pediatric anesthesiologists and otolaryngologists due to the mortality that stems from the use of opioid pain medications in children who have an increased baseline risk airway obstruction and apnea that is exacerbated by any exposure to opioids. We present a case utilizing bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve (SZMN) blocks or, more accurately, suprazygomatic infratemporal-pterygopalatine fossa injections to achieve opioid-free perioperative analgesia for pediatric adenotonsillectomy with nasal turbinate reduction.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Tonsilectomia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fossa Pterigopalatina , Conchas Nasais
5.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(9): 889-996, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to create a statistical model using clinical and laboratory parameters to predict which patients presenting with pruritus in pregnancy will have elevated total bile acids (TBA) and thus, have a high risk of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with pruritus in pregnancy and had TBA sent from a single public hospital from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017. Primary outcome is TBA ≥ 10 µmol/L. Multivariate logistic regression with stepwise and backward variable selection were used to create predictive models. Four models were compared using Akaike information criterion (AIC), C-statistic, and the DeLong nonparametric approach to test for differences between area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Internal validation was performed via fivefold cross-validation technique on the best-fitting, most parsimonious model. RESULTS: Of the 320 patients with pruritus, 153 (47.8%) had elevated bile acid levels ≥10 µmol/L. Sixty-nine variables were assessed for association with the primary outcome. Five variables were significantly associated with elevated TBA: pruritus of palms and soles (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.35 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.22, 4.54]), gestational hypertension (aOR: 0.10 [95% CI: 0.02, 0.60]), log of total bilirubin (aOR: 4.71 [95% CI: 2.28, 9.75]), systolic blood pressure (aOR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.94, 0.99]), and alanine aminotransferase (aOR: 1.05 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.07]). The final model was chosen for being parsimonious while having the lowest AIC with highest AUC (0.85; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Internal validation using a probability threshold of 50% demonstrated a sensitivity of 65.5%, specificity of 83.5%, and accuracy of 75.1%. CONCLUSION: We provide a predictive model using five simple variables to determine the probability that a patient presenting with pruritus in pregnancy carries the diagnosis of ICP. This tool, available via a web app, is designed to aid providers and enhance clinical judgment in difficult triage situations. KEY POINTS: · Currently, no standard method to triage pruritus in pregnancy exists.. · We present a predictive statistical model using five readily available clinical variables.. · Final calculator yields probability of having intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy..

6.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor attendance at the 6-week postpartum (PP) visit has been well reported. Attendance at this visit is crucial to identify women who have persistent diabetes mellitus (DM) following pregnancies affected by gestational DM (GDM). The medical home model has eliminated barriers to care in various other settings. This study sought to improve PP attendance among women with GDM by jointly scheduling PP visits and the 2-month well infant visits. STUDY DESIGN: All patients with a diagnosis of GDM who received care at a New York City-based publicly insured hospital clinic and delivered between October 2017 and June 2019 were eligible. Data were obtained via chart review. The primary outcome was attendance at the PP visit compared with previously published historical controls. Secondary outcomes were rates of PP glucose screening and well infant attendance. RESULTS: Of the 74 patients enrolled, 41.9% were Hispanic and 17.6% were Black, mean age was 31.6 years, and 58.1% delivered vaginally. Attendance at the 6-week PP visit was 68.9%, and attendance at the infant visit was 55.1%. PP glucose testing was ordered for 76.5% of attendees at the PP visit, and of those ordered, 43.6% of attendees completed testing. All patients had joint visits requested, though only 70.3% of visits were scheduled jointly. Among those who were jointly scheduled, 71.2% of women attended, 57.7% of infants attended, and 7.7% of pairs attended on the same day. The PP visit attendance rate was not significantly different than the prior attendance rate (p = 0.84). CONCLUSION: This study was unable to improve PP visit attendance among women with GDM by jointly scheduling the 6-week PP visit and the 2-month well-infant visit. Future research could be directed toward a shared space where both women and children can be seen to attempt to increase PP visit attendance and monitoring for women with GDM. KEY POINTS: · Attendance at the PP visit is poor, and without a visit, women with pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes remain unscreened for PP dysglycemia.. · Jointly scheduling women and their infants to eliminate barriers to care studied by this group, however, were unable to improve attendance.. · Innovative strategies are needed to improve PP attendance among women with pregnancies affected by GDM..

9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes the diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) made on prenatal ultrasound (US) leading to an improvement in clinical outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of all patients with evidence of PAS on US from 2012 to 2018 in one tertiary care medical center with subsequent use of MRI of the uterus to confirm diagnosis. The type of PAS classified by imaging was compared between US and MRI, with a final diagnosis made using histology. Outcomes that were analyzed included the following: 1) MRI correctly changed diagnosis, 2) MRI incorrectly downgraded diagnosis, 3) MRI incorrectly upgraded diagnosis, and 4) MRI did not change diagnosis. A T-test and Chi-squared test were performed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with an upgraded diagnosis by MRI to those whose diagnosis was downgraded or stayed the same. RESULTS: Forty-one patients received an MRI to validate the diagnosis of PAS after ultrasound and are included in the analysis. MRI changed the diagnosis in 36.6% (15/41) patients, correctly changing the diagnosis in 22% (9/41) and incorrectly upgrading the diagnosis in 14.6% (6/41). Patients whose diagnosis was upgraded by MRI (either correctly or incorrectly) were more likely to deliver earlier compared to those who were either downgraded or had no change in their diagnosis [33. 2 ± 3. 5 weeks vs 35. 2 ± 2. 9 weeks, p = 0.05]. Patients who were upgraded were more likely to have interventional radiology and/or urology involvement at the time of delivery [91.7% (11/12) vs 25. 9% (7/27), p = 0.001]. There were no complications from these procedures. CONCLUSION: The use of MRI incorrectly changed the diagnosis as much as it correctly changed the diagnosis of PAS after US. MRI should not be used routinely as a clinical adjunct to ultrasound in the diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum.

10.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541933

RESUMO

STUDY PURPOSE: Prior studies have identified paediatric attending physicians' screening and management patterns related to overweight/obesity, but less is known about resident physicians' behaviour. The objective was to understand paediatric resident physicians' knowledge, attitude and practice patterns of overweight/obesity screening and management. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective chart review of preventive visits conducted by residents between August and October 2019. Charts of patients 2-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile at the visit were reviewed (85th-<95th for age and sex defined as overweight, ≥95th defined as obese). A survey was distributed to residents assessing knowledge, attitudes and barriers towards obesity management. RESULTS: Of 1250 visits reviewed, 405 (32%) patients met the criteria for overweight or obesity. 39% were identified correctly by the provider, 53% were not identified and 8% were identified incorrectly. 89% of patients had diet history, 31% had physical activity and 43% had family history documented. Patients with obesity received physical activity documentation/counselling, portion size counselling, at least one referral, laboratory tests and a diagnosis more often than overweight patients. 84% of residents completed the survey. Although the majority of residents felt 'somewhat' or 'very' well prepared to counsel families about overweight/obesity, the majority thought their counselling on overweight/obesity was 'not at all' or 'slightly' effective. CONCLUSION: Despite residents feeling prepared and comfortable discussing overweight/obesity with patients, these diagnoses were often under-recognised or incorrectly made and appropriate counselling was lacking. Future work will focus on specific strategies to improve diagnosis, screening and management of overweight/obesity and include educational interventions and electronic medical record adaptations.

11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(2): 100301, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Propranolol hydrochloride is a nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonist that has a known activity in the myometrium. Small trials have shown that propranolol decreases the duration of induced labor, although those studies are limited by methodological variability. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether the addition of a single dose of propranolol to induce labor in nulliparous women would decrease total time to vaginal delivery. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nulliparous patients undergoing term induction of labor with a singleton, nonanomalous gestation. Subjects were randomized to 2 mg of intravenous propranolol hydrochloride or an identical-appearing saline placebo, administered 30 minutes after starting the induction of labor. Investigators, labor floor staff, and patients were blinded to the study drug allocation. The primary outcome was time to vaginal delivery. Secondary outcomes included mode of delivery, duration of the phases of labor, time to full dilation, composite maternal morbidity, and composite neonatal morbidity. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat analysis with a P value of ≤.05 considered significant. RESULTS: In this study, 240 patients were enrolled from December 2017 to December 2018, with 121 patients randomized to the propranolol group and 119 to the placebo group. The 2 groups had similar baseline characteristics. Of the patients randomized, 154 (64.2%) delivered vaginally. There was no significant difference in time from the start of the induction of labor to vaginal delivery (13.8±5.4 hours for propranolol vs 14.3±5.3 hours for placebo; P=.58). There was also no difference in the rate of cesarean delivery (38% vs 33.6%; P=.48), time to active labor (11.0±5.0 vs 11.2±4.5 hours; P=.77), or time to full dilation (12.4±5.1 vs 12.8±5.2 hours; P=.60) in patients receiving propranolol compared with those receiving placebo. Subjects randomized to the propranolol group had a significantly lower rate of composite maternal morbidity (28.9% vs 41.2%; risk ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-1.00; P=.047). Rates of postpartum hemorrhage (12.4% vs 21.8%; P=.05) and transfusion (0% vs 4.2%; P=.03) were also lower in the treated group. There was no significant difference in neonatal outcomes or composite morbidity (risk ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.22). CONCLUSION: In this study, there is no evidence that the addition of a 1-time dose of propranolol to induce labor in nulliparous women decreases time to delivery or the rate of cesarean delivery. However, propranolol significantly reduced composite maternal morbidity without adverse neonatal effects.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Propranolol , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am Surg ; 87(8): 1334-1340, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes, but data describing this association in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Patients in this region are at risk for anemia due to endemic conditions like malaria and because transfusion services are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of ICU patients at Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) in Malawi. Exclusion criteria included age <5 years, pregnancy, ICU readmission, or admission for head injury. Cumulative incidence functions and Fine-Gray competing risk models were used to evaluate hemoglobin (Hgb) at ICU admission and hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 499 patients admitted to ICU, 359 were included. The median age was 28 years (interquartile ranges (IQRs) 20-40) and 37.5% were men. Median Hgb at ICU admission was 9.9 g/dL (IQR 7.5-11.4 g/dL; range 1.8-18.1 g/dL). There were 61 (19%) patients with Hgb < 7.0 g/dL, 59 (19%) with Hgb 7.0-8.9 g/dL, and 195 (62%) with Hgb ≥ 9.0 g/dL. Hospital mortality was 51%, 59%, and 54%, respectively. In adjusted analyses, anemia was associated with hospital mortality but was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that anemia at ICU admission may be an independent predictor of hospital mortality in Malawi. Larger studies are needed to confirm this association.


Assuntos
Anemia/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620978729, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, severity, and risk factors of postoperative acute kidney injury in pediatric liver transplant patients with and without inborn errors of metabolism. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center PICU. PATIENTS: All children less than or equal to 18 years old who received a liver transplant between January 2009 and July 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Following exclusion criteria there were 92 transplant encounters. After excluding patients who received combined kidney-liver transplantation, acute kidney injury occurred in 57% of patients (N = 49), with 25.6% (N = 22) stage 1, 15.1% (N = 13) stage 2, and 16.3% (N = 14) stage 3. In an adjusted analysis, metabolic indication for transplant was not significantly associated with presence of acute kidney injury (p = 0.45). For the subset of patients without inborn errors of metabolism, the odds of having acute kidney injury was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.00-2.26) for each 1-unit increase in preoperative INR after adjusting for the covariates of age, preoperative albumin, CMV status of donor, and preoperative creatinine. In the full cohort, as well as the sample of children without inborn errors of metabolism, presence of acute kidney injury was associated with longer total hospital stay as well as number of ICU days. CONCLUSIONS: Acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period is common in pediatric liver transplant patients (57%), 31.4% of whom had severe disease. In patients without inborn errors of metabolism, each unit increase in preoperative INR suggests a higher risk of acute kidney injury after adjusting for covariates including preoperative creatinine. This finding suggests an association between the severity of preoperative synthetic liver function and the risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury which requires further investigation.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19412, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173221

RESUMO

Prominin 1 (PROM1) is one of a few clinically relevant progenitor markers in human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and mouse liver tumor initiating stem cell-like cells (TICs). However, the origin, fate and functions of PROM1+ cells in AH and HCC are unknown. Here we show by genetic lineage tracing that PROM1+ cells are derived in part from hepatocytes in AH and become tumor cells in mice with diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-initiated, Western alcohol diet-promoted liver tumorigenesis. Our RNA sequencing analysis of mouse PROM1+ cells, reveals transcriptomic landscapes indicative of their identities as ductular reaction progenitors (DRPs) and TICs. Indeed, single-cell RNA sequencing reveals two subpopulations of Prom1+ Afp- DRPs and Prom1+ Afp+ TICs in the DEN-WAD model. Integrated bioinformatic analysis identifies Discodin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) as a uniquely upregulated and patient-relevant gene in PROM1+ cells in AH and HCC. Translational relevance of DDR1 is supported by its marked elevation in HCC which is inversely associated with patient survival. Further, knockdown of Ddr1 suppresses the growth of TICs and TIC-derived tumor growth in mice. These results suggest the importance of PROM1+ cells in the evolution of liver cancer and DDR1 as a potential driver of this process.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Antígeno AC133/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/genética , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/metabolismo , Hepatite Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Camundongos
15.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 23(4): 447-452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109802

RESUMO

Context: The concomitant use of cuffed endotracheal tubes (ETT) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probes increases ETT cuff pressures (CP), which may contribute to mucosal ischemia and perioperative complications such as failed extubation. Aims: To assess changes in ETT CP after TEE insertion in patients of different age groups undergoing congenital heart surgery and examine the relationship between ETT CP and postoperative extubation failure. Settings and Design: Single-center quality improvement project. Subjects and Methods: ETT CP was measured with a manometer following intubation and again after TEE insertion. Tracheal perfusion pressure was then calculated and postoperative extubation failures were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square testing, Fisher's-exact testing, one-way analysis of variance testing or Kruskal-Wallis testing with Dunn's pairwise, and student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum testing were used to analyze the data. Results: Median ETT CP increased significantly after TEE insertion in each age group, with infants showing a smaller magnitude of increase (+2 [1-6] cm H2O, P < 0.001) than adults (+12 [8-14] cm H2O, P = 0.008) (intergroup comparison P = 0.002). Five patients (9%) failed extubation, all of which were infants. Within the infant subgroup, no significant difference existed between failed vs successful extubation regarding ETT CP during bypass (15 ± 1 vs 16 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.206) or tracheal perfusion pressure pre-bypass (34 ± 9 vs 38 ± 11 mmHg, P = 0.518), during bypass (20 ± 9 vs 22 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.697), or post-bypass (42 ± 9 vs 41 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.923). There was a significant difference in cardiopulmonary bypass duration (151 ± 29 vs 85 ± 32 min, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Factors beyond intraoperative ETT CP likely play a larger role in postoperative extubation failure.

17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 51-55, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The placental cord insertion (PCI) to the placental margin has not been well studied as a continuous variable in relation to birth outcomes. We sought to evaluate the impact of PCI distance on outcomes associated with placental function and development of fetal growth restriction (FGR). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of singleton gestations that underwent a fetal anatomy ultrasound from 2011-2013. The PCI was recorded as the distance in centimeters from the placental margin. Patients had FGR if the overall estimated fetal weight was <10 % for gestational age or abdominal circumference <5 % in the third trimester. Delivery, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes were obtained via medical chart review. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess the impact of PCI distance on maternal and neonatal delivery outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 1443 women who met inclusion criteria, 93.6 % delivered at term. The mean (±SD) PCI distance was 4.4 ± 1.4 cm. There was no association between PCI and cesarean delivery, peripartum hemorrhage (PPH), pre-eclampsia, 5-min Apgar, or intrauterine fetal demise. PCI distance was statistically significantly shorter in patients requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (4.1 ± 1.5 cm vs. 4.4 ± 1.4 cm, p = 0.02) and was associated with lower birthweight (p = 0.01), though this association was no longer seen when corrected for gestational age. There were 3.5 % of patients who developed FGR; PCI distances from the placental edge were not significantly different for patients who developed FGR compared to those who did not (4.2 ± 1.4 cm vs. 4.5 ± 1.4 cm, p = 0.18). Furthermore, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for PCI had poor sensitivity (area under the curve [AUC] 0.57, 95 % CI 0.49-0.65). CONCLUSION: PCI distance at the time of fetal anatomic survey is significantly associated with NICU admission, though does not appear to impact rates of preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, PPH or cesarean delivery. PCI distance in singleton gestations does not appear to be predictive of FGR.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Peso Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(11): 1384-1390, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of fetal echocardiography (FE) is not well defined, and reporting of diagnostic discrepancies (DDs) is not standardized. The authors applied a categorization scheme developed by the American College of Cardiology Quality Metric Working Group and applied it to FE. METHODS: A retrospective single-center study was conducted of prenatally diagnosed major structural congenital heart disease, defined as expected need for intervention within the first year of life. DDs between pre- and postnatal findings were identified and categorized. Minor DDs had no clinical impact, moderate DDs had impact without harm, and severe DDs resulted in adverse events. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with discrepancy. RESULTS: From December 2008 to September 2017, 17,096 fetal echocardiograms were obtained, among which 222 fetuses with a median gestational age at first FE of 24 weeks were included. There were 30 DDs (13.5%), of which the majority were false negatives (56.7%). Most were minor or moderate in severity, with one severe DD. The majority were possibly preventable (90%), with the most common contributing factor being technical limitations (43.3%). The most common anatomic segment involved was the ventricular septum (23%), primarily missed septal defects. Comparing cases with DDs versus those without, those with DDs were more likely to have high anatomic complexity (16.7% vs 3.6%, P = .01), maternal comorbidities (40.0% vs 22.1%, P = .03), and a younger maternal age (median, 27 vs 30 years, P = .02). They were also more likely to have later gestation at initial FE (median, 29.5 vs 24 weeks, P = .003), to have fewer total fetal echocardiograms (median, 2 vs 3, P = .002), and to have a fellow as the initial sonographer (36.7% vs 16.7%, P = .03). There were no significant differences in maternal race/ethnicity, fetal comorbidities, and interpreting physician experience between cases with DDs and those without. On multivariate analysis, variables associated with DD included high anatomic complexity, maternal comorbidities, and fellow as initial imager. A greater number of fetal echocardiograms was associated with reduced DD. CONCLUSIONS: FE had a DD rate of 13.5%, mostly minor and moderate in severity. Factors associated with DD included high anatomic complexity, maternal comorbidities, fellow as the initial sonographer, and fewer fetal echocardiograms. Strategies to reduce DD could include a regular secondary review and repeat FE, particularly when anatomic complexity is high.

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